download windows 8 on ipad Microsoft Windows Vista Business With Sp2 (64bit) download windows 7 activator free Buy Windows 8 Upgrade windows 8 rp product key Adobe Premiere Elements 9 Adobe Illustrator CS5 MAC Purchase Microsoft Windows 7 Starter Edition cheap computer with windows 7 Purchase Oem Version Microsoft Windows 8 32 Bit windows 7 ultimate product key 32 bit Oem Microsoft Office Price download windows 8 server Office 2010 Standard (64-bit) cheap windows 7 install Software With Low Price Product Key Office Onenote 2010 (64-bit) best buy microsoft 3500 Windows Vista Home Basic With Sp2 buy office 2012 cheap Adobe Indesign Cs6 Mac purchase full version microsoft MapPoint 2012 Europe Buy Office 2010 Oem download windows 8 loader Adobe Photoshop Elements 8 buy adobe indesign cs5 for mac cheap Steinberg Wavelab 6 cheap windows 7 desktop pc For Windows Xp Office Powerpoint 2007 buy dell windows 7 professional Photoshop Cs5 Discount buy windows new construction online Windows Xp Pro Upgrade best buy windows 8 Adobe Acrobat X Pro Student And Teacher Edition Mac get windows 7 chip Adobe After Effects Cs6 Mac windows 7 key unreadable Kigo Video Converter Pro Mac buy windows 7 ultimate newegg Buy Download Windows 7 download microsoft Visual Studio Team Foundation Server 2012 Should Wait Buy Windows 8 buy windows 7 professional online Adobe Indesign Cs5 Mac buy adobe creative suite 55 production premium cheap Windows 8 Enterprise Product Key windows 8 key generator Cheap Cs55 Design Premium microsoft windows 8 download Adobe Photoshop Cs6 Update buy windows xp professional x64 Rosettastone Chinese (mandarin) Level 1, 2 3 Set buy microsoft visio premium 2012 Adobe Flash Professional Cs6 Student And Teacher Edition windows 7 oem phone activation Cheap Revit Mep Oem buy windows xp embedded license Purchase Windows 7 Product Key windows 7 key maker Corel Designer Technical Suite X5 cheap microsoft office mac uk Windows 8 Key Doesnt Work cheap windows 7 uk Omni Group Omnigraffle 5 Professional Mac windows downloads folder slow Windows 7 Key Backup Cyberlink PowerDirector 9 Ultra64 Visual Studio 2008 Professional free download windows 7 youtube Purchase Microsoft Virtual Pc Windows Xp Mode For Windows 7 download windows free Buy Windows 7 Home Basic microsoft windows 8 upgrade price Office 2010 Home And Business (64-bit) cheap fireworks cs5 oem Where To Buy Creative Suite 5 Design download microsoft Visual Studio Team Foundation Server 2010 Buy Windows License Key adobe creative suite 6 master collection core keygen Buy Windows 7 64 Bit License Adobe Photoshop Elements 10 & Adobe Premiere Elements 10 Upgrade Windows 8 buy windows intune Microsoft Office 2010 Home And Student Price microsoft office 2007 cheap product key Cheap Windows 7 Get buy windows edmonton Where To Buy Cheap Office Software buy windows 7 key student Where To Buy Windows 7 Starter best price acrobat x pro for mac Adobe Audition Cs5.5 Mac best price adobe creative suite 5 design premium Buy Photoshop Cs6 Student Sony Vegas Pro 9 Windows 8 32 Bit Software Purchase should buy windows 7 home premium Cheap And Discount Oem Software Office Project Professional 2010 (64 Bit) buy windows 7 themes Oem Key Microsoft Windows 8 (64 Bit) purchase autodesk autocad 2011 x32&all Microsoft Select Agreement Pricing skype 4.2 download windows 7 Where To Buy Windows Xp purchase microsoft windows vista build 5728 automated installation kit Cheap Windows 2008 windows downloads 8 Cheap Microsoft Windows Xp Software windows downloads live mail Purchase Windows 7 Online buy microsoft windows 7 home premium india Software Buy Microsoft Office 2010 Sharepoint Workspace 32 Bit cheap microsoft office mac student Windows Xp Home Edition Oem download windows 7 live cd Microsoft Software Window Xp Price In Bangalore buy microsoft kin one india Ashampoo Movie Shrink And Burn 3 buy windows 7 64 bit student Buy Windows 7 3 Pack buy microsoft live points Cyberlink Power2go 6 windows 7 ultimate 2012 download Corel Photoimpact X3 buy dreamweaver cs5 cheap Buy Photoshop Cs6 Student windows 7 home premium download iso Windows Xp Discount Microsoft Office 2010 Home and Student Family Pack (64 bit) New Cheap Software Microsoft Windows Xp Professional Sp3 (32 Bit) microsoft Visual Studio 2008 Professional academic pricing Microsoft Windows 8 32 Bit Best Price buy windows 8 for 14.99 Cheap Windows Xp just want buy microsoft word Purchase Acronis Disk Director 11 buy windows 7 32 bit Autodesk Sketchbook Designer 2012 Mac Adobe Creative Suite 5 Web Premium MAC Corel Ventura 10 windows 7 oem virtualbox Adobe Creative Suite 5 Web Premium Student And Teacher Edition Mac cheap refurbished laptops windows 7 Adobe Soundbooth Cs5 Mac windows 8 oem iso Buy Windows 8 License Key Native Instruments Reaktor 5 Windows 7 Discount Vista download windows 8 explorer free Microsoft Works 9 purchase autodesk autocad raster design 2012&all Windows 8 Oem Activation microsoft office Excel 2010 (32-bit) purchase discount Windows 8 Discount download windows 7 7600 activator Office 2010 Home And Student Cheap Software With Key windows 7 quick key sleep Buy Windows 7 Rtm Microsoft Windows Vista Home Basic with SP2 (64 bit) Smith Micro Spring Cleaning 11 Deluxe Mac
CITY » Policy Levers to Close Suburban Transportation Equity and Public Benefit Gaps in the Toronto Region
Skip to main content
CITY > Projects > Policy Levers to Close Suburban Transportation Equity and Public Benefit Gaps in the Toronto Region

