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Development Studies Research Methods

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Conceptual Foundation for Development I

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Tools and Policy Analysis for Development
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DVST 5121: 3.0
Tools and Policy Analysis for Development
Winter 2012


Week 1(January 4): Assessing Aid

World Bank (1998), Assessing Aid: what works, what doesn’t and why, New York: Oxford University Press:1-27. Available online through Scott. This item is also put on reserve.

Hermes, N and R. Lensink (2001), “Changing the Conditions for Development Aid: a new paradigm”, Journal of Development Studies, 37 (6), August: 1-16. Available online through Scott.

Lensink, R and H. White (2000), “Assessing Aid: a manifesto for aid in the 21st century”, Oxford Development Studies 28(1): 5-17. Available online through Scott.

Guillaumont, P and L. Chauvet (2001), “Aid and Performance: a reassessment”, The Journal of Development Studies, 37(6): 66-92.

Easterly, W and Pfutze, T. (2008), 'Where does all the money go? Best and worst practices in foreign aid', Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22(2): 29-52.

Hyden, G (2008), 'After the Paris Declaration: Taking on the Issue of Power', Development Policy Review, 26(3): 259-274.

Riddell, R (2007), Does Foreign Aid Really Work?, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stern, E. D Altinger, L., Feinstein, O., Marahon, M., Schultz, N.-S. and Steen Nielsen, N. (2008), Thematic Study on the Paris Declaration, Aid Effectiveness and Development Effectiveness, Cophenhagen, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Denmark.

Week 2(January 11): Measuring and Assessing Poverty

Sulley, G (1998), “Participatory Impact Assessment as a Tool for Change: lessons from poverty alleviation projects in Africa ,” in Edward Jackson and Yusuf Kassam, eds., Knowledge Shared: participatory evaluation in development cooperation, Bloomfield, CT: IDRC/Kumarian Press: chapter 4, Available online at (This book is also on reserve).

Moser, C (1998), “The Asset Vulnerability Framework: reassessing urban poverty reduction strategies”, World Development 26(1): 1-19. Available online via Scott.

Coudouel, A et al (2001), “Poverty Measurement and Analysis”, in World Bank,   PRSP Source Book, Washington. D.C.: World Bank. Available online at
You can also try the following URL:

Zeller, M (2004), Review of Poverty Assessment Tools, Washington D.C: USAID.

Birdsall, N and J. L. Londono (1997), “Asset Inequality Matters: an assessment of the World Bank’s approach to poverty reduction”, American Economic Review, 87(2), May: 32-37.

Week 3 (January 18): Understanding ‘participation’ via community development practices

Botes, L and D van Rensburg (2000), “Community Participation in Development: nine plagues and twelve commandments”, Community Development Journal, 35(1): 41-58. Available online through Scott.

Hickey, S and G. Mohan (2005), “Relocating Participation within a Radical Politics of Development”, Development and Change 36(2), March: 237-62. Available online through Scott Library

Vaughn, J (2005), “Community Development Research: merging (or submerging) communities of practice? A response to Van Vlaenderen”, Community Development Journal, 41(1): 50-64. Available online at

Dongier, P et al (2001), “Community Driven Development” in World Bank, Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Sourcebook, Vol. 1. Washington, D.C. Available online at
 You can also try the following URL:

Strongly Recommended:
Mansuri, G. and R. Vijayendra (2004), “Community-Based and Driven Development: a critical review, The World Bank Research Observer 19(1): 1-39. Available online at

Kumar, N et al (2005), The Effectiveness of World Bank Support for community-based and -driven development: an OED evaluation, Washington, D.C: The World Bank. Available online at

Mosse, D (1994), “Authority, Gender and Knowledge: theoretical reflections on the practice of participatory rural appraisal”, Development and Change25 (3): 497-525.

Galijart, B (1981), “Participatory Development Projects: some conclusions from research”, Sociologica Ruralis, 21(2): 142–159.

Gilbert, A and P. Ward (1984), “Community Action by the Urban Poor: democratic involvement, community self-help or a means of social Control?” World Development, 12(8): 769–782.

Week 4 (January 25): Social Capital: myths and realities

Bebbington, A et. al eds. (2006), The Search for Empowerment: social capital as idea and practice at the World Bank, Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press; chapter 2: 31-62 (this book is on reserve).

