Science and Meteorology
Dynamics and Prediction
Chens research interests are in studying the dynamics of severe
weather phenomena, in particular hurricanes and convective storms, and in improving
their predictions. Specific topics such as cyclogenesis, rapid intensity change,
mesoscale structures of hurricanes, the initiation and evolution of severe storms,
and their interactions with the synoptic-scale and smaller-scale flows are investigated
through observations and numerical modeling. Advanced multi-scale data assimilation
techniques are designed and utilized not only as powerful research tools, but
also as methods to improve severe weather predictions by assimilating critical
in-situ and remote-sensing observations into the models.
of Atmospheric Dynamics
Vorticity Dynamics and Thermodynamics: Dr.
Jenkins's research involves the vorticity dynamics and thermodynamics
of meso- and synoptic-scale circulation systems; time series and data analyses
of the climatology of the Northern Hemisphere; numerical investigations into the
mechanisms responsible for increased surface COs concentrations in Arctic regions;
numerical investigations into the mechanisms responsible for the snow-belt north
of Lake Ontario; forest-fire-meteorology numerical modelling. Numerical
Modelling of Atmospheric Dynamics
Klaassen's major research interests are in wave dynamics, stratified
shear flows, the transition to turbulence, cloud dynamics and mesoscale meteorology.
A variety of theoretical and numerical models are being employed to study the
evolution and stability of nonlinear disturbances in the atmosphere. The goal
is to improve our understanding the evolution of complex small scale flows, and
their interactions with the larger scales associated and weather and climate systems.
These issues will become increasingly important over the next few years as hydrostatic
global and regional models are pushed to finer resolution, and will be especially
important in the development of nonhydrostatic global circulation and weather
prediction models. Small-scale processes also represent fascinating examples fundamental
problems in fluid dynamics.
Klaassen's group has focused on gravity wave processes in the atmosphere,
including gravity wave generation, propagation and breaking. We are also developing
parameterization schemes for the representation of drag due to small-scale unresolved
gravity waves, a process which is of crucial importance in determining the circulation
of the middle atmosphere and its effect on ozone. This work is also relevant to
other stably stratified geophysical flows, e.g., the ocean. Other areas of interest
include moist convection, and the transition to turbulence in shear flows. Chemical
and Dynamical Modelling of Atmospheres
Chemical and Dynamical Modelling
of Atmospheres Dr.
McConnell's group is currently studying the photochemistry and transport
of species of tropospheric and stratospheric interest using 0-D, 1-D and 3-D transport
models. Among the problems currently being addressed are the cause of the springtime
decrease in polar ozone, the impact of aerosols on global ozone decrease and also
the increase of tropospheric gases such as ozone, methane and carbon monoxide
over the last century or the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere. The group also
studies radiative transfer modelling of the upper atmospheres and ionospheres
of the Earth and outer planets using the data from the Voyager flyby, IUE and
ground based telescopes. Atmospheric Boundary-Layer
Studies and Mesoscale Meteorology
Peter Taylor's research pertains to the lowest layers of the atmosphere,
from the surface to heights of about 1000m. This layer is studied using numerical
models and field observations. Specific interests are in the study of flow over
hills and in complex terrain, stable boundary layers, blowing snow and aspects
of air-sea interaction including wind wave generation. Wind tunnel studies and
the use of networks of automated surface weather stations have also been undertaken
University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
External academic recognition of York University through the Department of
Earth and Space Science and Engineering was achieved in 1996 when York became
a member of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) who operate
the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado.
is now the third Canadian university to acquire membership in UCAR. Recognition
such as this denote the academic strength in the Department of Earth and Space
Science and Engineering and provides a beneficial association between UCAR and
Fluid Dynamics of the Earth's Fluid Core
Earth Science and Geomatics Engineering
Research in Dr.
Aldridge's group centres on the application of laboratory studies of
long-period fluid oscillations to the excitation and detection of these modes
in the Earth's fluid outer core. Non-linear and viscous effects, observed in laboratory
experiments but ignored in present theory for such modes, play a central role
in the identification of core modes in the superconducting gravimetric data. Furthermore,
coupling between fluids and their containers has suggested the use of VLBI (Very
Long Baseline Interferometry) as a tool to detect core oscillations and initial
results from our analysis of some NGS/NOAA data appear promising.
Armenakis’ research interests are in the areas of rapid and on-time
mapping and monitoring methods and technology using imaging and ranging data.