Policy Levers to Close Suburban Transportation Equity and Public Benefit Gaps in the Toronto Region

Researchers: Professor Roger Keil (Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University), Sean Hertel (Urban Planning Consultant) and Michael Collens (Masters of Environmental Studies Candidate, York University)

Transit investments, by their very nature, have consequences beyond just the hardware (rails, rolling stock, stations, etc.) and the systemic improvements (unitary pay systems, new and better routes, fare structures, etc.) they support. They also build cities, enable communities, empower individuals to participate in society’s opportunities more fully. Those investments rarely lead to even outcomes and sometime create new inequities in distribution across an urban area. As the region serviced by Metrolinx is at the cusp of major investments into its transit supply and operation systems, we intend to ask what consequences the proposed funding has for the people, communities, and sub/urban municipalities it is meant to provide with better mobility. The starting point for this research lies outside the actual jurisdiction of transit funding: While the Toronto region is growing by leaps and bounds, we have become aware that such growth occurs increasingly in ways that create more socio-economic and socio-spatial inequalities. Research has found that while the share of middle income groups in the region tends to shrink while income polarization is producing more wealthy people at one end and more poor people on the other. Often, the areas with the fastest rising, and most concentrated poverty are also the least well served by mobility infrastructures. This is where our research comes in. We ask specifically whether and how planned transit investments under the Big Move can serve to stave off additional inequalities, whether they might, in fact, improve the situation of people in – often suburban – “transit deserts,” or whether they might, at a minimum, not make things worse for the most vulnerable and immobile groups on our growing city.

There are socially and economically vulnerable populations in the Toronto region, who are especially impacted by transit investments and, most pointedly, the lack thereof. Our proposed research will focus on decoding the socioeconomic and political forces with the aim of “connecting the disconnected”: re-connecting vulnerable populations living at the physical and economic periphery of the region to mobility, and re-connecting public policy objectives with public transit investment priorities. Toronto has been considered to be one of a few dozen “global cities,” financial centres and decision making hubs of the global economy. It is from here that the Canadian economy has traditionally been articulated with the world economy. In this age of accelerated globalization, mobility in and of city regions has been seen as crucial for success in inter-urban and inter-regional competition. In this context, Toronto has experienced a series of severe bottlenecks in terms of its transportation infrastructure. The Province of Ontario’s Regional Transportation Plan (RTP) – The Big Move – is an ambitious plan aimed to improve, if not remove entirely, such bottlenecks.

