Democratic Administration:

               Public Administration and Democracy

                            R.W. Phidd
                 Department of Political Science
                       University of Guelph

                      Lecture presented to:

                        Ian Greene s Class
         Department of Political Science, York University
                          September 2002

                   (Revized July-October 2003)
                         (March 9, 2005)
                   Special Luncheon Address to
                       Faculty and Students

               Democratic Administration in Canada

                         Summary Overview

a    The Public Service and Democracy

b    Approaches to Public Sector Management

c    The Role of the State in Modern Capitalist Societies

d    The Varieties of Representation (Representative Bureaucracy)

e    The Public Service and Ethical Imperatives

f    Democracy and the Administrative State

g    Democratic Values

h    The Role of the Public Service in Modern Democratic
     Societies - Institutional Characteristics

i    The Growth of the Administrative State in Canada, 1867-2002
     - Number and types of departments and other organizations

j    The Performance of Functional Responsibilities - From
     Hodgetts  Classification to Kim Campbell, 1867-1970, 1993-2002

Public Sector Management, Development, Change and Adaptation

a    The Contribution of Organization Theories to Public Sector

b    The Contribution of the Structural School - To the Design of
     the Public Sector, Efficiency

c    The Contribution of Organization Change Theories -
     Responding to a Turbulent Environment, Managing Change

d    The Contribution of Selected Agenda Documents - Political
     and Managerial Responses

e    The Central Agencies: Roles and Responsibilities

f    Selected Case Studies within Functional Areas - Illustrative
     a    Public Security and External Relations
     b    Transportation, Communications and Culture
     c    The Coordination of Government Services
     d    Conservation and Development Initiatives
     e    Protection and Development of Human Resources

a    The 1993 Classification:
     a    Public Security
     b    Canadian Heritage
     c    Government Services
     d    National Revenue
     e    Natural Resources
     f    Industry and Science
     g    Human Resources and Labour
     h    Health

a    The Response of Public Sector Organizations to Environmental

a    The Contribution of Selected Public Sector Organizations:
     a    The Foreign Affairs and International Trade Response
     b    The Transportation Response
     c    The Central Management Response - The Treasury Board
          Secretariat within the Central Management System
     d    The Industrial Response - Industry Canada
     e    The Human Resources Development Response
     f    The Health System Response
     g    The Performance of Horizontal Roles (setting policy
     h    The Accountability Challenge within the Public Sector -
          the Auditor General and Related Institutions

a    Identifying Different State Responsibilities

     Some Political and Managerial Issues:
     a    The Division of Labour and Public Participation
     a    Bureaucracy and Democracy
     b    Politics and Administration: Politicians and
          Bureaucrats - The Canadian Model
     c    Planning, Corporatism, Managerialism, Pluralism and
          Democracy: Some Competing Principles in Public Sector
               Democratic Administration in Canada
The Public Service and Democracy

An interesting topic which arises in the study of public services
throughout the world relates to the relationship between the
professional public service and the development of democracy. In
the Canadian context, the question can be posed: To what extent
can we relate the emergence of the contemporary public service
(2002) to the functioning of democracy? There has emerged, a
specialized literature in the study of public administration
which relates the role of the public service to the effective
functioning of a democratic society. The topic has been
approached from the perspectives of the study of bureaucracy, the
administrative state and management (and most recently, from the
perspective of new public management). A number of scholars have
addressed the topic. Some notable examples are: Eva Etzioni-Halevy,
Bureaucracy and Democracy, Douglas Yates, Bureaucratic
Democracy, F. Mosher, Democracy in the Public Service, Louis
Gawthrop, Public Service and Democracy, and H.T. Wilson,
Bureaucratic Representation, Civil Servants and the Future of
Capitalist Democracies. These authors represent some attempts to
address the issue.

In the approach adopted, it is asserted that the maintenance of
democracy, i.e. the perpetuation of a democratic society,
requires an array of institutional arrangements to support such a
style of governance and that the existence of professional public
service is one of the central institutional mechanisms which
facilitates the continuation of the system outlined, by way of
illustration, an electoral system, a legislative system, elected
officials, an executive, a public service, a legal system, a
private sector and the provision of mechanisms for public
participation. There is also the issue of how the various
institutional mechanisms relate to each other, e.g. the public,
private and voluntary sectors. The dynamic interplay of the
components are reflected in longitudinal studies. Elsewhere, this
author has addressed the issue from the perspective of the
relationship between political parties, the private sector and
the most recent challenge of contemporary public service reform.
The concern with democracy is evident in the evolution of the
public service. This approach can be related to the new
institutionalism. The subject can be addressed from the
perspective of ideals versus reality.

Approaches to Public Sector Management

In the discussion of the professional public service, we are
concerned with the changing role of the state. Elsewhere, this
author has reviewed at least five perspectives: 1) the
administrative state, 2) the public bureaucracy, 3) the
management, 4) the public management, and 5) the new public

The five perspectives depict shifts in emphasis with respect to
the theory and practice of public administration. It is important
to note that these developments are also associated with the
creation and function of some important institutions and can be
captured within the context of the new institutionalism.

