The following are examples of documentation style used in MUSICultures. Please adhere to this format within your text and in the Reference list at the end of the article. For the most part, these examples are taken from real sources.

For in text citations, identify the source by author name, the year of the publication and the page number in parenthesis either at the end of the sentence, or at the end of the clause in the sentence that contains the material being referenced. It is sometimes possible to include the author's name into the text, thereby leaving the citation to include only the date and the page number.

In-Text Examples:

While its origins are unclear, contest dancing emerged in the 1960s, featuring dance traditions largely “associated with Plains culture” (Desjarlait 1997:116).

NOTE: No space is necessary after the colon and before the page number; the period for the sentence follows the parenthesis containing the reference.


Although most often considered exclusively a dance and called “the góralski,” such a conceptualization is limiting given the range of expressive domains engaged in this extemporized performance.1 It might instead be considered a “blurred genre,” to borrow a phrase from Geertz (1983:19).

Example of an explanatory footnote:

1See, for example, Kotońki (1956) for an early example of this designation and a detailed discussion of the dance.

Reference Examples


Slobin, Mark. 2000. Fiddler on the Move: Exploring the Klezmer World. New York: Oxford University Press.

Barz, Gregory F. and Timothy J. Cooley, eds. 1997. Shadows in the Field: New Perspectives for Fieldwork in Ethnomusicology. New York:Oxford University Press.

Kisliuk, Michelle. 1997. “Undoing Fieldwork: Sharing Songs, Sharing Lives.” In Shadows in the Field: New Perspectives for Fieldwork in Ethnomusicology, edited by Gregory F. Barz and Timothy J. Cooley, 23-44. New York:Oxford University Press.

Articles in a Journal

Gelo, Daniel J. 1999. “Powwow Patter: Indian Emcee Discourse on Power and Identity.” Journal of American Folklore 112 (443):40-57.

Articles in a Collection

Averill, Gage. 2004. “Where's One?: Musical Encounters of the Ensemble Kind.” In Performing Ethnomusicology: Teaching and Representation in World Music Ensembles, edited by Ted Solis. 93-111. Berkeley:University of California Press.


Dylan, Bob. [1963] 2004. The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan. Columbia/Legacy 90321. Compact disc.

Live Performances

McMaster, Natalie, performer. 2001. Christmas on the Island. Live Performance, Glace Bay, Nova Scotia: Savoy Theatre, December 20.


It is not necessary to list interviews in the References list. Use a parenthetical reference in the article text (personal communication, May 20, 2007); include the correspondent's name and location (if relevant) in the parenthesis if it is not evident in the article text.

Personal Communications

Letters and conversations are also not included in the References. The communication should be cited, after obtaining permission, in the text with a parenthetical notation that it is a personal communication.

“Ethnomusicology is one of the most vibrant and expanding fields of study in Canada today” (Gordon E. Smith, personal communication).

Electronic Sources

Article on the Internet

Kalidas, S. 1998. “Rhythms of Change.” India Today. June 22, 1998. (29 November 2006).

If you cite a web site in your manuscript and not a specific text, give only its URL and retrieval date.

“As indicated on its web site, The Canadian Society for Traditional Music embraces all aspects of music-making and music scholarship in Canadian and transnational contexts.” (accessed April 25, 2008)