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Social Science 3801 6.0A
Understanding Development Planning and Management

Fall 2004 Class Room: FC 109
Thursdays 11:30-2:30
Instructor: Dr. Fahimul Quadir

Tel: 66937
E-mail: fquadir@yorku.ca

Office: 319 Founders College
Office Hours: Tuesdays : 9: 30 to 11:30 and by appointment

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This course offers a concise, yet critical and systematic analysis of development planning and management. It emphasizes a close link between development theory and practice, and thus aims to provide a deeper understanding of the processes by which development plans are formulated, projects are designed, and programs are implemented. Its main purpose is to demonstrate how the changing language of development requires appropriate tools and methods to more effectively plan and manage development at different levels—local, national, and international.

In addition to introducing traditional planning theories and/or planning techniques/models/methods, this course draws on the burgeoning literature on development practice to simply review the changing principles of development planning and evaluation. It aims to develop a comparative perspective on various planning structures in the developing world, many of them are currently in the process of moving towards, albeit slowly, participatory planning. In particular, this course focuses on the new innovative techniques designed to allow both governments and non-government organizations to work together to achieve the broader goals of sustainable human development in the 21 st century.

This course, thus, focuses on such key issues/topics as participation, gender, environment, democratic development, and development alternatives. Drawing on the analysis presented by scholars, policy-makers, and managers, it explores relevant case studies to identify the ways in which pro-people policies/projects/programs are both designed and implemented.

STRUCTURE OF THE CLASS

This course will be organized around a three-hour weekly session consisting of primarily lectures and presentations by class-members. In the first half, the class will meet for lectures on the topic at hand that will serve as the basis for understanding various issues central to development planning and evaluation. The second half will be devoted to mainly student-led presentations, where the class-members will have the opportunity to present group/individual projects on planning/evaluation related topics, themes, and concepts.

The course director will use the last few minutes to summarize the topic of the day. In both sessions, the class-members will be able to respond to a broad range of relevant issues on development planning.

COURSE REQUIREMENTS

You are expected to make efforts to do all assigned readings in advance of class and to submit the assignments on time. You will also need to demonstrate your serious interests in the field of Development Studies.

Participation :

Based on careful reading of source materials listed in the course outline , everyone is required to participate in and contribute to both class discussions and presentations. Participation grades will be based on contributions to class discussions and attendance records. More than four absences in the entire academic year (Fall and Winter) will result in a failure in the participation mark.

Presentation :

Each of you will be required to make at least two oral presentations to the class during the next 24 weeks. Given that the main purpose of this class is to make class-members familiar with the changing structures of development planning and management, I would expect you to focus on a specific development plan (this can be on a very specific issue, such as women, poverty reduction, environmental protection, and social justice) within a particular country. The plan can address either a macro or a micro level problem. Please note that development plans can be devised by either a government agency or an NGO.

Your task will include the following:

  1. Identify the objectives of the plan. How pragmatic are they? Does the plan address fundamental development challenges facing the country?
  2. Find out more about the ways (process) in which the plan was formulated? What techniques are used to reach out the ordinary citizens who often don’t get involved in planning.
  3. Who were the participants? How did the actors manage to develop a consensus?
  4. How is the plan financed? Are their any external actors involved in financing the plan?
  5. How the plan intends to monitor the progress of it?
  6. What would be your views on the plan?

Should you have any questions, please talk to your course director at your earliest convenience.

When preparing for your presentation, I would strongly encourage you to follow the guidelines noted below:

  • Regardless of the size of your group, you must not spend more than 45 minutes on presenting your analysis. The class is expected to use the remaining 30+ minutes to discuss various issues critical to your presentation. In other words, you have to manage time well, giving others an opportunity either to raise questions or to make meaningful comments. Be sure to distribute the allocated time equality among all the presenters;
  • You will be required to provide evidence that you have worked together, as a team rather than as an individual, on your presentation. Several weeks prior to the presentation, the group will meet to discuss, among other things, how the workloads will be distributed equally among all the team members. Please keep in mind that this assignment should provide you with an opportunity not only to get to know each other well, it also should allow you to learn from each other’s knowledge and experiences.
  • You will have to engage the other class-members in such ways that everyone gets an opportunity to actively participate in debates/discussions.

