Born: February 8, 1933, Berlin, Germany
Wife: Linda, Library Technician (retired)
Children: David Alan, Wendy Jill
Citizen: U.S.A.\ Canada

Military Experience
United States Air Force, Air Traffic Controller, 1952-1956.

Academic History
B.A., 1960, (Psychology) Adelphi University
M.A., 1963, (Psychology) University of California, Los Angeles
Ph.D., 1966, (Psychology) University of California, Los Angeles

Research Interests
Vision Research, Color Science, Sensory Processes, Physiological Optics, Human Factors.

Teaching Interests
Vision Research, Color Science, Physiological Optics, Human Factors Research (Ergonomics), Research Methods, Human Response to Color

Positions Held
Lecturer, Department of Psychology, UCLA, 1965.
Post-doctoral Fellow (NINDB) Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester 1966-68
Research Associate, Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, 1968
Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, York University, 1968-71.
Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, York University, 1971-80.
Visiting Research Officer, Division of Physics, National Research Council, Ottawa, 1974.
Chairman, Department of Psychology, York University, 1979-82.
Professor, Department of Psychology and Biology, York University, 1980-93.
Visiting Scholar, Center for Human Information Processing (CHIP), University of California, San Diego, 1982-83.
Visiting Research Scholar, Graduate School at Nagatsuta, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 1984.
Adjunct Professor, School of Optometry, Faculty of Science, University Waterloo, 1985
Topical Editor, Color Vision- Color Research and Application 1988-1992
Max Planck Society Senior Fellow, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Neurobiology Department, Goettingen, Germany, 1988.
Professor Emeritus / Senior Scholar, York University, 1993-

Significant Recognition
Certificate of Merit, Canadian Society for Color in Art, Industry and Science, 1982.
Certificate of Appreciation, Inter-Society Color Council, 1987.
Macbeth Award, Inter-Society Color Council, 1994
CIE Certificate, 1995

Professional Societies
Optical Society of America (Emeritus Fellow)
Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (Emeritus)
Society for Neuroscience (Emeritus)



An investigation of shape at a slant. Proceedings of the 74th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 9-10, 1966.

Analysis of psychophysical data gathered by the staircase method. American Journal of Psychology, 79, 652-654, 1966 (with S. Feeny & J.P. Thomas).


The French electric hand: some observations and conclusions. Bulletin of Prosthetics Research, BPR 10-6, 1967 Fall (with L. Luccacini & J.L. Lyman).

Perceived shape and its dependency on perceived slant. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 75, 345-353, 1967. This paper has been reprinted in Contemporary Theory and Research in Visual Perception R.N. Haber, Ed. Holt Rinehart & Winston, NY. 1968.


The measurement of perceived shape. American Journal of Psychology, 81, 99-101, 1968.

Color names of very small fields varying in duration and luminance. Journal Optical Society America, 58, 849-852, 1968. This paper has been reprinted in the Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Institute of Japan.

Vision: The additivity law made to work for heterochromatic photometry with bipartite fields. Science, 161, 366-368, 1968 (with R.M. Boynton).


Chromatic border contrast and its relation to saturation, Vision Research 11, 953-968, 1971 (with P.A. Herzberg & R.M. Boynton).

Brightness difference and its relation to the distinctness of a border. Journal Optical Society America, 61, 962-965, 1971 (with T. Greenspon).

Minimum border as a preferred psychophysical criterion in visual heterochromatic photometry, Journal Optical Society America, 61, 966-971,

Comment on MacAdam's geodesic chromaticity diagram, Applied Optics, 10, 1451-1452, 1971

Luminance and brightness, Applied Optics, 10, 2768-2770, 1971, This paper has been reprinted in Color and Color Vision, American Association Physics Teachers, P.L. Pease (Ed.) 20-22, 1982.

On improving the utilization of people with advanced degrees, Canadian Psychologist, 12, 441-449, 1971.

Interdisciplinary approach to safety, Proceedings of the Fifth of the Minister's Safety Conferences, Labour Safety Council, Ontario Department of Labour, 16-19, 1971.


