International Journal of Sociology of the Family

Volume 25, Number 1 (Spring 1995)

The Modern Role of the Grandmother in China: A Departure from the Confucian Ideal
Paula Bennett, William H. Meredith (Department of Family & Consumer Sciences, University of Nebraska, USA)
Examines the changing role of the grandmother - a central figure in the traditional Confucian family structure - in Chinese society, in light of the philosophical, political, social, & cultural changes that have occurred in China throughout the twentieth century. Explored are the effects that the iconoclastic transformations of the cultural revolution have had on the grandmother role & their implications for future forms of family structure. A new role structure of greater complexity, wider options, & new functions is emerging in the People's Republic of China. [Int. J. Sociol. Fam. 25(1), 1995: 1-12]

Are There Long-Term Effects of Parental Marital Conflict on Children's Marital Relationships?: A Study of Hong Kong Couples
Mo Yee Lee (University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada)
Cross-sectional survey data from 102 couples in Hong Kong indicate that adult children from self-reported conflictual parental marriages consistently score lower than those from self-reported harmonious parental marriages in all measured marital dimensions. However, the groups do not differ in their perception of barriers to separation or divorce. Parental marital conflict also does not differentiate adjusted marriages from poorly adjusted marriages. Apparently, negative evaluation of their marriages is not associated with poorly adjusted marital outcomes. Findings are discussed in the light of the role model hypothesis, the communication-of-attitude hypothesis, & the sensitization hypothesis. [Int. J. Sociol. Fam. 25(1), 1995: 13-29]

Dynamics of Personal and Social Factors Influencing the Attitude of Married and Unmarried Working Women towards Dowry
Saroja Krishnaswamy (Department of Human Development, University of Agricultural Sciences, Karnataka, India)
Examines attitudes of Hindu women toward the dowry, drawing on scale data from 100 married & 100 unmarried employed females (Fs) ages 20-40 in Dharwad city, India. Correlational analyses show that both groups had favorable attitudes toward the dowry, with favorability positively correlated with educational level. Unmarried Fs were significantly more favorable than married Fs. Income & age interacted with marital status on attitudes toward the dowry. Income was negatively correlated with married Fs' attitudes & positively correlated with the unmarried Fs' attitudes; as age increased, favorability increased among unmarried Fs, while it decreased among married Fs. These attitudes held in married Fs regardless of whether a dowry was given. These results indicate the difficulty in harnessing opposition to the dowry system among working women, where materialism & consumerism are entrenched, even though the dowry supports continued gender inequality in India. [Int. J. Sociol. Fam. 25(1), 1995: 31-42]

Contraceptive Behavior in Ghana: A Two-Sex Model
F. Nii Amoo Dodoo (Tulane University, Louisiana, USA)
Data from the 1988 Ghana Demographic & Health Survey (N = 4,488 females, ages 15-49) are used to examine the impact of male (M) intentions on fertility-related behavior. Findings suggest that the reproductive preferences of M spouses are not significant determinants of current contraceptive use, although they may have some implications for future use. It is posited that fertility may not have fallen in many parts of the region because Ms have not yet adopted a low fertility norm. [Int. J. Sociol. Fam. 25(1), 1995: 43-61]

Canadian Families into the Year 2000
John F. Peters (Wilfrid Laurier University, Ontario, Canada)
Examines likely characteristics of Canadian families in the immediate future, focusing on ethnicity, cohabitation, fertility, childrearing, sexuality, family policy, adolescence, & general family life. The state will continue to influence family life. Nonfamilial associations will affect family values & activity. [Int. J. Sociol. Fam. 25(1), 1995: 63-79]

The Effect of Welfare on Labor Force Participation: The Case of Low Income Female Household Heads
Howard J. Gensler & W. David Walls (Department of Accounting, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology)
Draws on data from the Current Population Survey: 1981 Annual Demographic File (N = 2,415 females) to estimate the effect of the welfare system on the labor participation of low-income females with minor children & no husband present in the household. A latent variable model of the decision to work is developed & estimated on microdata. Results indicate that welfare payments significantly influence the decision to work. Policy implications for welfare system reform are also discussed. [Int. J. Sociol. Fam. 25(1), 1995: 81-89]

The Impact of Marriage on Fertility Intentions and Related Values
Fred W. Reed & William H. McBroom (Department of Sociology, University of Montana, USA)
Uses questionnaire data collected in 1975 & 1980 from 159 university students (under age 26 in 1975) to examine changes in fertility intentions & the importance of marriage & the family. Distinctions are made among 4 subgroups - females (Fs) & males (Ms) who remained single, & Fs & Ms who married over the 5-year period. All Fs became less inclined to have children, Ms remaining single became more inclined, & Ms who married changed little. The introduction of a control for value of marriage & the family caused gender-based differences in fertility desire to disappear. There were substantial changes in the value domain according to sex & marital status - those who married displayed significant increases in the importance of the value of marriage & family. Implications of these findings are discussed. [Int. J. Sociol. Fam. 25(1), 1995: 91-98]

Feminism and Occupational Sex Segregation
Dahlia Moore (Department of Sociology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel)
Argues that the existence of feminist ideologies, beliefs, & movements within societies must be considered integral to any explanation of women's labor market behavior. The basic assumption underlying this argument is that the impact of structural, societal, normative, &/or individual factors on any society is mediated by the types of feminism & their prevalence in that society. It shows that whereas modernistic (classical) feminist approaches advocate increasing equality through actions that lead to equal opportunities & equal returns on investments for men & women, postmodern feminism focuses on increasing equality by adding characteristics for which rewards are allocated, legitimizing a variety of belief systems & labor market behaviors. [Int. J. Sociol. Fam. 25(1), 1995: 99-125]

Female Participation in Three Minor Crimes: A Note on the Relationship between Opportunity and Crime
Craig J. Forsyth & Thomas A. Marckese (University of Southwestern Louisiana, USA)
Draws on crime statistics from the Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports to analyze changes in female (F) crime 1943-1991 in 3 minor offenses: fraud, embezzlement, & forgery/counterfeiting. Differences between males & Fs for specific crimes for each year are identified, & a regression line is obtained for this difference by year. Each line is analyzed to determine relative slope & confidence in future predictions. Results indicate gradual increases in the proportion of these crimes committed by Fs. [Int. J. Sociol. Fam. 25(1), 1995: 127-132]

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