The presenter (s) will be encouraged to use overheads, videos, and other audio-visual aids simply to make the presentation both stimulating and interesting. The presenter (s) will also be required to submit a 3-page written summary (double-spaced) of the presentation topic in advance. Your summary will include, among other things, a brief review of the chosen plan, an assessment of the plan, and a bibliography of the works consulted.

In order to facilitate debates and/or discussions, the written summary must be submitted to the instructor via the Internet at least two days prior to the class at which it will be presented.

The presentation schedule will be finalized by the second week of this term.

Review of a country plan:

Each of the class-member will be required to submit what I would call an overview essay of the planning process of a development country of your choice, subject to the approval of the course director. Your main goal would be to provide a brief, yet through analysis of the history of development planning in that country. In your essay, you will identify, among other things, the following:

  1. approaches to development planning;
  2. the key objectives of planning;
  3. actors involved in planning;
  4. the process of financing and
  5. inconsistencies, if there are any.

Grades will be based on the quality of your research, your analysis, your understanding of the planning process, and the organization of your essay. This assignment will be approximately 10 pages in length, including the bibliography (double-spaced) and will be due on or before November 4, 2004 . Late essays will be marked down 5% per day.

Research essay (case study) :

You will be required to submit a research essay of a development plan that interests you most. Your purpose will be to explore a planning case involving a development challenge to provide a critical examination of the planning process used in your chosen case/plan. What goals it sought to achieve? Did the plan adopt a participatory technique? Did the plan involve any structures of engagement, mediation and negotiation? How successful were the planners in seeking and listening to the views of beneficiaries?

Grades will be based on the quality of your research, your analysis, your understanding of the planning process, and the organization of your essay. The essay should be no more than 12 pages in length, including the bibliography (double-spaced; the font size must be 12 points) which will be due on or before March 10, 2005 . Late essays will be marked down 5% per day.

Examinations :

There will be a mid-term and a final examination. Both the mid-term and final exams will be held in class on the on the last day of our meeting in each term (i.e. November 25, 2004 and for the Fall term and March 31, 2005 for the Winter term).

GRADE DISTRIBUTION

Review of a country plan: 15%
Research essay (case study): 20%
Mid-term: 15%
Final Exam: 20%
Oral presentation (10x2): 20%
Participation and Attendance: 10%

Please note that non-submission of work without an approved extension from the instructor will be accredited with the mark of "0". In order to receive a final grade, the class-member will have to receive a grade in each of the distributions noted above.

REQUIRED TEXT

The class will use a Course Kit which would include all the assigned readings for the fall term. You can access the Kit through Scott’s reserve section.

OTHER READINGS

The following list is expected to help class-members develop a better understanding of development planning. I would strongly encourage you to consult the following books on a regular basis:

Alexander, Ernest R., Approaches to Planning: introducing current planning theories, concepts and issues (New York: Gordon and Breach, 1986);

Beaudoux, E et al., Supporting Development Action (London: Macmillan, 1992);

Brinkerhoff, Derick W. and Benjamin L. Crosby, Managing Policy Reforms: concepts and tools for decision-makers in developing and transitioning countries ( Bloomfield , CT : Kumarian, 2002);

Caiden, Naomi and Aron Wildavosky, Planning and Budgeting in Poor Countries (London: Transaction Publishers, 1990);

Conyers, Daina and Peter Hills , An Introduction to Development Planning in the Third World (New York: John Wiley, 1984);

Cornwall , Andrea and Garett Pratt (eds.), Pathways to Participation: reflections on PRA ( London : ITDG, 2003);

Eade, Deborah, Capacity-Building: an approach to people-centered development (London: Oxfam, 1997);

Earl, Sarah et al, Outcome Mapping: building learning and reflection into development programs ( Ottawa : IDRC, 2001);

Flaudi, Andreas, A Reader in Planning Theory (Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1973);

Friedmann, John, Planning in the Public Domain: from knowledge to action (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987);

Horton, Douglas et al, Evaluating Capacity Development: experiences from research and development organizations around the world ( Ottawa : IDRC, 2003);

Kaufman, Michael and Haroldo Dilla Alfonso (eds.), Community Power and Grassroots Democracy: the transformation of social life (London: Zed books, 1997);