Colour vision in the legally blind, Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology, 7, 302-308, 1972. (with P. Smith).

The luminance of equally bright colours, Compte Rendu, CIE No. 21A, 143-144, 1972.

Minimally distinct borders as a criterion in visual photometry, Compte Rendu, CIE No. 21A, 147-149, 1972.


Book Review of Color Vision, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., Journal Optical Society America, 63, 1498, 1973.

Book Review of Color Metrics (Ed. J.J. Vos, L.F. Friele, & P.L. Walraven), Journal Optical Society America, 63, 244-245, 1973.


Book Review of Color 73, International Color Association, Journal Optical Society America, 64, 1349-1350, 1974.

Determination of CIE chromaticity coordinates of colored lights produced by a projection color mixer, Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 6, 473-476, 1974.


Luminous efficiency functions determined by heterochromatic brightness matching, Journal Optical Society America, 65, 466-468, 1975 (with J.P. Comerford).

Flicker photometry of equally bright lights, Vision Research, 15, 1399-1402, 1975 (with J.P. Comerford).

Book Review of The Perception of Color, by Ralph M. Evans, Wiley, Journal Optical Society America, 65, 1083-1084, 1975.


Color at ARVO 75, Color Research and Application 1, 57-58,

Saturation of spectral lights, Journal Optical Society America, 66, 818-826-, (with J.P. Comerford and D.B. Bodinger).

Book Review of Color in Business, Science and Industry, D.B. Judd & G. Wyszecki, Wiley, Journal Optical Society America, 66, 637.

Color vision at ARVO 76, Inter-Society Color Council Newsletter, No.241, March-April.

Problems with heterochromatic photometry, Human Factors In Canada: and Beyond, Proceedings Ninth Annual Meeting Human Factors Association of Canada. G.F. Rabideau, Ed.


Temporal analog of the minimally distinct border, Vision Research, 18, 111-113, 1978 (with R.M. Boynton)

Additivity failures in heterochromatic brightness matching. Color Research and Application, 3, 177-182, 1978 (with G. Wyszecki).

Request for brightness-matching data and mathematical color-vision models, Color Research and Application, 3, 148, 1978.

Light as a True Visual Quantity: Principles of Measurement. Publication CIE No. 41 (TC-1.4) Bureau Central de la CIE Malesherbes, Paris, 1-40, 1978. (with J.A.S. Kinney, D. Palmer, M. Ikeda, J. Roufs, & W. Adrian).


Spectral sensitivity functions measured by a rapid scan flicker photometric procedure, Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 18,1264-1272, 1979.

1980 The color rule: a device for color vision testing. Color Research and Application, 5, 65-71, 1980 (with H. Hemmendinger).

Discomfort glare from highway lighting. Journal Illuminating Engineering Society, 10, 17-23, 1980 (D. Bodinger, C. Blamey, & F. Jung).

Book Review of Standard Pseudoisochromatic Plates, H. Uchikawa, K. Hukami, S. Tonaki, & G. Kawakami, Igaku-Shoin Medical Pub., Inc., Tokyo, Color Research and Application, 5, 60, 1980.

Spectral Sensitivity Functions Determined by the Rapid Scan Technique. Acta Chromatica, 3, 201.

1981 Photopic and mesopic photometry: yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Chapter in Golden Jubilee of Colour in the CIE. Bradford: The Society of Dyers and Colourists, 28-53, 1981.


Color discrimination perimetry. Color Research and Application, 7, 264-272, 1982 (with H. Uchikawa & K. Uchikawa)

The relationship between luminance, brightness & saturation of colored lights. Japanese Journal of Optics, 11, 187-194, 1982 (with H. Uchikawa & K. Uchikawa).

Equating colors for saturation and brightness: the relationship to luminance. Journal Optical Society America, 72, 1219-1224, 1982 (with K. Uchikawa & H. Uchikawa)

Book Review of Color Vision by L. Hurvich, Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass. 1981, in Contemporary Psychology, 27, 506-508, 1982.

CIC Symposium on The Colour Science of Coatings. Meeting report in Color Research and Application, 7, 273-274, 1982.

