International Review of Modern Sociology

Volume 30, Number 1 (Fall 2002)

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Table of Contents and Front Matter

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The Political Economy of the Transition from Fishing to Tourism, in Placencia, Belize
Carol Jane Key (Department of Sociology, Tarleton State University)
Placencia, a coastal village in southern Belize, is currently undergoing a transition of its economic base from fishing to tourism. Drawing upon the framework of dependency theory using a qualitative and quantitative analysis, this paper examines Placencia's economic transition. As a fishing economy, the villagers procured a wide variety of marine resources mainly for their own consumption and a limited local market. The high price paid for lobster and conch for consumption in the United States led to a decade of profitable exploitation of these resources and the successful organization of a fishermen's cooperative, encouraged by the government. This success led to over fishing and attracted fishermen from other parts of Belize and poachers from Honduras and Guatemala. As profits from lobster and conch began to decline ever more sharply after 1990, villagers began to convert to tourist related enterprises, formal and informal. Using both field and secondary data from Belize Central America I attempt to analyze this transition from fishing to tourism. [Int. Rev. Mod. Sociol. 30(1), 1996: 1-17]

Spanish: Placencia, un pueblo costeño del sur de Belice, actualmente esta cambiando su base económica de la pesca al turismo. Inspirada en la teoria de la dependencia y usando un analysis cuantitivo y cualitativo este reporte examina el cambio económico de Placencia. Como una economia de pesca el pueblo obtiene una variedad amplia de recursos marinos principalmente para su consumo propio y un mercado local limitado. El alto precio de la langosta y el caracol que se paga en los Estados Unidos causó por una decada explotación la lucrativa de estos recursos marinos y la exitosa organización de una cooperativa de pescadores aprovada por el gobierno. Este éxito provocó la pesca desmesurada y atrajó a pescadores de otras partes de Belice y pescadores furivos de Guatemela y Honduras. Las ganacias de la langosta y el caracol empezaron a bajar más y más rápido despues de 1990. El Pueblo empezó a tener negocios relacionados con el turismo, formal e informal. Usando información de campo y archivada de Belice America Central, intento analizar el cambio de la pesca al turismo. [Translated by Karl Stover]

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Welcome to the Real World: Gender and Ethnic Comparisons in Sources of Job Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction Expected by Students and Experienced by Recent Graduates
Manuel J. Carvajal, David Bendana, Alireza Bozorgmanesh, Miguel A. Castillo, Katayoun Pourmasiha, Priya Rao and Juan A. Torres (Honors College at Florida International University, USA)
This paper seeks to quantify sources and patterns of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction by comparing college seniors' preferences and expectations regarding their first job after graduation with the preferences and job experiences of recent graduates. The analysis is enhanced by gender and ethnic comparisons within each group. Pay, benefits, work schedules, advancement opportunities, and associates and work-related persons are identified frequently as causes of both pleasure and displeasure on the job. The findings also reveal that many of the students' expectations do not accord with the marketplace experience of recent graduates. Far more ethnic than gender disparities are detected, and virtually all of them involve African Americans. [Int. Rev. Mod. Sociol. 30(1), 1996: 18-45]

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Wildlife Managers: Boundary Workers between the Human Community and the Wilderness
Helene M. Lawson (Department of Sociology,University of Pittsburgh at Bradford, USA)
This research focuses on wildlife managers, such as game wardens and land management supervisors, who as government agents, manage the boundary between humans and the wilderness while at the same time holding a personal stake in controlling wilderness areas in the United States. Looking through the eyes of these managers, the paper examines their childhood socialization and education to the belief that as wilderness stewards they should govern from a perspective that maximizes their own personal enjoyment of the wilderness, including the tradition of hunting. Other hunters and animal-rights advocates contest methods of control exercised by wildlife managers. This paper examines wildlife managers' solidarity amid conflict, their motivations for choosing their work and the important role they play in the central struggle over the interpretation of wilderness and life-and-death environmental issues, such as the regulation of animal population levels. It demonstrates how their solidarity as a work group mitigates the conflicts they face at the price of narrowing their perspective on non-human animals. [Int. Rev. Mod. Sociol. 30(1), 1996: 46-64]

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Russian Mafia: The Explanatory Power of Rational Choice Theory
Alexander Shvarts (University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada))
Many philosophers, sociologists, and political scientists defend the claim that rational choice theory can provide the basis for a unified and comprehensive theory of social behaviour. Rational choice models are theoretically generalized to explain the behaviour studied by nearly all social science disciplines, from political science to psychology and sociology. Specific applications include government decision-making; individual consumer decisions; social institutions such as the criminal justice system; and social behaviour in general (Zey, 1988:88). I will use the particular phenomenon of the Russian Mafia to test the conceptual and explanatory consequences of rational choice theory. [Int. Rev. Mod. Sociol. 30(1), 1996: 65-105]

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Contemporary Field Research: Perspectives and Formulations, 2nd ed.
by Robert E. Emerson (Waveland, 2001, 433 pages)
Reviewed by Vicki Mayer (University of California, Davis, USA)

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Old Order Mennonites: Rituals, Beliefs, and Community
by Daniel B. Lee (Burnham, 2000, 167 pages)
Reviewed by Kenneth Westhues (Department of Sociology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada)

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Bad Pastors: Clergy Misconduct in Modern America
Edited by Anson Shupe, William A. Stacey and Susan E. Darnell (New York University Press, 2000, 256 pages)
Reviewed by Phillip Jenkins (History and Religious Studies, Pennsylvania State University, USA)

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Niklas Luhmann's Modernity: The Paradoxes of Differentiation
by William Rasch (Stanford Press, 2000, 246 pages)
Reviewed by Daniel B. Lee (Pennsylvania State University, USA); Review in both English and German

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Breast Cancer: Society Shapes an Epidemic
Edited by Anne S. Kasper & Susan J. Ferguson (St. Martin's Press, 2000, 377 pages)
Reviewed by Juanne N. Clarke (Sociology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Ontario, Canada)

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From Psychiatric Patient to Citizen
by Liz Sayce (St. Martin's Press, 2000, 280 pages)
Review by Riley Olstead (Sociology, York University, Ontario, Canada)

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Stories of Ageing
by Mike Hepworth (Open University Press, 2000, 130 pages)
Reviewed by Sue A. Taylor (Howard University, USA)

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Women and Alcohol in Social Context: Mother's Ruin Revisited
by Jan Waterson (Palgrave, 2000, 198 pages)
Reviewed by Susan Bullers (University of North Carolina- Wilmington, USA)

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Being Human: The Problem of Agency
by Margaret Archer (Cambridge University Press, 2001, 323 pages)
Reviewed by Charles Lemert (Sociology, Wesleyan University)

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