Lewis, David and Tina Wallace (eds.), New Roles and Relevance: development NGOs and the challenge of change ( Bloomfield , CT : Kumarian, 2000);

Macdonald, Mandy, Gender Planning in Development Agencies: meeting the challenge (London: Oxfam, 1994);

Saeed, Khalid, Development Planning and Policy Design (Aldershot, England: Avebury, 1994);

Slocum, Rachel et al. (eds.), Power, Process and Participation: tools for change (London: ITDG, 1995);

Smillie, Ian and John Hailey, Managing for Change: leadership, strategy and management in Asian NGOs ( London : Earthscan, 2001);

Veltmeyer, Henry and Anthony O’ Malley (eds.), Transcending Neoliberalism: community-based development in Latin America (Bloomfield, Kumarian, 2001);

Waterston, Albert, Development Planning: lessons of experience (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979);

Week One
Introduction to Planning: definitions and processes

  • Alexander, Ernest R., Approaches to Planning: introducing current planning theories, concepts and issues (New York: Gordon and Breach, 1986), pp. 39-63.*

Recommended:

  • Saeed, Khalid, Development Planning and Policy Design (Aldershot, England: Avebury, 1994), pp. 1-10.
  • Friedmann, John, Planning in the Public Domain: from knowledge to action (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987), pp. 19-48.

Week Two
The Meanings of Development Planning

  • Waterston, Albert, Development Planning: lessons of experience (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979), pp. 8-25.*

Recommended:

  • Robinson, John, “The Process of Planning: an introduction”, in UNESCO, Social Science Methods, Decision-making and Development Planning (Parris: UNESCO, 1984), pp. 9-20.
  • Conyers, Daina and Peter Hills , An Introduction to Development Planning in the Third World (New York: John Wiley, 1984), pp. 3-20.
  • Flaudi, Andreas, A Reader in Planning Theory (Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1973).

Week Three
The History of Planning in the Developing World

  • Conyers, Daina and Peter Hills, An Introduction to Development Planning in the Third World (New York: John Wiley, 1984), pp. 41-61.*

Recommended:

  • Waterston, Albert, Development Planning: lessons of experience (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979), pp. 28-76.
  • Higgins, B. and J.D. Higgins, “The Reluctant Partner: an overview of planning in developing countries”, in Cook, Wade D. and Tillo E. Kuhn, Caiden, Naomi and Aron Wildavosky, Planning and Budgeting in Poor Countries (London: Transaction Publishers, 1990), (New York: North-Holland Publishing, 1982), pp. 15-46.

Week Four
Classifying Development Plans

  • Waterston, Albert, Development Planning: lessons of experience (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979), pp. 103-143.*

Recommended:

  • Derman, William, and Scott Whiteford (eds.), Social Impact Analysis and Development Planning in the Third World (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1985).

Week Five
Development Planning: macro realities

  • Caiden, Naomi and Aron Wildavosky, Planning and Budgeting in Poor Countries (London: Transaction Publishers, 1990), pp. 167-206.*

Recommended:

  • Lyons, Thomas S. and Roger E. Hamlin, Creating an Economic Development Action Plan: a guide for development professionals (New York: Praeger, 1991), pp. 7-18.

Week Six
Development Planning: issues and challenges

  • Caiden, Naomi and Aron Wildavosky, Planning and Budgeting in Poor Countries (London: Transaction Publishers, 1990), pp. 207-238.*
  • Saeed, Khalid, Development Planning and Policy Design (Aldershot, England: Avebury, 1994), pp. 11-19.*

Recommended:

  • Cook, Wade D., “Project Selection and Priority Planning in Developing Countries: the impact of MS models”, in Cook, Wade D. and Tillo E. Kuhn, Planning Process in Developing Countries: techniques and achievements (New York: North-Holland Publishing, 1982), pp. 103-116.
  • Msambichaka, L.A. et al., “The Case of Tanzania), in UNESCO, Social Science Methods, Decision-making and Development Planning (Parris: UNESCO, 1984), pp.57-83.