         The Economy and Society - The State and Society

A review of the literature on public administration demonstrates
that there are some dominant approaches which have been
emphasized during the 20th century:

1    The Administrative State Approach, which emphasizes the
     growth of public sector organizations and officials who
     formulate policies and programs which affect the lives of

2    The Public Bureaucracy Approach, which applies the concept
     of bureaucracy to the activities of the state. The emphasis
     is on the politics of bureaucracy and/or expertise. The
     state is seen as the organization which most clearly
     reflects the phenomenon labelled bureaucracy;

3    The Management Approach, which evolved out of the scientific
     management principles and, subsequently, applied to
     government through the reports of the Brownlow Committee and
     the Hoover and Glassco Commissions in the United States and
     Canada -  let the managers manage ;

4    The Public Management Approach, with relates to the
     application of management principles to public sector
     management, is associated with the best use of resources in
     the pursuit of objectives subject to change. It should be
     noted that there has been an evolution from scientific
     management to the contingency theory of management;

5    The New Public Management Approach, which emphasizes the
     provision of high quality services to citizens, increased
     autonomy of officials, the assignment of rewards based on
     performance, the provision of human and technological
     support mechanisms to facilitate the attainment of
     performance targets and the encouragement of competition
     within the public sector as well as between the public and
     private sectors to enhance performance standards.
The five perspectives depict shifts in emphasis with respect to
the theory and practice of public administration. We will review
the influence of a variety of theoretical perspectives on the
five dominant approaches listed above.

See R.W. Phidd, Public Sector Management in Canada: Development,
Change and Adaptation (York University: Captus Press, 2001. See
especially Chapter 1  The Institutional Setting of Public Sector
Management in Canada , pp. 9-40). From Glassco to Results for
Canadians, 2003.
The subject may also be approached from at least two opposing
perspectives. First, reference can be made to R. Bendix, Nation-Building and Citizenship which deals with the issue of
citizenship - the impact of industrialization on public
participation in western democracies.  We should examine the
relationship between public service and citizenship. Second,
Bendix has also addressed the issue of democracy from the
perspective of the role societal managers perform in society. See
R. Bendix, Higher Civil Servants in American Society. Here we are
concerned with the role of senior public officials in societal
management - top down and bottom up management. We are also
concerned with the role of two major institutions in society;
with political parties and with the public service. See Eva
Etzioni-Halevy, Political Manipulation and Administrative Power,
H.T. Wilson, Bureaucratic Representation: Civil Servants and the
Future of Capitalist Democracies. Because of the very special
relationship between politicians and the senior public service,
it is most important to examine the interaction between them.
This requires more careful examination between political parties
and the public service. Brian Chapman considers this to be an
important dimension of the  profession of government . Here it is
important to examine the relationship between politicians and the
higher public service. We are concerned with the role of the
Executive in a cabinet parliamentary system of government. In
this respect, we can compare and contrast the Canadian system
with the American system. It would be useful to conduct a
comparative study of the two systems.

The Role of the Public Service in Parliamentary and Presidential

How do they identify the role of the public service? Comparison
of the role of the public service in Canada, the United States
and Britain.

We are also concerned with the role of the public service as an
important institution in Canadian society (see, for example, J.E.
Hodgetts, The Canadian Public Service: The Physiology of
Government). The cabinet parliamentary system.

Gordon Osbaldeston s Organizing to Govern complements J.E.
Hodgetts  treatment of the Canadian public service with his focus
and emphasis on departments. Osbaldeston exphasizes the creation
of public sector organizations between the 1940's and the 1990's.
Hodgetts  analysis was completed in the late 1960's. Osbaldeston
s work was done in the early 1990's. Consequently, they provide a
comprehensive analysis of the development of Canadian public
sector organizations.

American public administration dealt with the challenge of
administration at an early stage in the nation s development in
the attempt to separate politics from administration. An attempt
was made to distinguish the political sphere from the
administrative sphere in a system designed by way of the
separation of powers (the U.S. tradition). It should be
emphasized that the system generates a different style of
bureaucratic politics.

The European tradition saw the emergence of the legal-rational
model of bureaucracy, the development of law and secular science
and the development of institutions such as the monarchy and the
rule of law. However, on both continents, the emergence of
industrialization led to forms of representation, bureaucratic
politics and the politics of expertise. Accordingly, the issue of
bureaucratic politics has been one of continuing concern. It is
possible to discuss the emergence of democracy as part of the
politics of bureaucracy. Douglas Yates, for example, has
addressed this issue in his book, Bureaucratic Democracy: The
Search For Democracy and Efficiency in American Government. The
issue is always present in the delegation of authority and in the
design of public organizations - in the variety of organizational

     a    collective ministerial responsibility; and
     b    individual ministerial responsibility.

We are concerned with the role of the public service in economic
development - in the process of industrialization. In so doing,
we are concerned with the role of the state in society. The role
of the state in capitalist societies. We are concerned with the
relationship between the state and markets.

The Role of the State in Modern Capitalist Societies

The study of public administration can be approached from a
variety of perspectives. This is especially significant if we
approach it from the perspective of democracy. The study of
bureaucracy is a rather complex field, and, accordingly, should
not be approached in a simplistic way. This is implicit in the
title of my review of the literature under the heading,  From
Bureaucracy to New Public Management  (R.W. Phidd, Chapters 1-5).
The analysis includes a discussion of bureaucracy, scientific
management, human relations, organizational change, and
management, among other approaches. Accordingly, we have
witnessed a variety of conceptualizations of society under
headings such as bureaucracy, administrative state, management,
and new public management. What are the concerns of organization
theories and democratic theories?