Fine, B (1999), “The Developmental State is Dead: long live social capital”,  Development and Change 30, 1-19. Available online via Scott.

Stone, W and J. Hughes (2002), “Measuring Social Capital: towards a standardised approach”. Available online at

Strongly recommended:
Dhesi, A. S (2000), “Social capital and Community Development,”Community Development Journal35(3): 199-214. Available online through Scott.

Francis, P (2002), Social Capital at the World Bank: strategic and operational implications of the concept, Washington, D.C: World Bank, pages: 1-17. Available online at

Carrol, T (2001), Social Capital, Local Capacity Building, and Poverty Reduction, Manila: Asian Development Bank; pages 1-30, and 87-120. Available online at

Grootaert,  C et. al. (2003), Measuring Social Capital: an integrated questionnaire, World Bank Working Paper 18, Washington. D.C: World Bank. Available online at

Fine, B (2003), “Social Capital: The World Bank’s Fungible Friend”,Journal of Agrarian Change, 3 (2): 586–603.

Putnam, R (2000), Bowling Alone: the collapse and revival of American community, New York: Simon and Schuster.

Das, R (2006), “Putting Social Capital in its Place” Capital & Class Autumn, Issue 90: 65-92.

Mohan, G and K. Stokke (2000), “Gittell, R  and A. Vidal (1998), Community Organizing: building social capital as a Participatory Development and Empowerment: the dangers of localism”, Third World Quarterly, 21(2): 247-268.

Adam, F and B. Roncevic (2005), “Social Capital: recent debates and research trends, Social Science Information”, 42(2): 155-183.

Ahn, T.K and E. Ostrom (2002), “She Second-Gocial Capital and teneration Theories of Collective Action: an analytical approach to the forms of social capital”, Paper presented at the 2002 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA, August 29-September 1.

Walters, W (2002), “Social Capital and Political Sociology: Re-imagining Politics?”Sociology, 36(2): 377–397.

Portes , Alejandro (1998), “Social Capital: Its Origins and Applications in Modern Sociology”, Annual Review of Sociology, August 1998, Vol. 24, Pages 1-24

Newton, Kenneth (1997), “Social Capital and Democracy”, American Behavioral Scientist.1997; 40: 575-586

Serageldin, Ismail and Partha Dasgupta, eds. (2001), Social Capital: A Multifaceted Perspective, Washington D.C: The world Bank);

Dekker, Paul () Social Capital and Participation in Everyday Life, London: Routledge

Week 5 (February 1): Gender Mainstreaming and Gender Impact Assessment in Development Agencies

Tiessen, Rebecca (2007), Everywhere/Nowhere: gender mainstreaming in development agencies, Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press: 11-26.

Niemanis, A (2007), “Ten Steps to gender Mainstreaming” in Gender mainstreaming in Practice: a toolkit, UNDP:24-60, available online at

Strongly recommended:
Status of Women Canada (1996), Gender-based Analysis: a guide for policy-making, Ottawa: Status of Women Canada, Government of Canada, pp. 1-30. Available online at>

Women and Equality Unit, Gender Impact Assessment, London: Department of Trade and Industry in the UK. Available online at

Vainio-Mattila, A (2001), Navigating Gender: a framework and a tool for participatory development, Helsinki, Finland: Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Department for International Development Cooperation. Available online at

OECD, Gender Equality and Aid Delivery: what has changed in development co-operation Agencies Since 1999. Available online at

Overholt, A. and A. Cloud (1984), Gender Roles in Development Projects: A Case Book, Bloomfield:CT, Kumarian Press.

Kabeer, N (1994), Reversed Realities: gender hierarchies in development thought (chapter 4: Connecting, Extending, Reversing: development from a gender perspective), London: Verso: 69-94 (also see chapter 1).

Rathgeber, E (1990), “WID, WAD, GAD: trends in research and practice”, The Journal of Developing Areas 24(4): 489-502.

Chowdhry, G (1995), “Engendering Development? Women in development (WID) in international development regimes”, in Marchand, Marianne & Jane L. Parpart, eds., Feminism/ Postmodernism/Development, London: Routledge: 26-41.