Week Seven
The Process of Development Planning

  • Conyers, Daina and Peter Hills, An Introduction to Development Planning in the Third World (New York: John Wiley, 1984), pp. 67-87.*

Recommended:

  • Carley, M. Rational Techniques in Policy Analysis (London: Heinemann, 1980).
  • Faber, Mike and Dudley Seers (eds.), The Crisis in Planning (London: Chatto and Windus for Sussex University Press, 1972).
  • Waterston, Albert, Development Planning: lessons of experience (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979).

 

Week Eight
Making Plans Pragmatic: the notion of participatory budgeting

Recommended:

  • Caiden, Naomi and Aron Wildavosky, Planning and Budgeting in Poor Countries (London: Transaction Publishres, 1990), pp. 66-100.
  • Waterston, Albert, Development Planning: lessons of experience (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979), pp. 201-248.

Week Nine
Planning at the micro-level: decentralization of decision-making

  • Cohen, John M. and Stephen B. Peterson, Administrative Decentralization: strategies for developing countries (Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian, 1999), pp. 1-17.*
  • Alfonso, Haroldo Dilla, “Political Decentralization and Popular Alternatives: A view from the South”, in Kaufman, Michael and Haroldo Dilla Alfonso (eds.), Community Power and Grassroots Democracy: the transformation of social life (London: Zed books, 1997), pp. 170-188.*

Recommended:

  • Brinkerhoff, Derick W. and Benjamin L. Crosby, Managing Policy Reforms: concepts and tools for decision-makers in developing and transitioning countries ( Bloomfield , CT : Kumarian, 2002).
  • Veltmeyer, Henrey, “”Decentralizationa and Local Development”, in Veltmeyer, Henry and Anthony O’ Malley (eds.), Transcending Neoliberalism: community-based development in Latin America (Bloomfield, Kumarian, 2001), pp. 46-66.

Week Ten
Participatory Planning: community-based (economic) development

  • Anthony O’Malley, “”The Prospects for Community-Based Development”, in Veltmeyer, Henry and Anthony O’ Malley (eds.), Transcending Neo-liberalism: community-based development in Latin America (Bloomfield, Kumarian, 2001), pp. 205-19.*
  • The World Bank, The World Bank Participation S0urce Book (Washington, D.C: The World Bank, 1996), chapter three -- http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/sourcebook/sb0301t.htm

and

Recommended:

  • Aquiles Montoya, “Community Economic Development in El Salvador ”, in Veltmeyer, Henry and Anthony O’ Malley (eds.), Transcending Neo-liberalism: community-based development in Latin America (Bloomfield, Kumarian, 2001), pp. 154-183.
  • Kaufman, Michael, “Community Power, Grassroots Democracy, and the Transformation of social Life”, in Kaufman, Michael and Haroldo Dilla Alfonso (eds.), Community Power and Grassroots Democracy: the transformation of social life (London: Zed books, 1997), pp. 1-26.

 

Week Eleven
Giving People a Voice in planning at the Local Level: Civil Society and Non-governmental Organizations

  • Blair, Harry, “Civil Society, Empowerment, Democratic Pluralism, and Poverty Reuction: delivering the goods at national and local levels”, in Lewis, David and Tina Wallace (eds.), New Roles and Relevance: development NGOs and the challenge of change ( Bloomfield , CT : Kumarian, 2000), pp. 109-119.*
  • Lara, Silvia and Eugenia Molina, “Participation and Popular Democracy in the Committees for the Struggle for Housing in Costa Rica ”, in Kaufman, Michael and Haroldo Dilla Alfonso (eds.), Community Power and Grassroots Democracy: the transformation of social life (London: Zed books, 1997), pp. 27-54.*

Recommended:

  • Macdonald, Laura, “NGOs and the Discourse of Participatory Development in Costa Rica ”, in Veltmeyer, Henry and Anthony O’ Malley (eds.), Transending Neoliberalism: community-based development in Latin America (Bloomfield, Kumarian, 2001), pp. 125-153.
  • Crowther, Sarah, “NGOs and Local Organizations: a mismatch of goals of practice”, in Lewis, David and Tina Wallace (eds.), New Roles and Relevance: development NGOs and the challenge of change ( Bloomfield , CT : Kumarian, 2000), pp.165-176.

 

Week Twelve

Mid-term exam

*Please note that articles/book chapters with an asterisk mark are included in the Course Packet.