     Organization Theories         Democratic Theories

     Bureaucracy                   Bureaucracy and Democracy

     The Administrative State      Democracy in the
                                   Administrative State

     Management                    Management in a Democratic

     New Public Management         Citizens as Clients and
                                   Citizens in a
                              Democratic Society
Parliament and the Public Service - The Cabinet-Parliamentary
System of Government

Regardless of the change in terminology with respect to the
conceptualization of public administration, there has been a
consistent concern with the democratic dimensions. This means
that we must clarify the meaning of these concepts if we are
going to have an effective discussion of the topic. Within the
context of the cabinet-parliamentary system, we are concerned
with the role of parliament with the public and with citizens.

By way of illustration, Greg McElligott s, Beyond Service: State
Workers, Public Policy and the Prospects for Democratic
Administration, adopts the position  that government
accountability is best delivered through an informed and active
citizenry . The approach de-emphasizes the conservative corporate
vision of contemporary auditors. It suggests that resources
should be allocated to support an unprecedented degree of
participation. Greater access should be given to those who need
access to the state s resources. From this perspective, two of
the most significant obstacles are hierarchy and business
influence. The study draws on the experience of the Employment
and Immigration Commission (1976-1991). The author suggests that
the street level participants within the department forced links
with their client communities. Frontline workers exercised their
discretion in the interest of their clients. At the Employment
and Immigration Commission, the union organized coalitions of
frontline workers and clients to fight service reductions and
cutbacks. Greg McElligott suggests that  the approach can point
toward more inclusive and democratic forms of accountability and
service delivery . His work suggests that  there is resistence to
neo-conservatism and that there is still room to dream of a world
beyond degraded public services, passive consumers, and
unaccountable managers . See Greg McElligott, Beyond Service:
State Workers, Public Policy and the Prospects for Democratic
Administration (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002). How
do we develop an informed citizenry? This is the central
challenge for democratic public administration.

The Varieties of Representation (Representative Bureaucracy)

An important issue which emerges in the study of public
administration and democracy relates to bureaucratic
representation. Sociologists have captured this in the study of
stratification. As industrialization takes place, more and more
highly educated citizens are employed in the public service. They
become involved in policy-making. The discussion of bureaucracy
is part of a complex process related to the establishment of a
professional public service as part of the development of
capitalism and the process of industrialization.

                [Insert data on public employment]

Accordingly, the growth of public employment can be related to
increased public participation. Some have referred to this as
bureaucratic democracy. The issue of bureaucratic representation
can be dealt with in a more dynamic way. This issue is
effectively addressed in Tom Wilson s book, Bureaucratic
Representation: Civil Servants and the Future of Capitalist

An analysis along this line requires that we pay attention to the
role which the public service performs in economic development
and in the building of democracy. This requires that we adopt a
longitudinal analysis for our comprehending the role of the
public service in Canadian society. Here we are concerned with
the growth in the number and types of public organizations and
with the number of public employees. By way of illustration, it
is interesting to discuss the role which the Canadian public
service performed in the four decades between the 1930's and the
1960's. See, for example, F. Kaliske, Canadian Economic Policy
Since the War, also Doug Owram, The Government Generation,
Canadian Intellectuals, and the State, J.E. Hodgetts, The
Canadian Public Service.

The subject can be effectively captured from the perspective of
democracy. Redford, for example, contrasts the tenets of
democracy with the tenets of administration. This requires that
we explore the institutional imperatives of public administration
in democratic societies. Robert Denhardt s two books advocate a
commitment to democratic values: Theories of Public Organization,
2nd edition (Wadsworth, 1993), quote p. 229,  Managing Change in
Pursuit of Public Values , see pp. 229-230; The Pursuit of
Significance: Strategies for Managerial Success in Public
Organizations, the transformation of bureaucracies.

The Public Service, Democracy, Values and Ethical Imperatives

The issue has been picked up recently by Louis C. Gawthrop,
Public Service, Democracy, Ethical Imperatives for the 21st

Democracy and the Administrative State (Emmette Redford)

1    The tenet of individual realization holds that persons are
     the units of value in social arrangements, emphasizes the
     need to uphold human values;
2    the tenet of equalitarianism holds that all men deserve
     social recognition; and
3    the tenet of universal participation holds that liberty
     exists only through participation either in decision-making
     or in the control of leaders who make decisions.

Emmette S. Redford considers individual realization
equalitarianism and participation as three critical elements of
democratic morality. Furthermore, he considers democratic
morality as a major component of the political system. He
contrasts these features with the institutional features of the
administrative state; namely, structural specialization,
strategic positions and interaction. He is concerned with
individuals within institutions, the performance of official
roles, personal stakes, professionalization, and a large group on
non-leaders. Overall, Redford is concerned with the manner in
which the political system is designed to make decisions and the
manner in which it impacts on individuals. From the perspective
of democracy, the system functions effectively only if adequate
institutional mechanisms exist to protect the rights of

Louis Gawthrop refers to the  covenant of democracy . In the
context of public sector organizations, the covenant of democracy
is to remind civil servants of the close vigilance required if
the intricately devized system of democracy is to function
effectively. If public administrators are to move toward the
common good, they must be prepared to manage our covenant
treasure of democratic values and virtues that infuse our
democratic ethos over the years. However, our democratic values
have been compressed into simplistic slogans by the passions of
political rhetoric. Democratic values require commitment to
freedom, equality, justice and responsibility. The system is
significantly influenced by professional responsibility. See
Louis C. Gawthrop, Public Service, Democracy, Ethical Imperatives
for the 21st Century. (See the appendix in this paper).

