International Review of Modern Sociology

Volume 25, Number 1 (Spring 1995)

Third World Modernization, Dependency, and State Coercive Capacity
Satya R. Pattnayak (Villanova University, Pennsylvania, USA)
An examination of the mediating influence of the state on modernization & dependency in Third World countries. It is argued that the state serves as a coercive force when influencing development, particularly in the relationship between foreign capital & industrial growth. Data gathered from a regressive analysis of 92 Third World countries 1970-1985 indicate that external debt is important to industrial growth when levels of state coercion are high, though the opposite is true when state coercion is low. It is concluded that theories of modernization (which argue that external debt influences industrial growth positively) will hold true in cases where state institutions are strong & capable. Similarly, dependency theory (which argues that external debt influences industrial growth negatively) will hold true when state institutions are weak or incapacitated. It is suggested that this integrated model allows for a more nuanced interpretation of development issues that has been previously possible. [Int. Rev. Mod. Sociol. 25(1), 1995: 1-18]

Residence Place and Self-Esteem of Taiwan Aborigines
Sefong Kao & Shengming Tang (Western Illinois University, USA)
Taiwan's aborigines, in both the size of their population & their social status, constitute the most marginalized ethnic group in the nation. It is widely assumed that their self-esteem is low compared to the Han, Taiwan's majority ethnic group. However, reference group theory states that self-esteem depends on the group to which one compares oneself, rather than social status in absolute terms. This theory is tested via 1994 survey data gathered from Han & aborigine respondents (N = 100) from various locales to determine levels of self-perception. Results reveal that the aborigines did not all share common esteem attributes: those living in thriving urban areas in close proximity to large Han populations exhibited lower self-esteem & those living in rural areas with few Hans exhibited higher self-perceptions, even relatively higher than their Han counterparts. It is concluded that reference group theory holds true in this case, with locale of residence playing an important role in self-esteem. [Int. Rev. Mod. Sociol. 25(1), 1995: 19-27]

Is Canada a Post-Industrial Society?
Robert Maclarkey (Redeemer College, Ontario, Canada)

The notion that North America is now run by a postindustrial economy is refuted. Canada in particular is still dominated by industrial forms of employment & production. Manufacturing & construction still account for 23% of the workforce & make major contributions to gross domestic production, both of which have changed relatively little in the past 100 years. While some argue that the increase of high-tech machinery is responsible for maintaining the output of the manufacturing sector, this is also not true, since 95% of the Canadian workforce are employed in non-technology-based industries. [Int. Rev. Mod. Sociol. 25(1), 1995: 29-42]

Urbanization and Mental Health Problems in Nigeria: Implications for Social Policy
Philip O. Sijuwade (University of Texas, USA)
Africa is currently going through a period of urban migration, which is causing great social, economic, & political upheaval. Nigeria, which has more urban dwellers than any other African nation, is here examined in the context of emerging mental health issues & their relationship to these changes in lifestyle. While Nigerians are fairly adaptive people, both psychologically & socially, they are now exhibiting some maladaptive features, eg, increases in crime, prostitution, & drug addiction. Much of this can be attributed to the decline of traditional social support & the urban centers' failure to provide viable alternatives for community. It is suggested that community mental health centers, if conceived as places of both prevention & treatment, could help rebuild Nigerians' social networks & reduce the stress related to urban living. However, this will have to occur in conjunction with employment programs, rapid industrialization, & population control if the cities are to survive in the long run. [Int. Rev. Mod. Sociol. 25(1), 1995: 43-54]

Ethnic and Gender Biases in Florida's CLAST Exam: An Empirical Study
Manuel J. Carvajal (Florida International University, USA)
Using regression analysis, FL's CLAST (College-Level Academic Skills Test) subscores are expressed (with statistically significant coefficients) as functions of 2 measures of academic achievement: number of credit hours completed & grade point average. Variables for gender & ethnic origin are then added. The evidence suggests that the CLAST is neither unbiased nor valid; its measurement of performance is tainted by ethnic &, to a lesser extent, gender considerations. Gender & ethnicity play a more decisive role in explaining differentials in communications skills than in numerical skills. African Americans seem to experience worse cultural disadvantages than Hispanics, although the greatest differentials are found for foreign students & minority students other than African Americans or Hispanics. [Int. Rev. Mod. Sociol. 25(1), 1995: 55-72]

Subjective Underemployment and Job Satisfaction
Gloria Jones Johnson & W. Roy Johnson (Iowa State University, USA)

Examines the relationship between 2 measures of subjective underemployment - perceived mismatch & perceived underutilization - & job satisfaction using questionnaire data collected during summer 1987 from 212 employees of a US public utility government agency. Multiple regression analysis reveals significant negative relationships between the 2 measures of subjective underemployment & job satisfaction, which together explained 43% of the variance in job satisfaction. Results suggest that perceived mismatch & perceived underutilization represent relative deprivation that is based on experience in the workplace, & that can influence job satisfaction. The implications of subjective underemployment on the hierarchy of prominence of the work role & its influence on work satisfaction & commitment are discussed. [Int. Rev. Mod. Sociol. 25(1), 1995: 73-84]

A Portrait of the Jackson Square Artists of New Orleans
Craig J. Forsyth & Charles Edward Palmer (University of Southwestern Louisiana, USA)
The Jackson Square artists of New Orleans, LA, are regarded by the larger art community as bad artists. To investigate reasons for that perception & to identify some of the functions of the Jackson Square "street art," interviews were conducted with 42 artists on the Square & 29 individuals connected to the larger art community. Approximately 75 hours of direct observation also inform the study, along with key informant & other qualitative techniques. [Int. Rev. Mod. Sociol. 25(1), 1995: 85-103]

Themes of Knowing and Learning in Recent Novels for Young Adults
Roger Clark & Leanna Morris (Rhode Island College, USA)
Recent Afrocentric & white & black feminist theorists have raised the issue of whether there are ways of knowing & learning that distinguish groups by gender & race. They appear to concur that conventional Eurocentric & masculinist epistemologies have failed to recognize the importance of grounding knowing in connectedness & caring, concrete experience, & personal responsibility. Here, fifteen recent novels for adolescent readers are examined to determine whether, in fact, there are substantial differences in the degree to which white & black male & female authors endorse grounding knowledge claims in such things as personal experience, rather than institutionalized ways of knowing. Findings suggest some racial & gender differences, but also important similarities. [Int. Rev. Mod. Sociol. 25(1), 1995: 105-123]

Quo Vadis?: Environmentalisms's Past, Present, and Future
Freddie R. Obligacion (Ohio State University, USA)
Since its origins in nineteenth-century German ecoliterature, the environmental movement has undergone a life cycle of consonance, dissonance, & accommodation. For the movement to be responsive to emerging needs & opportunities, social movement theories suggest a balanced & eclectic approach to goal formation, organizational design, recruitment, & mobilization. Strategical flexibility appears imperative in the face of changing demographics of the membership base, the professionalization of leadership, & opportunities for political maneuvering. [Int. Rev. Mod. Sociol. 25(1), 1995: 125-139]

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