A20: Packer, L. and R.E. Owen. 1989. Isozyme variation in Halictus rubicundus: a primitively social bee (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Canadian Entomologist. 121:1049-1058.
Abstract: Halictus rubicundus (Christ) is a primitively eusocial halictine bee. Studies of electrophoretic variation at 48 loci for 37 enzymes with an average of 38 bees per locus provided an expected heterozygosity of 0.038 ± 0.018 for a population from Vancouver, B.C. This value is well within the range found for other primitively eusocial bees and wasps. Comparisons of allozyme mobilities made among samples from France, Alberta, and Vancouver indicated that there are some genetic differences, with the French sample appearing particularly distinct. The loci Diaph, G3pdh-1, and 6Pgd-1 had variants with both alleles at high frequency within the Vancouver population. These loci could provide good estimates of the average relatedness between nest mates.