Agarwal, B (1997), “Bargaining and Gender Relations within and beyond the household”, Feminist Economics 3(1): 1-51.

Butler, J and J. W. Scott, eds. (1992) Feminists Theorize the Political, London and New York: Routledge.

Harding, S (1983), “Why Has the Sex/Gender System Become Visible Only Now?” in Harding, S and M. B. Hintikka, eds., Discovering Reality: feminist perspectives on epistemology, metaphysics, methodology, and philosophy of science, Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing: 311-324.

Week 6 (February 8): Gender Responsive Budgeting

Sarraf, G (2003), Gender Responsive Government Budgeting, Washington. D.C.: IMF Available online at

Floro, M et. al. (2004), Gender Issues and Concerns in Financing for Development, INSTRAW: pp. 3-9 & 32-41Available online at$file/financing_for_development%20INSTRAW.pdf?openelement

Action for Development (2005), Gender Budget Training Manual, Available online at
Sharp, R (2007) Gender Responsive Budgets (GRB’s) Have a Place in Financing Gender Quality and Women’s Empowerment, Available online at

Week 7 (February 15): Sustainable Livelihoods

Scoones, I (1998), Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: a framework for analysis, IDS Working Paper 72, Sussex: Institute of Development Studies. Available online at

UNDP, Sustainable Livelihoods: Concepts, Principles and Approaches to Indicator Development, Available online at

Strongly Recommended:
FAO, (2009), The Livelihood Assessment Tool-kit: analyzing and responding to the impact of disasters on the livelihoods of people, Geneva, FAO, November, pp. 1-16 (methodological and conceptual overview). Available online at

Department for International Development (1999), Sustainable Livelihoods Guidance Sheets, London, Department for International Development.

Leach, M,  R. Mearns, and I. Scoones (1999), “Environmental Entitlements: dynamics and institutions in community-based natural resource management”, World Development27 (2): 225-247.

Rocheleau, D (1999), “Sustaining What for Whom? differences of interest within and between households”, in L. Upton Hatch and Marilyn Swisher, eds., Managed Ecosystems, New York: Oxford University Press. Pages: 31-47.

Week 8 (February 22): Reading Week—no class meeting.

Week 9 (March 1): Governance and Development

Nanda, Ved P (2006), “The ‘Good Governance Concept Revisited’, The Annals of the American Academy, 603, January 2006: 269-83. Available online via Scott.

DFID (2007), How to Note Country Governance Analysis: a DFID practice paper, London: Department of International Development, Pages: 8-23 plus annex 1. Available online at

Kaufmann, D and A. Kraay (2007), Governance Indicators: where are we, where should we be going? Washington D.C: World Bank. Pages: 1-29. Available online at

Strongly Recommended:
Leftwich, A (1993), “Governance, Democracy and Development in the Third World,” Third World Quarterly 14(3): 605-24.Available online at Scott.

WBI (2007), Governance Matters 2007: worldwide governance indicators: 1996-2007, Washington, D.C.: World Bank Institute.

Lloyd, R et. al. (2008), 2008 Global Accountability Report, One World Trust, (Please read the Global Accountability Report Indicators)  Available online at

DFID (2007), Governance, Development and Democratic Politics: DFID’s work in building more effective states, London: Department of International Development. Available online at
Neumayer, E (2003), The Pattern of Aid Giving: the impact of good governance on development, London: Routledge.

Moore, M (1993), “Declining to Learn from the East? The World Bank on “governance and development,” IDS Bulletin 24(1), 1993: 39-50.

Ottaway, M and T. Carothers eds. (2000), Funding Virtue: civil society aid and democracy promotion, Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
World Bank Institute (2007), The Worldwide Governance Indicators 1996-2006 ,Washington D.C.: World Bank Institute. Available online at

Week 10 (March 8): Strategic Environmental Assessment

OECD, (2006), “Understanding Strategic Environmental Assessment” in Applying Strategic Environmental Assessment Good Practice Guidance for Development Co-operation, Paris: OECD: pp; 29-40 Available online at

Dalal-Clayton, B and B Sadler, “Strategic Environmental Assessment: a rapidly evolving approach”. Available online at

Partidário, M. R (2007), “Scales and Associated Data: what is enough for SEA needs”? Environmental Impact Assessment Review 27(5): July: 460-78 available online at

Strongly Recommended:
Fischer, T (2003),“Strategic Environmental Assessment in Post-modern Times”,  Environmental Impact Assessment Review 23(2), March: 155-170. Available online via Scott.