Current research areas include: a) the development and use of low-cost unmanned
aerial mapping systems (UMAS) and mobile mapping systems for rapid mapping, monitoring
and tracking to explore their potential and reliability in operational environments;
and b) the development of methods and technology for spatial feature extraction,
terrain modelling and spatio-temporal change detection and extraction from imaging
and ranging data using photogrammetric, remote sensing and GIS methods.
Navigation Satellite Systems
Bisnath's research interests centre about the use of Global Navigation
Satellite Systems (GNSSs), most notably GPS, for a multitude of precise positioning
and navigation applications. Specific application areas include crustal deformation
monitoring, precise orbit determination, and precise positioning of offshore platforms.
This research requires development of positioning algorithms, which include filters,
functional models, stochastic models, and prediction models to mitigate physical
affects. Recent algorithm research has focused on improving the robustness of
precise point positioning, and extending the range of single-baseline, real-time
kinematic (RTK) GPS.
Cheng is interested in spatial analysis of earth and environmental
systems. His research group is involved in the development and application of
geographical information systems (GIS) for mineral exploration and natural resources
assessment. Current research projects include: (1) Development of GIS Integrated
Stochastic and Multifractal Techniques for Spatial and Dynamic Modelling and Prediction
of Mineral Deposits and Water Resources; (2) fractal/multifractal modelling of
resolution dependence of remote sensing and geographic data; (3) Spatial/Spectrum/Multifractal
analysis for pattern recognition; and (4) Graphic Interfaced Programming in VB,
VC++ and Active X.
Hu's research interests include canopy reflectance modelling, deriving
biophysical parameters of forest canopies from remote sensing data, hyperspectral
remote sensing, image processing, and photogrammetry.
and Mantle Convection
Jarvis' research interests lie in the field of Geodynamics. He employs
computer intensive numerical models to study the temperature and velocity fields
in the solid outer 3,000 km of the Earth's interior. This research addresses the
problem of the driving force for plate tectonics and continental drift. Numerical
studies of the causes and consequences of continental collisions, aggregation
and dispersal form a part of this research. It involves the use of microcomputers,
UNIX workstations and supercomputers.
for Optical Earth Observations
Dr. John Miller is engaged in research related
to the use of physical models for the quantitative interpretation of high spectral
resolution digital image data from airborne and satellite sensors. Research methods
involve the use of field spectrometers, solar radiometers, and airborne digital
data collection with the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI), with image
analysis using hyperspectral image analysis software. Problems investigated include:
atmospheric correction of image data to surface reflectances, interpretation of
water colour spectra in terms of constituent concentrations and extraction of
forest canopy information on biochemical constituents and canopy architectural
Dynamics of the Earth as Observed
by Geodetic Techniques
Spiros Pagiatakis is interested in the dynamics of the Earth, both
in global and regional/local scales, as observed by geodetic techniques. On-going
research includes the determination of the glacial isostatic adjustment signature
from more than 50 years of terrestrial gravity observations in Canada and GRACE
gravity mission level-2 data. Research interests also expand in the area of physical
geodesy, and in particular in the determination of the geoid (local and global
scales) and of the sea surface topography. Other research activities include the
study of the response of the Earth to ocean tide loading, spectral methods and
their application to the analyses of superconducting
Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and GPS time series.
Earth Dynamics and Space Measurement Techniques
is interested in global earth dynamics and space measurement techniques applied
to geophysics. Ongoing work includes studies of the long period oscillations of
the Earth's fluid outer core, and their detection through Very Long Baseline Interferometric
techniques and superconducting gravimeter data. Modes which exchange angular momentum
with the solid parts of the Earth appear in the new, very accurate VLBI measurements
of the spin rate, polar motion and nutation. Other modes register as small gravimetric
signals. The new Canadian gravimeter facility and data from collaborating installations
around the globe is used in this research.
Szeto's current research focuses on remote sensing. In particular he
explores efficient mans of interpreting Synthetic Aperture Radar data. His interests
of longer term standing lie in global geophysical phenomena, especially those
pertaining to the solid inner core and fluid outer core. These include (1) the
role of the inner core in geodynamics theory, (2) dynamical motion of the inner
core, (3) how core structure influences the Earth's rotation, nutation and wobble.
Potential students should have an affinity towards physics, mathematics and computing.
