A4: Packer, L. and G. Knerer. 1985. Social evolution and its correlates in bees of the subgenus Evylaeus (Hymenoptera; Halictidae). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 17:143-149.
Abstract: Eleven behavioural characteristics of eight species of the subgenus Evylaeus were analysed using principal components analysis. The first component axis represents social level and explains over forty percent of the total variation in the data. The following characteristics are highly correlated with social level – (i) a reduction in the proportion of males in the first brood, (ii) a reduction in the proportion of workers that mate, (iii) a reduction in the proportion of workers that have developed ovaries, (iv) an increase in the mean number of workers, (v) increased contact between adults and developing brood and (vi) an increase in the size difference between queens and workers. Because these factors appear, in general, to be under the control of the queen it is argued that parental manipulation has been an important component of social evolution in the bees. The number of worker broods and the mechanism of male production are also related to social level but are less important. Nest architecture, nest defense, and polygyny seem to be unrelated to social level. Variation in nest architecture may be in response to edaphic features of the substrate. The lack of any relationship between polygyny and social level implies that the semisocial route to eusociality was not the one taken. It is likely that polygyny can only occur where the substrate is suitable for the winter hibernation of sisters in their natal nest. Multivariate methods are useful in determining the relative social level of closely related halictine species.