Comments re: human response to color. Inter-Society Color Council News, No. 281, 2-3, 1982.


Non-visual color perception: critical review, Color Research and Application, 8, 137-144, 1983.

Constant saturation loci of equally bright colors, Colour Report F 26, 9:1 (5) The Forsius Symposium on Colour Order Systems, AIC Midterm meeting, Kungalv, Sweden, 1983 (with K. Uchikawa and H. Uchikawa)

Small field spectral sensitivity, 20th Session, CIE, Amsterdam, Vol 1: Papers Bureau Central de la CIE, 52 Boulevard, Malesherbes 75008 Paris, France, D102/1-4, 1983 (with S. Nusinowitz)

Photometric assessment of brightness, 20th Session, CIE, Amsterdam, Vol 2: Bureau Central de la CIE, 52, Boulevard, Malesherbes 75008 Paris, France, E23/1-2, 1983 (with O. Estevez and K. Uchikawa).


Luminance and saturation of equally bright colors, Color Research and Application, 9, 5-14, 1984 (with K. Uchikawa and H. Uchikawa)

Physiological response to color: critical review, Color Research and Application, 9, 29-36, 1984

Book Review of The Senses, H.B. Barlow & J.D. Mollon, Eds. University Press, Cambridge, 1982, Color Research and Application, 9, 127, 1984.

Brightness-Luminance Discrepancy of colored lights varying with different chromaticities, Journal Illuminating Engineering Institute of Japan, 68, 259-264, 1984 (with K. Uchikawa & H. Uchikawa)

Photometric Measurements. Chapt. in Visual Measurement (Vol. 5 of Optical Radiation Measurements), F. Grum & C.J. Bartleson (Eds.) Academic Press., 563-614, 1984.

Phototherapy using chromatic, white and ultraviolet light, Color Research and Application, 9, 195-205, 1984.

Photometry of brightness: problems, physiology & models, Journal Light & Visual Environment, 8, 55-64, 1984 Also presented as an invited address at the International Symposium, in Osaka and Tokyo, sponsored by the Illuminating Engineering Institute of Japan


Role of the blue mechanism in wavelength discrimination, Vision Research, 25, 523-529, 1985 (with R.M. Boynton)

The Boswell Effect (?), Color Research and Application, 10, 186-187, 1985

The Helmholtz-Kohlrausch Effect, Color Research and Application, 10, 187, 1985

Just noticeable inhomogeneity criterion for determining wavelength discrimination functions, Vision Research, 25, 1327-1330, 1985 (with M. Ayama)

Additivity of red chromatic valence, Vision Research, 25, 1885-1891, 1985 (with M. Ayama & T. Nakatsue)

Plotter (AUXINIT.PAS, PLOTSUB2.PAS, PLOTFILE.PAS, PLOTDO.PAS) Vision Research Software Survey Section, 25, I, 1985 (with M. Ayama & T. Nakatsue)


Book Review of Defective Colour Vision fundamentals, diagnosis and management, by R. Fletcher and J. Voke, Adam Hilger Ltd. Bristol & Boston, 1985, Color Research and Application, 11, 96-97, 1986.

Book Review of The Demon in the Aether The Story of James Clerk Maxwell, by Martin Goldman, Paul Harris Publishing, Edinburgh, in association with Adam Hilger Ltd, 1983, Color Research and Application, 11, 99-100, 1986.

Small, Brief Foveal Stimuli: An Additivity Experiment. Journal Optical Society America A, 3, 930-934, 1986 (with M. Ayama)

Flicker Photometry: Residual Minimum Flicker. Journal Optical Society America A, 3, 1989-1993, 1986 (with M. Ayama and R. Vimal)

Models of Heterochromatic Brightness Matching. CIE Journal, 5, 57-59, 1986


Constant Hue Loci of Unique and Binary Balanced Hues at 10, 100 and 1000 td. Journal Optical Society America A, 1136-1144, 1987 (with M. Ayama & T. Nakatsue)

Opening Remarks, Die Farbe, 34, 26-28. (Made at the Wyzecki & Stiles Memorial Symposium, Florence, Italy.