Democratic Values
a    freedom
a    equality
a    justice
a    responsibility
a    professional responsibility

The Accountability Challenge

In my own work, I have attempted to look at the role of the
Canadian public service in terms of change and adaptation. In so
doing, I have drawn on the work of Professor J.E. Hodgetts, The
Canadian Public Service. The Physiology of Government. The public
service is captured in terms of its performance of functional
responsibilities such as public security and external relations,
transportation, communications and culture, coordination of
services for the public organization, conservation, development
and utilization of natural resources and the protection and
development of human resources. The public service is seen as a
major employer and it contributes to the well-being of Canadian
citizens. The public service is a major institution which
responds to demands from citizens within the following functional

1    Public Security and External Relations;
2    Public Works, Transportation and Communication;
3    Coordination and Services to Government;
4    Conservation, Development and Promotion of Physical
     Resources; and
5    The Protection and Development of Human Resources.

How do we hold the public service accountable for meeting these

The White Paper on Employment and Income was the starting point
for a more democratic society.

Two distinctive dimensions of public sector management emerged in
the 1960's which continued into the new millennium. First, there
was the management dimension which commenced with the
recommendations of the Glassco Commission in 1962. Second, there
was the social policy orientation which emanated from the
creation of the Special Planning Secretariat in the Privy Council
Office in 1963. The managerial emphasis was further reflected in
the planning, programing and budgeting systems in 1969, the
Lambert Commission on Financial Management and Accountability in
1979, the PS2000 Task Force in 1989, the Expenditure Management
System in 1995, and in Results for Canadians in 2000. The social
policy orientation was reflected in the Munro Anti-Poverty Review
in 1968, the 1971 Unemployment Insurance Reform, the Marc Lalonde
Orange Book, Income Security Reform (Guaranteed Annual Income
Proposals) in 1976, the Ministry of State for Social Development
as a parallel organization to the Ministry of State for Economic
and Regional Development in 1979, in the Social Policy Review in
the early 1990's and in the creation of the Department of Human
Resources Development in 1993. These two dimensions of public
sector management will be discussed further in the 2002 and
beyond period. The emphasis on human resources management led to
strong reactions from the financial management community and the
business community which influenced a change in philosophy in the
1980's. Accordingly, the emergence of the new public management
approach was in response to the growth in the deficit and in the
view held in some quarters that the system could not support the
level of public expenditures on human resources that had

The Role of the Public Service in Modern Democratic Societies

Public employees contribute to the well-being of Canadian society
in a variety of ways. We can relate organization theories to
public administration. These theories can be related to
democratic theories. Accordingly, the study of public
administration is a natural part of the study of democracy. The
growth of public sector organizations must be associated with the
development of specialized skills. As a result, when we list the
number of departments and agencies in the public sector, we are
also capturing the growth and use of professional expertise. It
is hypothesized that the contribution of this professional
expertise adds to the dynamics of democracy. As we review the
list of public sector organizations, it is important to note that
professional public officials perform the following roles, among

1    they provide professional expertise;
2    they give continuous attention to problems;
3    they exercise discretion and judgement; and
4    they mobilize constituencies in an endeavour to solve

Let s reflect on the performance of these roles as we review the
evolution of public organizations during the 20th century. (Note
the list of departments and the functions which they perform).
The relationship between the creation of organizations and the
nature of democratic participation can be used to capture the
style of state-society relations. This relationship can also be
expressed in functional terms. The reorganization of the public
sector must be seen as an intricate part of the realignment of
expertise in response to external demands. Elsewhere, this author
has referred to long, as well as short, cycles of change and
reform: 1867-1970, 1970-1993 and 1993-2003. We should relate
public sector and public service reform to democratic
                 Government Departments, 1867 and
Government Departments in 1867 Government Departments in 1997
Inland Revenue
Marine and Fisheries
Militia and Defence
Post Office
Privy Council Office
Public Works
Receiver General
Secretary of State
Secretary of State for Provinces Agriculture and Agri-Food
Canadian Heritage
Citizenship and Immigration
Fisheries and Oceans
Foreign Affairs and
International Trade
Human Resources Development
Indian Affairs and Northern
Atlantic Canada Opportunities
Federal Office of Regional
Development -
Western Economic Diversification
National Defence
National Revenue
Natural Resources
Public Works and Government
Solicitor General
Veterans Affairs
Central Agencies
Privy Council Office
Prime Minister s Office
Treasury Board Secretariat

In my analysis of the Canadian public service, I have tried to
identify the contribution of major functional sectors such as the
foreign service, the transportation regulatory system - public
safety, the emergence of human resources and expenditure
management, the role of the public sector in influencing
industrial development, and in the protection and development of
human resources. Public sector management can be captured within
major functional areas. This approach provides a more functional
approach to assessing democratic accountability than through the
normal electoral system.                      Changes in Governmental
Functions (Long Cycles and Short
Hodgetts  Typology (1867-1970)
Five Functional Areas

