Tourism with rehabilitant orangutans
Great apes have been a focus for tourism since colonial times, originally via safaris aimed at killing “trophy” animals. With increasing interest in seeing animals alive in their natural habitat instead of dead on a wall and with growing concerns for their conservation, great ape tourism was refashioned after ecotourism as a conservation strategy. Orangutan tourism was launched in this spirit in the 1970s. Different from tourism ventures with other primates, orangutan tourism focused primarily on ex-captives under rehabilitation to forest life; but like them, it aimed initially to contribute to conservation education and funding for relevant conservation activities--namely, providing legal sanctuary to orangutans confiscated from illegal captivity and helping them readapt to free forest life.
Visiting rehabilitants proved popular and several projects were experiencing heavy tourist flow by the late 1970s (up to 17,000 annually). But serious problems also surfaced, notably excessive tourist-rehabilitant contact, which increased risks of spreading communicable human diseases like TB and hepatitis-B to rehabilitants, and undermining rehabilitation by encouraging ex-captives to stay around for visitors instead of resuming forest life. Some claimed rehabilitant tourism could be managed effectively for economic and educational benefit but others argued that the promised controls and benefits were rarely achieved and whatever benefits were gained did not offset costs to orangutans’ health and rehabilitation. Many recommended change, especially restricting tourist-orangutan contact and closing rehabilitation projects with severe tourist problems.
Today, many of these problems have persisted or worsened, largely because recommendations were rarely implemented and efforts to stop problem tourism failed because of resistance to giving up visitor revenues. Some change has been achieved: three rehabilitation projects newly launched in the 1990s are formally closed to tourism by design, and orangutan specialists recommended unanimously that no tourism be allowed with rehabilitants eligible for or already returned to forest life.
The publications listed below offer insights on the history and debates over rehabilitant orangutan tourism, and nature tourism in general. Some are downloadable directly.
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Anonymous (2004b). Thai orang-utan fights suspended. BBC World News, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/3534872.stm (retrieved May 8, 2005)
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Cochrane, J. (1998). Organisation of Ecotourism in the Leuser Ecosystem. Unpublished report to the Leuser Management Unit.
Cochrane, J. (2003). Ecotourism, Conservation and Sustainability: A Case Study of Bromo Tenggea Semeru National Park, Indonesia. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Hull, UK.
Davies, C. (2008). Great apes face threat from germs carried by eco-tourists. The Observer, Feb. 3.
Jungle holidays raise funds to protect wildlife, but humans harbour viruses that have killed chimps and could be fatal for gorillas and orangutans
Dellatore, D. (2007). Behavioural health of reintroduced orangutans (Pongo abelii) in Bukit Lawang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis,
Primate Conservation, Oxford Brookes University, UK.
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Drewry, R. (1996). Sustainable Development, Ecotourism and Flagship Species: The Case of Orangutan Ecotourism in Indonesia. Unpublished BA (Honours) thesis, School of Humanities, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia.
Drewry, R. (1997). Ecotourism: Can It Save the Orangutans? Inside Indonesia, Volume 51.
Duffus, D. A. & Dearden, P. (1990). Non-consumptive wildlife-oriented recreation: A conceptual framework. Biological Conservation, 53, 213-231.
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Fennell, D. & Weaver, D. (2005). The ecotourism concept and tourism-conservation symbiosis. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 13(4), 373-390.
Freese, C.H. (1998). Wild Species as Commodities: Managing Markets and Ecosystems for Sustainability. Covelo, CA: Island Press.
Frey, R. (1978). Management of orangutans. In Wildlife Management in Southeast Asia, Biotrop. Special Publication 8, pp. 199-215.
Frey, A.R. (1996). Report on Present Situation and Proposal for Establishment of Sustainable Management of Bohorok Orangutan Centre. Unpublished report.
Galdikas, B. M. F. (1991). Protection of wild orangutans and habitat in Kalimantan vis a vis rehabilitation. In Proceedings on the Conservation of the Great Apes in the New World Order of the Environment, pp. 87-94. Republic of Indonesia Ministries of Forestry and Tourism, Post, and Telecommunication.
Goldsmith, M. L. (2004). Gorillas living on the edge: Figuratively and literally. Symposium contribution, Primate-focused tourism (org. A. Russon & C. Russell), International Primatological Society Congress, Torino, Italy, Aug 17-22.
Goodwin, H. (1996). In pursuit of ecotourism. Biodiversity and Conservation, 5, 277-291.
Green, R.J. & Higginbottom, K. (2000). The effects of non-consumptive wildlife tourism on free-ranging wildlife: A review. Pacific Conservation Biology, 6, 183-197.
GRASP (2005). Kinshasa Declaration on Great Apes. Kinshasa, Sept. 9, 2005. (GRASP: Great Ape Survival Project).
Haysmith, L. & Hunt, J.D. (1995). Nature tourism: Impacts and management. In R.L. Knight & K.J. Gutzwiller (Eds.), Wildlife and recreationists: Coexistence through management and research. Covelo CA: Island Press.
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Irwin, A. (2001). Wild at heart. New Scientist, 169 (2280), 26.