Integrated Navigation and High Accuracy & Precision
Wang's research interests centre about the applications of Integrated
Navigation and High Accuracy & Precision Engineering Surveying. Good example
for Integrated Navigation is multi-sensor systems, the core of modern direct-georeferencing
systems that integrate the GNSSs, Inertial sensors, and any other positioning
& orientation sensors available. The research in this area innovates and develops
advance algorithms including error modeling, Kalman filtering, robust filtering,
system simulation, hardware integration, and real-time & post-processing SW
development. High Accuracy & Precision Engineering Surveying engages special
engineering surveying applications such as deformation monitoring and industrial
Space Science and Space Engineering
Engineering, Space Physics and Space Instrumentation
Yunlong Lins research interests are design,integration, test
and operation of modern small satellites or small space systems; the space environment
and its effects: monitoring, testing, simulation, protection and mitigation; space
payloads for Earth and its atmospheric observations, lunar industry initiative
and planetary exploration.
Aeronomy of the Earth's Upper
McDade's research activities are primarily in the areas of optical
aeronomy and space physics. He uses UV, visible and near-IR spectrophotometric
observations made from rockets, satellites and ground observing stations to study
photochemical processes that produce light in the upper atmosphere. His research
focuses on attempts to understand the physics and chemistry of these processes
and the development of remote sensing techniques which exploit these optical airglow
emissions to study the composition, energetics and dynamics of the upper atmosphere.
Space engineering and planetary physics
Quine's primary research focuses on the development of optical instrumentation,
analysis techniques and space test processes to advance planetary research and
to improve the performance and reliability of space systems. He is the principal
investigator for Northern Light, a proposed Canadian mission to lander on the
surface of Mars this decade. He is also co-investigator for the MANTRA balloon
missions to assess the odd nitrogen chemistry in the stratosphere and a co-investigator
for the Can-X Pico-satellite facility. His research can be divided into three
principle scientific themes: Earth observation, Mars Exploration and the observation
of Extrasolar planetary systems. These initiatives involve the development of
both theoretical analysis tools to design instrumentation and to retrieve information
from observation data and the development of the hardware needed to make space-based
Shan's research interests include Spacecraft Dynamics, Control and
Navigation; Active Vibration Control; Formation Flying (Flight); Airship Development;
Cooperative and Coordinated Control of Multiple Vehicles; and Ground-Based Testbed
Dynamical Processes in the Upper Atmosphere
Shepherd is Principal Investigator for Canada's Wind Imaging Interferometer
(WINDII), in orbit since September 12, 1991, on NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research
Satellite (UARS), which is still acquiring data. Using these data he studies winds
and temperatures using photochemically produced "airglow" emissions
as a target, for the altitude range 80 to 300 km. The emission strength also provides
information on the concentration of atomic oxygen, an important constituent in
the upper atmosphere. It has been learned that the atomic oxygen is strongly affected
by planetary scale waves in the atmosphere, and by atmospheric tides. Ground-based
instruments are also operated remotely, near Toronto and at Resolute Bay, in the
Canadian Arctic. Work is in progress on new missions to measure winds in the mesosphere
(45 to 85 km), and in the stratosphere (20 to 45 km). The latter will provide
important information on ozone and its transport, and may improve weather forecasts.
Whiteway's research interests can be subdivided into a number of categories.
Atmospheric measurements: The main technical basis of the research is development
and application laser remote sensing (or lidar) for atmospheric measurements from
the ground, from aircraft, and on Mars. Much of the research also involves in-situ
measurements with instruments installed on a high altitude aircraft called the
Egrett. Climate: Airborne measurement campaigns to study cirrus clouds, water
vapour, and dynamics in the upper troposphere at mid-latitudes and in the tropics.
Atmospheric Dynamics: Airborne measurement campaigns to investigate atmospheric
gravity waves and turbulence. Martian Atmosphere: Design, testing, and implementation
of a lidar system on the Phoenix Mars Lander (2008) to measure the distribution
of dust and clouds. Air Quality: Development of a mobile lidar and measurements
to investigate the sources and evolution of urban pollution. Arctic Ozone: Construction
of a new lidar for measurements of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone at the
Eureka Station in the Canadian Arctic.
Zhu's research interest can be subdivided into a number of categories.
Fundamental: computational solid mechanics; nonlinear finite element analysis
and design evaluation; cable dynamics; vehicle dynamics; structural mechanics;
fatigue, fracture and damage mechanics; computer simulation; dynamics and control
of mechanical systems; residual Stress and welding engineering. Aerospace: dynamics
and control of aerial refueling hose and drogue, towed instruments. Aircraft/ship
dynamic interface analysis. Motion measurement using photogrammetry. Defence:
naval shock analysis and design; dynamics and control of underwater towed vehicles.
Robotics: kinematics; dynamics; automated aircraft passenger bridge.