1    Public Security and
     External Relations, e.g.
     Foreign Affairs and
     International Trade
2    Public Works,
     Communication, Culture,
     e.g. Transport
3    Coordination and Services
     for Public Organizations,
     e.g. Treasury Board
4    Conservation, Development
     and Promotion of Physical
     Resources, e.g., Industry
5    Protection and Development
     of Human Resources, e.g.,
          Health and Welfare Kim Campbell s Reforms (1993)
Eight Functional Areas

1    Public Security

2    Canadian Heritage

3    Government Services
4    National Revenue

5    Natural Resources
6    Industry and Science

7    Human Resources and Labour
     8    Health

Public Sector Mangement: Development, Change and Adaptation -
Democratic Dimensions

We must address the following question. What role does the modern
public service perform in the contemporary challenge of change
and adaptation in the21st century?

R.W. Phidd, Public Sector Management in Canada: Development,
Change and Adaptation. This book looks at change and adaptation
in the Canadian public sector. In the analysis of public sector
management, we adopt the following perspectives, all of which can
be associated with a movement toward democratization.

The Contribution of Organization Theories to our Understanding of
the Canadian Public Sector

a    the contribution of classical theories - bureaucracy and
     scientific management;
b    the contribution of the human relations school;
c    the contribution of the decision-making school;
d    the contribution of theories of management;
e    the contribution of the open systems theory school;
f    the focus on the relationship between organizations and
     their environment;
g    the role leaders and leadership plays in managing change.

See  Prime Ministerial Leadership, Public Service and
Administrative Reform in Canada .

The Contribution of Organization Theories to Public

Organization theories are intricately related to the study of
politics. Here we need to look at the contributions of political
theories to public administration and public policy.

We can use three theoretical contributors to illustrate this

1    Peter Self, Administrative Theories and Politics;
2    Robert Denhardt, Theories of Public Organizations; and
3    Desmond Keeling, Management in Government.

Peter Self wrote an interesting book which related theories of
the administrative process to the actual functioning of different
governmental systems; from the British, American and French
systems. He addressed issues related to the politics of
administration. At the time of writing, Peter Self adopted the
position that there was too little relation of theories to
practice in the study of public administration. Yet, as Self
pointed out, almost everywhere the study of public administration
had developed as an off-shoot of either political science or
public law. Accordingly, the objective of his book was to extend
the study of politics more effectively into the administrative

As he pointed out, the political executive almost everywhere was
concerned with controlling the bureaucracy. This led to conflict
between the political and the managerial views of the
administrative process. To quote Peter Self:

     A basic theme of this book is the conflict between
     political and managerial views of the administrative
     process. The study of administration could be viewed as
     a battleground between the contending perspectives of
     the political scientist and the organization or
     management theorists; but the potential contestants are
     on such different wave-lengths that the battle is
     rarely joined. The fact that public administration is
     the cinderella of political science and of organization
     theories also helps to explain this failure of contact.
     (see Peter Self, Administrative Theories and Politics,
     pp. 14-15).

In Administrative Theories and Politics, Self traces the
evolution of theories from scientific management to the
endorsement of planning theories and the use of system theories
and their application to decision-making. He further extends the
analysis to policy-making.

The application of theories is subsequently applied to the design
of government - organizing on the basis of principles such as by
purpose, place, clientele, process and goals. In recognition of
the fact that organizations must respond to constituencies, there
is always the need for adaptation which takes place in one or
several of at least three ways:

     i    through the horizontal proliferation of departments and
     ii   through a vertical shift of specialized functions from
          lower to higher levels of government; and
     iii  through the creation of semi-detached agencies or
          boards to carry out specialized tasks. (Self, p. 80).

The above-mentioned organizational challenges lead to one of the
most interesting of administrative phenomena; competition and
conflict between departments or agencies. At this point, we can
see the competing principles from political pluralism and
managerialism (the latter with its emphasis on rational
allocation) and on the coordination of functions. From this
perspective, we are led to address issues associated with agency
philosophies and policy conflicts which usually result in
administrative reorganization. Some important issues which emerge
in public administration are associated with principles related
to staff and line, cabinet coordination of specialized tasks and
alternative ways of coordinating activities such as policy
coordination, resources coordination and technical coordination
(Self, p. 136). There are a number of competing principles. Peter
Self s work shows that the relationship between politics and
administration is concerned primarily with ends and means - the
clash between elected representatives or officials and
professional administrators and/or advisers. This leads to the
study of political, administrative and managerial roles.

Robert Denhardt s analysis of public organizations helps us to
explain the phenomenon of change - managing change in the pursuit
of objectives subject to change. His approach suggests the need
for a movement toward a democratic theory of public

Toward A Democratic Theory of Public Administration

     Managing Change in Pursuit of Public Values - A
     discipline, both in the academic sense and in the
     practical sense, is formed by the possibility of
     theoretical coherence within a given field. It is now
     possible to develop such coherence in the study of
     public organizations by centering on those in public
     organizations as managing change in pursuit of publicly
     defined societal values. Such a definition suggests an
     integration of the perspectives provided by political
     science and organization analysis (as well as those of
     other disciplines that contribute to the study) by
     acknowledging the importance of change processes in
     organizational contexts and the responsibility of
     managers to deal effectively with such processes. At
     the same time, it suggests the important role of those
     in public organizations in influencing public life and
     their responsibility to manage such an impact in a way
     consistent with democratic standards (p. 182).

