A2: Packer, L. 1984. The ecological genetics of the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria L. - A preliminary study. Heredity. 52:179-188.
Abstract: Phenologic and geographic variation in background colouration and hind wing spotting in the Satyrid butterfly Pararge aegeria are described from a study of cabinet specimens. This species has two generations in the year. The spring generation exhibits a bimodal pattern of emergence: those individuals which overwinter as pupae emerging earlier than those which pass the winter in the larval state. These early and late spring broods exhibit statistical phenotypic differences which seem to become obscured in the summer generation. Butterflies from Ireland and the South-West Peninsula are statistically distinct from those in the rest of Great Britain. A comparison between the ecological genetics of this species and Maniola jurtina is made.