IUCN (2000). Guidelines for Nonhuman Primate Re-introductions. Prepared by the IUCN/SSC Re-introductions Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Lindberg, K.(1998). Economic aspects of ecotourism. In K. Lindberg, M. Epler Wood, & D. Engeldrum (eds.), Ecotourism: A Guide for Planners and Managers, Volume 2, pp.87-117. North Bennington, VT: Ecotourism Society.
Kaplan, G. & Rogers, L. (1994). Orang-Utans in Borneo. Armidale, NSW, Australia: University of New England Press.
Kaplan, G. & Rogers, L. (2000). The Orangutans: Their Evolution, Behavior, and Future. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.
Kilbourn, A. M., Karesh, W. B., Bosi, E. J., Cook, R.A., Andau, M. &Wolfe, N. D. (1998). Disease evaluation of free-ranging orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) in Sabah, Malaysia. In C. K. Baer (ed.), Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians and American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians Joint Conference, pp. 417–21. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, Media, Philadelphia, USA.
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Lardoux-Gilloux, I. (1994). Rehabilitation Centers: Their Struggle, their Future. In J.J. Ogden, L.A. Perkins, & L. Sheehan (eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on “Orangutans: The Neglected Ape”. San Diego: Zoological Society of San Diego.
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Low, T. W. (2004). Can Ecotourism Help Protect Orang-utans? Unpublished BSc (Hons) thesis, Sustainable Tourism Development, APU University, Cambridge/Chelmsford, UK
MacKinnon, J. R. (1977). Rehabilitation and orangutan conservation. New Scientist, 74, 697-699.
McCarthy, J. (1999). Nature based tourism. Case study: Gunung Leuser, Indonesia.
Orams, M.B. (1995). Towards a more desirable form of ecotourism. Tourism Management, 16(1), 3-8.
Orams, M.B. (1997). The effectiveness of environmental education: Can we turn tourists into “greenies”? Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research, 3, 295-306.
Reuters (2005). Thai police crack case of the missing orang-utan. Aug. 13. Reuters News Service.
Rijksen, H. D. (1978). A Field Study of Sumatran Orang Utans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii, Lesson 1872), Ecology, Behavior and Conservation. Wageningen, the Netherlands, Mededlingen Landbouwhogeschool: H. Veenman and Zonen B. V.
Rijksen, H. D. (1982). How to save the mysterious ‘man of the forest’? In L. E. M. de Boer (ed.), The Orang Utan: Its Biology and Conservation, pp. 317-341. The Hague: Dr. W. Junk Publishers.
Rijksen, H.D. (1997). Orang utan viewing centre in Sumatra: Recommendations for improving of the Bohorok facility. Unpublished report commisioned by the Director General, PHPA, Indonesia.
Rijksen, H.D. & Meijaard, E. (1999). Our Vanishing Relative: The Status of Wild Orang-Utans at the Close of the Twentieth Century. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Rijksen, H. D. & Rijksen-Graatsma, A. G. (1975). Orangutan rescue work in North Sumatra. Oryx, 13, 63-73.
Rosen, N. & Byers, O. (ed.). (2002). Orangutan Conservation and Reintroduction Workshop: Final Report. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN.
Ross, S. & Wall, G. (1999). Evaluating ecotourism: The case of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Tourism Management, 20, 673-682.
Russell, C.L. (1994). Ecotourism as experiential environmental education? Journal of Experiental Education, 17(1), 16-22.
Russell, C. L. (1995). The social construction of orangutans: An ecotourist experience. Society and Animals, 3(2), 151-170.
Russell, C.L. (1999). Problematizing nature experience in environmental education: The interrelationship of experience and story. Journal of Experiential Education, 22(3), 123-128.
Russell, C.L. (2001). Tales of whales: Whalewatching as environmental education? Unpublished PhD dissertation, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
Russell, C.L. (2004). Establishing guidelines for primate-focused ecotourism: Lessons from whalewatching. Symposium contribution, Primate-focused tourism (org. A. Russon & C. Russell), International Primatological Society Congress, Torino, Italy, Aug.
Russell, C.L. & Ankenman, M.J. (1996). Orangutans as photographic collectibles: Ecotourism and the commodification of nature. Tourism Recreation Research, 21(1), 71-78.
Russon, A. E. & Susilo, A. (1999). The effects of the 1997-98 droughts and fires on orangutans in Sungai Wain Protection Forest, E. Kalimantan, Indonesia. In H. Suhartoyo & T. Toma (eds.), Impacts of Fire and Human Activities on Forest Ecosystems in the Tropics: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Asian Tropical Forest Management, pp. 348-372. Samarinda, Indonesia: Tropical Forest Research Center, Mulawarman University and Japan International Cooperation Agency.
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Sepilok Orangutan Appeal (2003). Update on murdered orangutans. http://www.usenet.com/ newsgroups/talk.politics.animals/msg04322.html (retrieved May 8, 2005)
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Tilson, R.L.; Seal, U.S.; Soemarna, K.; Ramoo, W.; Sumardha, E.; Poniran, S.; van Schaik, C.; Leighton, M.; Rijksen, H.; Eudey, A. (eds.) 1993. Orangutan population and habitat viability analysis report of the Captive Breeding Specialist Group/ Species Survival Commission of the IUCN. Unpublished report for PHPA based on workshop held in Medan, Sumatra, Indonesia in January 1993.
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