Denhardt went on to emphasize that public organizations should be
required by definition to act in accord with democratic
procedures and to seek democratic outcomes. For we commit
ourselves to the expression of publicly defined societal values
if we can do no less. Therefore, a theory of democratic
administration, a semi-neglected counterpoint in public
administration theory, must now come to the forefront. The work
of such theorists as Waldo, Golembiewski, Ostrom, Harmon,
Denhardt, and the new public administrationists, all point in
this direction. Although this work has, from time to time, been
pushed aside in the rush toward science and technology, it
remains very important to the field of public organizations
today, for it best expresses the moral commitment of our
discipline. And it is the moral commitment that is implied in
human action that practitioners cannot escape (pp. 182-183).

Desmond Keeling s Management in Government takes the above
analysis one step further. He explores the relationship between
management, administration, diplomacy and policy-making. He
formulates a systems approach to the public service and, as a
result, distinguishes administration, management and diplomatic
systems and roles in government. According to Keeling, the
administration system lies at the end of the system, closest to
the judicial systems. The management system pays more attention
to the achievement of goals and targets. The management system is
expected to be more active. The management system has evolved
primarily since the 1960's. The diplomatic system is likely to
display the qualities needed to succeed in negotiations - it
emphasizes very broad long-term aims and detailed short-term
tactical goals - which may not only change but can be reversed
readily. Keeling concludes that these different systems possess
primary tasks, are complementary and together, they determine the
character of the total system. Keeling examines the prospects
for, and the types of, change which is likely to take place in
the public service. Self, Denhardt and Keeling provide insights
to the nature of democratic change in contemporary public

They help us to understand the design of government and the
significance of  professionalism. In addition, they assist with
our understanding of how public sector organizations respond to
challenges from their environment. In Canada, we can capture this
from assessing the impact from Glassco to Results for Canadians.

The Contribution of the Structural School to Our Understanding of
the Design and Adaptation of Organizations

a    the focus on departments, central agencies and line
b    the focus on boards and commissions;
c    the focus on alternative delivery systems.

Organizational design influences the performance of the role of
the state.

The Contribution of Organizational Change Theories to Our
Understanding of Change and Adaptation

a    the role of political parties;
b    the role of the Prime Minister and Cabinet in public
c    the role of the cabinet committees in the formulation of
d    the roles of the above in relation to the private sector;
e    the public service and citizens.

The adaptation of public sector organizations illustrates the
nature of the changes taking place in society. This can be
captured in terms of political parties and prime ministers
responding to citizen demands.

Public Policy Perspectives: Democratic Decentralization and

One of the major issues which emerge in the design of the state
and in the formulation of public policy is the appropriate mix
between centralization and decentralization. By way of
illustration, the Glassco Commission advocated both
centralization and decentralization under the headings - managing
at the centre and managing at the departmental level. With
respect to policy formulation, reference must be made to the role
of the agenda documents.

The Contribution of Selected Agenda Documents to the Formulation
and Development of Policy - Assessing the Agenda-Setting Process
a    the Speech from the Throne;
b    the Revenue Budget;
c    the Expenditure Plan.

What role do citizens play in the agenda-setting process?

The above listed documents depict the strategies adopted by the
Executive Branch. From this perspective, we can capture the
manner in which the Prime Minister and Cabinet respond to
environmental challenges. This is most clearly reflected in the
planning and priority-setting process and in the revenue and
expenditure budgetary processes.

The Debate over the Budget Process: The Demand for Opening-Up the

We examine the application of the above listed agenda documents
to selected areas of Canadian public sector management. We can
identify an opening-up of the process of decision-making. By way
of illustration, we conduct specialized organizational case
studies within selected functional areas to demonstrate these
changes (an organization behaviour analysis of public sector
management in selected areas and the associated consultation
a    Foreign Affairs and International Trade;
b    Transport Canada;
c    The Treasury Board Secretariat, Human Resources Development,
     Financial Management and Management in Government;
d    Industry Canada;
e    Human Resources Development;
f    Health Canada.

Within this framework political leaders and administrators
continually define and redefine the public agenda. The case
studies demonstrate this. The system is continuously changed
through reorganization and adaptation of the organizations

The above can be presented in a somewhat different way. How did
the Canadian political system, and concomitantly, how did the
Canadian public service respond to a variety of challenges from
the international and domestic environments; especially in the
areas of foreign and trade policy, transportation, services to
government, industrial development, and in human resources
development and health sectors of society? We capture this
through an analysis of the performance of the organizations
listed above in the manner in which they provide services to

In addition, the public sector also deals with fiscal policy,
human resources management within the public sector and with
issues of responsibility, accountability and control.
Accordingly, the study explores the following dimensions of
public sector management.

The Contribution of Selected Public Sector Organizations to
Horizontal Policy Issues (the setting of priorities)

a    fiscal policy formulation process;
b    the management of human resources within the public sector.

The Accountability Challenge within the Public Sector
(Parliamentary Institutions)

a    the Chief Electoral Officer;
b    the Auditor General.