Specific vulnerabilities are linked to systemic patterns of disconnectedness in this situation. These patterns are caused by long-term biases in transportation and infrastructure investments that have led to “transit deserts” that tend to be concentrated in “in-between cities” or “third cities”, those that are not just neglected by mobility infrastructures but are generally socially and economically disadvantaged through lacking employment opportunities, substandard housing, underfunded educational institutions, limited food retail and nutrition choices, and overall disinvestment (Young, Wood, Keil 2011). Tendencies towards a polarized and segmented infrastructure supply and wildly differentiated accessibility of mobility systems is exemplary of a larger trend towards “splintering urbanism” in which “glocal” bypasses become the norm in a system that prioritizes privatized, globalized and corporate forms of transportation infrastructures over public, locally sensitive and cooperative modes (Graham and Marvin 2001). Mobilities in the post-suburban metropolis are built with and for certain privileges. Neighbourhoods are defined, among other things, by their accessibility and connectivity with other parts of the metropolis and with places beyond their borders. Most infrastructure decisions are made on the basis of connecting prime network spaces in the urban area (Graham and Marvin, 2001). Some of these developments have been linked directly to the emergence of neoliberal forms of economic governance that favour profit and efficiencies over fairness and equity in transportation policy decision-making (Boudreau, Keil, Young 2010).


1. Greater Toronto Suburban Working Group coordinators Sean Hertel and Roger Keil, in collaboration with MES student Michael Collens, have just released a report on transit equity and justice in Toronto. This report, based on research funded by Ontario’s regional transportation agency Metrolinx, that can be downloaded in its entirety below provides a survey of existing research and practice on transit equity and justice. Using insights and examples from around the world, the report notes the importance of making equity concerns a priority in transit planning. It is meant to inspire debate on transit equity in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area more generally, and was  the basis of an expert workshop on the topic hosted by the GTSWG on Tuesday, March 31 in Toronto.

Switching Tracks (pdf)

2. Next Stop: Equity – Routes to Fairer Transit Access in the Grater Toronto and Hamilton Area is a landmark report released by CITY in February 2016, urging a call to action for transit equity, as the Province of Ontario continues to roll out a $50-billion investment in 1,200 km rapid transit across the GTHA. The report is a response to widening gaps between affordable housing and employment opportunities that have converged, in combination structural decades-long social inequities that have persisted and worsened in the urban periphery, to make transit service disparities especially severe in suburban areas. Overall, the historic lack of transit investment means many living in the “inner ring” or “905” suburbs of Toronto must either have access to a car or find a home somewhere else.

Next Stop: Equity (pdf)

Media Publications:

Switching Tracks

Spurr, Ben. (2015, Apr. 25). Caught in the Transit Gap. Toronto Star. Pp. GT1-2

Keil, Roger. (2015). Suburbs and the New Urban Century. Ontario Planning Journal, 30 (4). P. 23.

Gupta, Rahul. (2015, Oct. 15). Helping more people access transit doesn’t need expensive solutions, advocates say. Toronto, ON: Etobicoke Guardian.

Next Stop: Equity

Collens, Michael & Hertel, Sean. (2016). “Public Transit and the Public Good.” Ontario Planning Journal. Vol. 31, No. 4

Lorinc, John. (2016, Feb. 02). How improving transit can price out those who need it most. Ontario Educational Communications Authority ( Retrieved from:

Gordon, Geordie. (2016, Feb. 03). Regional Transportation Plan Review: Transit Equity In The GTHA. Novae Res Urbis, Greater Toronto Edition 19 (5). Pp. 1, 5.

CBC News Toronto. (2016, Feb. 10). How to make Toronto’s transit more equitable. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved from:

Hertel, Sean. (2016, Feb. 10). Interview by Matt Galloway. Transit Equity. Metro Morning. Season 2016, Episode 300238909. Toronto, ON: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. [Radio Interview]. Retrieved from:

Litman, Todd. (2016, Feb. 18). Towards a More Equitable Transit Future. Planetizen. Retrieved from:

Weston Road south of Eglinton northward