Sensation Luminance: A New Name to Distinguish CIE Luminance from Luminance Dependent on an Individual's Spectral Sensitivity, Vision Research, 28, 455-456.

Spectral luminous efficiency functions based upon brightness matching for monochromatic point sources 2o and 10o fields, Publication CIE No 75 (1988) Central Bureau of the CIE, A-1030 Vienna, Kegelgasse 27 Austria (with members CIE Technical Committee 1-02)

Contributions of the opponent mechanisms to brightness and nonlinear models, Vision Research, 28, 799-810 (with Y. Nakano & M. Ikeda)


Nulling of Apparent Motion as a Method for Assessing Sensation Luminance: An Additivity Test, Color Research and Application, 14, 187-191 (with R. Vimal, W.B. Cowan, & H. Hibino)

Response of Primate Retinal Ganglion Cells to Temporal & Spatial Luminance Modulation, Perception, 18, 486 (with P.R. Martin, B. B. Lee, & A. Valberg)

The Physiological Basis of the Minimum Distinct Border (MDB), Investigative Ophthalomolgy & Visual Science Suppl. 30, 323 (with B.B. Lee, P.R. Martin, & A. Valberg)

Flicker Photometry Using Three Temporal Frequencies. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Suppl. 30, 128. (with Y. Nakano)


The Physiological Basis of the Minimally Distinct Border Demonstrated in the Ganglion Cells of the Macaque Retina, Journal of Physiology, 422, 153-183 (with B.B. Lee, P.R. Martin & A. Valberg)

CIE 1988 2o Spectral Luminous Efficiency Function for Photopic Vision, Publ. No. CIE 86, 1st Edition 1990, Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage, CIE Central Buerau, Kegelgasse 27, A-1030 Vienna Austria

Book Review of Seeing Contour and Colour, J.J. Kulikowski, C.M. Dickinson and I.J. Murray (Eds), Pergamon Press, Oxford, Color Research and Application, 15, 363.

The Residual Response in Macaque Ganglion Cells is Related to Tritanopic Purity Difference Across Equal Luminance Borders. Investigative Opthalmology and Visual Science, Supplement, 31, 265, (with A. Valberg & B.B. Lee).

Sensitivity of Macaque Ganglion Cells and Human Subjects To Mixed Luminance and Chromatic Modulation, Perception, 19, 334. (with J.J.M. Kremers & B.B. Lee) 1991

Luminance & Chromatic Additivity Measured Psychophysically in Humans & Physiologically in Monkey Ganglion Cells. Investigative Opthalmology and Visual Science, Supplement, 32, 1115, (with J.Kremers & B. B. Lee)

Visual Photometry: Relating Psychophysics To Some Aspects of Neurophysiology, Chapt. in From Pigments to Perception, Advances in Understanding Visual Processes, A. Valberg & B.B. Lee (Eds.) Plenum Press, New York, 281-291.

Flicker as a Function of Wavelength and Heterochromatic Flicker Photometry, Chapt. in Vision and Visual Dysfunction, Vol 5, Limits of Vision, J. J. Kulikowski, V. Walsh & I.J. Murray (eds), Macmillan Press, 171-190.


Minimally Distinct Border: 1824 - 1990, A Tribute to RMB, Advances in Color Vision, Optical Society of America, Technical Digest Series, Vol. 4, 208-210

Sensitivity of Macaque Retinal Ganglion Cells and Human Observers to Combined Luminance and Chromatic Temporal Modulation, Journal Optical Society America. A, 9, 1477-1885 (with J. Kremers, B.B. Lee)

Color Fusion and Flicker Fusion Frequencies Using Tritanopic Pairs, Vision Research,32, 1417-1423 (with Y. Nakano)

Responses of Macaque Ganglion Cells to Movement of Chromatic Borders, J. Physiology, 458, 579-602 (with A. Valberg, B.B. Lee, & J. Kremers).