The last mentioned issues are concerned in a very direct way with
the democratic process and with issues of responsibility and
accountability. How do we get the system, just described, to
operate in a manner consistent with the tenets of democracy? This
requires a system of institutional relationships to sustain and
support it. Let s turn our attention to these concerns - to the
extent to which the study of democracy permeates the study of
public administration - through the accountability of
organizations to parliament and the public. There are a number of
organizations linked to the parliamentary system which can
capture the adaptation of the legislative system.

The Division of Work and Participation - Democracy and the Public

It is somewhat surprising that democracy is so closely related to
administration; the phenomenon of administrative competition and
coordination. However, this becomes obvious when it is recognized
that the great bulk of decisions and actions taken by governments
are determined, or heavily influenced, by administrative
officials, most of whom are appointed, not elected. The decisions
are affected by the capabilities, orientation, and training of
the officials, among other things. (This leads to a system of
bureaucratic democracy).

The division of work into administrative units leads to the
representation of a variety of groups associated with the
specialized divisions. Accordingly, we are concerned with both
expertise and representativeness. The public sector is organized
into specialized divisions such as:

a    a Department of Agriculture for farmers;
b    a Department of Labour for workers;
c    a Department of Commerce for business, etc., among others.

There is also the issue of employee participation in decisions
which provide another form of representation. Public personnel
management can be examined as a continuous process of
democratization throughout the 20th century.  Several issues
emerge in the discussion of democracy in the public service.
Accordingly, Frederick Mosher identifies the following issues,
among others:
a    education and the public service;
b    the changing concept of the civil service during the 20th
c    the emergence of government by managers;
d    the professional state;
e    three systems of merit;
f    the growth of collective bargaining in the public service;
g    merit, morality and the public service.

They represent different aspects of modernization of human
resources management in the public service during the 20th
century. We can relate this to Bill C-25, The Public Service
Modernization Legislation, the initiatives to make the public
service more efficient and effective.

The above listed issues are indicative of some major concerns in
any meaningful examination of democracy and the public service.
The evolution of the public service demonstrates a grappling with
such issues. (See, for example, Patricia Wallace Ingraham, The
Foundation of Merit: Public Service in America. In this regard,
we must review the evolution of the human resources management
system during the 20th century and the efforts being made to
improve them in the 21st century.

Bureaucracy and Democracy: A Dilemma

Eva Etzioni-Halevy has presented the other side of the democratic
process. She has examined the role of elites in the democratic
process. The author has referred to the holding of elections as a
measure of democracy. However, there are contradictory views with
respect to the holding of elections as a measure of democratic
participation. Therefore, the author deals with the issue of
political manipulation of material inducements in Britain, the
United States, Australia and Israel. The study shows how
political parties have used the power of appointments to maintain
support (the appointment of party supporters to influential
positions). This development occurs simultaneously with the
growth of a career public service. This has led to competing
claims with respect to who should exercise power in the state.

The Annual Reports of the Clerk of the Privy Council (1993-2003)
- Leadership Guidelines for Democratic Administration

These reports should be critically reviewed within the context of
the issues under discussion. How have the reports addressed these
issues? The above leads Eva Etzioni-Halevy to develop an analysis
of Bureaucracy and Democracy: A Political Dilemma, in which she
argues that bureaucracy is supportive of a democratic system of
government. (Review the Reports, 1993-2003).

Francis Rourke in Bureaucracy, Politics and Public Policy
provides another explanation for the ways in which bureaucracy
supports democracy through the following:

a    the existence of a bureaucratic policy system;
b    the mobilization of political support by bureaucracies
c    the organization and utilization of skills;
d    the differentiation in (organizational) agency power.

The organization of systems allows bureaucrats to utilize their
expertise, give continuous attention to problems, mobilize
constituencies and effectively formulate public policy. The
bureaucracy is a power elite. It is constantly affected by
reorganization. The various reorganizations can be seen as a
measure of bureaucratic responsiveness. We can compare the system
between the 1930's and the 1970's and between the 1970's and
2005. Expansion to the deficit and the deficit to 2005.
If we compare the fiscal climate between the 1930's and the
1970's and between the 1970's and 2005, we can gain some
important insights to the role of the state in the formulation of
economic and social policy (see the role of the Department of
Finance in fiscal policy formulation).

The Canadian Public Service: The 1930's to the 1970's - The Era
of the Mandarins

The emergence of active government led to the creation of a
professional public service. This was reflected in the early
staffing and expansion of the Department of External Affairs.
However, it was significantly depicted by the evolution of the
role of the Department of Finance under the leadership of
Clifford Clark, Kenneth Taylor and R.B. Bryce. Professor John
Porter has referred to the group as Dr. Clark s boys. The Royal
Commission on Administrative Classification contributed to
further improvements in the quality of the public service.

The evolution of the management system between the 1930's and
2003 was effected in stages: 1962-1973, the rationalization of
the system through the implementation of the Glassco
recommendation - application of management principles; 1973-1984,
the influence of the oil shocks and the recommendation of the
Auditor General; 1984-1993, a neo-conservative agenda - Agenda
for Economic Renewal; and 1993-2003, the attack on the deficit by
the Liberals, the Chretien-Martin agenda - program review.
Accordingly, an interesting analysis could be conducted on the
transition between the 1970's and the 2002 and beyond period.

