Chapter 1: History and Overview of Present Status
Here is the work-script for Chapter 1



8 September 2017

Welcome to the new term and good luck!
On the first day we talked about logistics and then looked at what will be covered in the course.
We started with the course and covered part of Chapter 1. We talked about communication attempts with aliens and about Arthur Clarke. Click here for his 1945 article. Then we focused on the history of communication satellites (click also here) that started after the launch of the first satellite, Sputnik.

11 September 2017
Echo, Telstar-1, the Intelsat series, Intersputnik, Molniya, and the ANIK series are important to remember. Then we talked about other Earth-orbit satellites: remote sensing satellites like Radarsat, Global Positioning Satellites, Galileo, GLONASS and with Research Satellites, like HST, VSOP, RadioAstron and  GP-B. See the video that we made here in Toronto. We also mentioned the Kepler mission and discussed techniques of how to find extrassolar planets.
We started to cover the topics of Lunar spacecraft. Of particular interest are the LUNA program of the USSR with LUNA-9 being the first spacecraft that soft-landed on the Moon. Apollo 11 is the well-know mission of NASA that first took men to the Moon and back. From the mid 70' on the Moon seemed to be forgotton. Series exploration started again in the mid 90's with Clementine that mapped most of the Lunar surface. It was followed by the Lunar Prospector mission with the purpose of mapping the surface and searching for polar ice. The Japanese spacecraft, SELENE, is a moon-orbiting spacecraft launched in 2007.  Then we focused on our Solar System and scaled it down so that the sun has a diameter of only 1 cm. What are the planet's sizes and distances from the sun? We started looking at particular planets and missions to them. We learned about planet discoveries, for instance a planet outside of our solar system that could potentially sustain life.
We then talked about the Interplanetary Spacecraft. For each of the planets visited, particularly important spacecraft missions are:
Mercury: Mariner 10
Venus: Venera 3, Pioneer Venus 1 and 2, Venera 14, Magellan


13 September 2017 
No class today since I have to be at a meeting on the future of Canadian radio astronomy at McGill University, Montreal.
You are on your own. Please study the subjects listed here.)

Continuation on interplanetary spacecraft.
Mars: Mariner 4, Mars 2, Viking 1, Phobos 2, Mars Orbiter, Pathfinder, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Surveyor,  Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, Exploration Rovers, Phoenix Mars MissionCuriosity Mission
Jupiter:
Pioneer 10, Voyager 1 and 2, Galileo
Saturn: Pioneer 11, Voyager 1 and 2, Cassini and the Huygens decent on Titan  and Cassini's Saturn death plunge. or click here.
Uranus:
Voyager 2
Neptune: Voyager 2
Pluto: New Horizons
Of particular interest is also Rosetta and Europe's first interplanetary mission, Giotto, which took pictures of Halley's comet in 1986.
The newest mission is NASA's OSIRIS-REx launched on 8 September 2016. It will map an asteroid and take samples back to Earth.

Earth seen from Voyager 1

Where is Voyager 1 now?
Voyager 1 in interstellar space.