A9: Packer, L. 1986. The biology of a subtropical population of Halictus ligatus Say (Hymenoptera, Halictidae). II: Male behaviour. Ethology. 72:287-298.
Abstract: In the subtropical climate of the Florida Keys, Halictus ligatus has a continuously brooded, multivoltine colony cycle. This results in young gynes and workers being active at all times of the year, potentially causing problems for males with respect to mate choice. Males respond to females by ignoring them, touching them briefly or by knocking them off flowers into the surrounding vegetation, where mating takes place. Over half of the females at this locality are mated although males prefer large, young individuals. Multiple mating of females does occur. Males search for females around flowers and, less commonly, near nest sites. Because females of this social insect offer varied returns to male mating effort, it is not surprising that males exhibit mate choice.