Politics and Administration: Politicians and Bureaucrats - 1970's
to 2002, The System in Transition, The 21st Century Public

This leads to an analysis of the relationship between politics
and administration and between policy and administration. We are
concerned with the role politicians and bureaucrats perform in
the formulation and management of public policy. During the
1990's, the then Clerk of the Privy Council, Jocelyne Bourgon,
outlined the Canadian model of public service reform. She
insisted that it involves complementary relationships between
politicians and public servants. The Canadian model included the
following characteristics.

                              The essential characteristics of the new Canadian system can be
summarized as follows:

                          System s Goals
a    The importance of well-performing government institutions;

b    The importance of well-performing professional public
     service; and

c    The importance of complementarity in the roles of the
     elected politicians and the professional non-partisan
     public service.
                       System s Objectives
a    Giving priority to the public interest;

b    Invest in strengthening the policy capacity of government;

c    Develop a strategy for improving the relationship between
     government and citizens;

d    Establishing the goal of putting people first, meeting the
     human resources challenges for 2000 and beyond; and

e    Develop a strategic plan for outlining a strategy for the
     Canadian Public Service, as outlined in La Releve.
                    New Managerial Challenges
a    Focusing on the need to improve the horizontal dimensions
     of management (borderless institutions); and

b    Establishing a strategy for emphasizing effective
     leadership in the Public Service of Canada
The above represents the Canadian strategy for 2000 and beyond.
(Review the strategies between 2000 and 2005).

Emette Redford, Democracy in the Administrative State, addresses
the issue of the potentials for democracy from the perspective of
where decisions are made and carried out through administrative
institutions. The author suggests that we are affected intimately
and extensively by decisions in numerous organizations, public
and private, allocating advantages and disadvantages to us. Many
of these organizations are created by the political system. The
central elements in the administered society may be summarized as

     a    organized society        business, labour, social,
     b    public organization      legislative, executive,
     c    public administration         departments, bureaus,

These organizations operate within a system of delegated
constitutional and legal authority pattern. Democratic morality
rests on three tenets: individual realization, equality of man in
their claims for attention, and participation - either directly
or through control of leaders - as the instrument of
implementation of substantive values.

In the administrative state, policies are made by the interaction
of men occupying strategic positions in specialized institutions
- official roles, personal stakes and professional orientation.
The relationship can be identified in terms of both macro and
micro institutional relationships.  Within the system individuals
are accorded certain rights: the right to know, the right to
access, and the right to a fair forum. The contemporary view is
that the public service contributes to the effective functioning
of a democratic system of government. Yet, we need to identify
the major role players. A former Clerk of the Privy Council
enumerated the characteristics listed earlier (p. 22).

Organizational leaders may adopt certain strategies:
authoritarianism, guildism, human relations, and/or liberal
constitutionalism. This suggests that we review the values of our
public service leaders. We should discuss these approaches with
respect to their contribution to democratic administration. Some
leaders are committed to democratic values.       

Douglas Yates, in chapters 2, 3 and 4 of Bureaucratic Democracy,
presents a comprehensive analysis of the rise of bureaucratic
democracy in the United States. He asserts,  I believe that the
best way to understand the design of American government
institutions is to pay attention to two other normative concepts,
other than equality and liberty: pluralist democracy and
administrative efficiency , p. 9. Accordingly, he elaborates on
the pluralist democratic model and the administrative efficiency
model (pp. 10-23). The characteristics of these two models
influenced the structure of government: merit appointments,
expertise and professionalism, bureaucratic organization,
planning and fiscal management, and the strengthening of the
Chief Executive. The two models are drawn from public and private
management. The pluralist model is a political one. The
administrative efficiency is derived from business - the politics
of government business relations.

The author further asserts that the conflict between the models
of pluralist democracy and administrative efficiency is a
conflict not only between two institutional designs, but between
two historical traditions which address the issue of how best to
organize a politico-administrative system (see pp. 31-61).

The bureaucracy lies at the centre of the politico-administrative
system - bureaucratic democracy. Bureaucracies are seen as
embodying: interest groups, mobilizing constituencies, associated
with fragmentation, and to embody characteristics of conflict and
competition (pp. 66-81). Elements of bureaucratic functioning
include: valuative decisions, silent politics, power
conservation, loose administrative control, and expansion and
proliferation of policy-making (pp. 81-100) Overall, Yates
enumerates eight basic features of bureaucracy:

a    bureaucracies as interest groups;
b    fragmentation;
c    conflict and competition;
d    valuative decision;
e    silent politics;
f    power conservation;
g    loose administrative control;
h    expansion of bureaucratic policy-making.

While the administrative efficiency model leads to segmented
pluralism (pp. 105-115), the focus on the Chief Executive leads
to an emphasis on the setting of a national agenda and the
balancing of priorities for reasons of both democracy and
efficiency (pp. 180-205). The emphasis on management should be

The relationship between central agencies and line departments in
the design of government.

The Tides of Reform: Making Government Work, 1945-1995

Paul C. Light has addressed the issues mentioned above from the
perspective of tides of reform. The large centralized
bureaucracies were built on four separate tides or philosophies
of reform:

                         Tides of Reform
     i    scientific management with its focus on tight
          hierarchy, specialization and clear chains of command;
     ii   war on waste with its emphasis on inspectors,
          auditors, cross-checkers and reviewers;
     iii  watchful eye with its embrace of sunshine and
          openness; and
     iv   liberation management with its cry to let the managers
          manage, albeit with a bit of market pressure. Th