Ahmed, K et al, (2005), Strategic Environmental Assessment: concept and practice, Environment Note 14, Washington. D.C: The World Bank: 1-4. Available online at,,contentMDK:20687523

World Bank, undated, Common SEA Tools: frequently used tools and techniques for SEAs,,

World Bank, undated, Key Elements of SEA. Available online at
OPICS/ENVIRONMENT/0,,contentMDK: 20707362~isCURL:Y~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:244381,00.html

Fischer, T (2007), Theory and Practice of Strategic Environmental Assessment: towards a more systematic approach, London, Earthscan.

Therivel, R and M. R. Paridario (1996), The Practice of Strategic Environmental Assessment, London: Earthscan.

Therivel, R (1993), “Systems of Strategic Environmental Assessment”, Environmental Impact Assessment 13(3):145-168.

Therivel R, W. E., Thompson, D. Heaney and D. Pritchard (1992), Strategic Environmental Assessment, London: Earthscan.

Week 11 (March 15): Evidenced-based Policy Making I: Results Based Management

Lavergne, R (2002), Results-Based Management and Accountability for Enhanced Aid Effectiveness, Mimeo, CIDA. Available online at

Jackson, E (1998), “Indicators of Change: Results-Based Management and participatory evaluation”, in Edward Jackson and Yusuf Kassam, eds., op. cit., chapter 3. Available online at

Strongly Recommended:
CIDA (2009), Results-based Management in CIDA: an introductory guide to the concepts and principles, Gatineau, Quebec. Available online at (Read section 2)

NORAD (1999), The Logical Framework Approach: handbook for objectives-oriented planning, 4th edition, Oslo: Royal Ministry of Foreign Affairs.


CIDA (1996), Results-Based Management in CIDA—a policy statement (Hull: CIDA),

AusAID, The Logical Framework Approach

Aune, J. B (2003), “Logical Framework Approach and PRA – mutually exclusive or complementary tools for project planning”, in Eade, D. ed., Development Methods and Approaches: critical reflections, London: Oxfam. Pages: 214-219.

Akroyd, D (1999), “Logical Framework Approach to Project Planning, Socio-economic Analysis and to Monitoirng and Evaluation Services: a smallholder rice project”, Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal 17(1): 54-66.

Eyben, R (2010), “Hiding Relations: the irony of 'effective aid'', European Journal of Development Research, 1-16. Available online at

Gibson, C. C, Andersson, K., Ostrom, E. and Shivakumar, S. (2005) The Samaritan's Dilemma: the political economy of development aid, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hayman, R (2009) “From Rome to Accra via Kigali: aid effectiveness' in Rwanda”, Development Policy Review, 27(5): 581-599.

Week 12 (March 22): Evidenced-based Policy Making II: Monitoring and Evaluation

World Bank (2004), Monitoring and Evaluation: some tools, methods and approaches, Washington D.C.: World Bank. Available online at

Kusek, J. Z (2008), “Ten Steps to a Results Based Monitoring and Evaluation System”
in Marco Segone ed. Bridging the Gap: The Role of Monitoring and Evaluation in Evidence-Based Policy Making, UNICEF, The World Bank and  the International Development Evaluation Association, pp: 98-116. Available online at

Strongly Recommended:
UNFPA, The Program Manager’s Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation Toolkit (please read the sections on Defining Evaluation (available online at and Planning and Managing Evaluation (available online at

Livingstone , A. J (1998), “Participatory Internal Monitoring and Evaluation Projects: a case study from Ghana’, in Edward Jackson and Yusuf Kassam, eds., op. cit.,  chapter 11: available online at

CIDA (2009), Results-based Management in CIDA: an introductory guide to the concepts and principles, Gatineau, Quebec. Available online at (Read sections 5 and 6)


Mackay, K (2007), How to Build Systems to Support Better Government, Washington D.C: World Bank.

Estrella, M and J. Gaventa (1998), Who Counts Reality? Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation: a literature review, IDS Working Paper No. 70.

Week 13 (March 29): Over view of the course and Final Exam

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