A96.Almeida, E.A.B., B.N. Danforth and L. Packer. 2008. Phylogeny of the Xeromelissinae (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) based upon morphology and molecules. Apidologie 39:75-85.
Abstract: We present the results of a combined analysis of 248 morphological characters and sequences from 3 genes for 29 species of Xeromelissinae and 7 outgroup taxa including representatives of the colletid subfamilies Colletinae, Euryglossinae, Hylaeinae, Paracolletinae, and Scrapterinae. The paracolletine genus Trichocolletes was used to root the tree. The results agree with most of those obtained in an earlier, entirely morphological analysis. Noteworthy are (1) the paraphyly of Chilimelissa in relation to Xeromelissa, and (2) the lack of sister group relationship between Hylaeinae and Xeromelissinae. Other than minor rearrangements resulting from swapping adjacent nodes, the only major difference is the placement of one species of Chilicola, C. aenigma, which no longer groups within C. (Chilioediscelis), but instead appears to be closer to Xenochilicola. The influence upon phylogenetic results caused by highly morphologically autapomorphic taxa is discussed.