A27: Owen, R.E., L.J. Mydynski, D.B. McCorquodale and L. Packer. 1992. Allozyme variation in bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Biochemical Genetics. 30:443-453.
Abstract: Allozyme variation at an average of 37.3 loci was assessed in queens of 16 Bombus and 2 Psithyrus bumble bee species from North America. The mean expected heterozygosity (H) for the Bombus species was 0.008±0.006 (95% confidence limits) and that for the Psithyrus was 0.007±0.007. These levels are significantly lower than found in other Hymenoptera but are comparable to those found in previous studies of bumble bees based on far fewer loci. Neutral mutation and random genetic drift can account for the observed variation, but this implies a very small effective population size for species of bumble bees.