Dissociation of Achromatic and Chromatic Processing of Spatial form and Temporal Modulation by the Titration Method Method, Journal Optical Society America A, 10, 1314-1323, (with D. Regan and Y. Nakano)


Human Color Vision, 2nd Edition, Washington, D.C. Optical Society of America (with Robert M. Boynton


Influence of luminance flicker and purity on heterochromatic brightness matching and hue discrimination: A post receptoral opponent process, Vision Research, 37, 721-728, (with A. Kurtenbach, L. Ruttiger & E. Zrenner)


National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness Post-doctoral Fellowship, 1966-1968.

Canadian Delegate to Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (C.I.E.) Barcelona, Spain, 1971.

Member, Canadian National Committee, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (C.I.E.) 1972-1993.

Member, National Academy of Science - National Research Council Committee (NAS-NRC) Committee on Vision (U.S.A.) 1973-1977.

Advisory Panel on Roadway Lighting and Traffic Accidents. Ministry of Transport, Road & Vehicle Safety Dept. 1974.

Advisory Panel on Publishing, American Institute of Physics. 1974.

Editorial Board, Color Research and Application. 1975-1988, 1992-

Optical Society of America representative to Inter-Society Color Council, 1976-1992

Treasurer, Canadian Society for Color in Art, Industry and Science, 1976-78.

Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Grant Selection Committee for Experimental Psychology, 1976-79.

Editorial Advisory Panel, Optics Letters, 1977-78.

Corresponding Associate Commentator, Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 1977.

Chairman, C.I.E. Committee TC-1.4, Vision, 1978-83.

Chairman, National Research Council Advisory Committee on Lighting Research, 1978-81.

Editor, Canadian Society for Color in Art, Industry and Science Newsletter, 1978-80, 1983-1984.

President-Elect, Canadian Society for Color in Art, Industry and Science, 1979-83.

Executive Committee, International Color Association (AIC), 1981-85.

Merit Award from the Canadian Society for Color, 1982.

National Research Council of Canada Review Committee on Optics and Mechanics, 1983.

International Advisory Committee, Optics in Modern Science and Technology, The 13th Congress of the International Commission for Optics (ICO-13), 1983-84.

President, Canadian Society for Color in Art, Industry and Science, 1983-85.

Chairman, CIE Technical Committee-1.3, Models Heterochromatic Brightness Matching 1981-87

Member, Board of Directors, Inter-Society Color Council [USA], 1984-1987.

Vice President, Canadian National Committee/Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CNC/CIE) 1984-92

Assistant Editor (Science), Canadian Society for Color Newsletter: Color and Science, 1984-1986

Member, Munsell Color Laboratory Technical Advisory Board, Rochester Institute of Technology, 1984-1990

Past-president, Canadian Society for Color in Art, Industry and Science, 1985-87.

Member, Executive Committee, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage 1984-1992

Member, Board of Directors, Lighting Research Institute [USA], 1985-88.

Member, Canadian Advisory Committee/International Standards Organization/Technical Committee 187 - Color Notation 1986-1995

Consultant, CIE Technical Committee 1-07, Observer Metamerism, 1981-87

Consultant, CIE Technical Committee 1-01, Mesopic Photometry, 1981-87

Member, CIE Technical Committee 1-02, Luminous Efficiency Functions, 1981-87

Chair, CIE Technical Committee 1-20, Judd Modification, 1987-89

Member, CIE Technical Committee 1-21, Testing of Supplementary System of Photometry 1987-92

Consultant, CIE Technical Committee 1-04, Physiological Based System of Colour Specification

Member, CIE Technical Committee 1-26, Individual Variation of Heterochromatic Brightness Matching

Principle Investigator, research contract with E.I. DuPont De Nemours & Co. Inc. 1987-88

Principle Investigator, research contract with Analysis & Technology, Inc. 1989-1992

Member, Tillyer Award Committee, Optical Society of America 1985-91

Chair, Optical Society of America delegation to Inter-Society Color Council 1988-92

Chair, Tillyer Award Committee, Optical Society America 1988-90

Member, Chapters Committee, Society for Neuroscience 1990-93

Member, CIE Technical Committee 1-36, Fundamental Chromaticity Diagram with Physiological Significant Axes 1991-1996


Table of Contents
  Subject Index
  Table of Contents [When not using framtes]