A39: Pabalan, N., K.G. Davey and L. Packer 1996. Comparative morphology of spermathecae in solitary and primitively eusocial bees (Hymenoptera; Apoidea). Canadian Journal of Zoology. 74:802-808.
Abstract: Spermathecae of solitary and primitively eusocial bees from five major families were compared according to their chamber size, epithelial cell height (wall thickness), number and shape of glands, number of sperm pumps, and diameter of the duct, using whole mounts and serial sections. A thick spermathecal wall with a small chamber in our exemplar colletid, megachilid, and andrenid bees, a large chamber with a thick wall in social Apidae, and a thin wall with a large chamber in social halictids indicate that a big chamber may be associated with increased colony size. A thin epithelium in the receptacle of halictid bees suggests relegation of spermathecal secretion to the spermathecal gland. A relatively thick spermathecal wall in the Apinae indicates the potential importance of both the epithelial cell layer of the receptacle and the enlarged spermathecal gland in maintaining large numbers of stored sperm. There was one sperm pump in all taxa surveyed except the representative Halictidae, in which this structure was paired. Elongated spermathecal glands may typify the spermathecae of eusocial bees.