Oct  17th , 2017  LECTURE SIX:  


Discipline and conformity

Rules, roles and rights

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Why are university lectures so boring?










Look at us, ok you know maybe we’re not smart. That’s cool. I don’t pretend to be smart…Teachers supposed to be smart, supposed to know a couple of things about teaching. You think? Well, they don’t know me and they’re in my face.  And they don’t want to know me.  So how would they know about me or my family? Man, you gotta sweat it a bit and try – they really really don’t. No man, listen, how would they know?   (Trevor, 17 years old)


 Education: the tyranny of silence and the cycle of violence

 Consistent with theme of relatedness, this study locates the youth justice within an array of institutional practices.

Last week we dealt with the institutions of formal social control from the family -- all from the prisms of youth.

Today we analyze the implications and applications of mainstream models that promote convenient and common sense assumptions about teaching youths.  












Elementary School

Welcome to James Park Elementary School





Secondary School













 It is generally accepted that schools prepare the students to become good citizens, generating and transmitting appropriate skills, knowledge, values and behaviours, but the issue of content therein depends upon the attitudes, values and belief systems of all participants.  


According to John Dewey (1944:97): “[t]he conception of education as a social process and function has no definite meaning until we define the kind of society we have in mind”.




Carceral Contexts of Culture: conditioning the “caged herd”  

How is teaching contextually determined?  

Historically, education systems were conceived to ‘transfer the culture of adult generations to younger generations’, even more so in the case of secondary education than in primary education.

Schooling functions to maintain solidarity and collective conformity to justify assimilation or more euphemistically social cohesion as a moral imperative.  

 As Einstein (1949:2) cautioned:

This crippling of individuals I consider the worst evil of capitalism. Our whole educational system suffers from this evil. An exaggerated competitive attitude is inculcated into the student, who is trained to worship acquisitive success as a preparation for his future career. …The education of the individual, in addition to promoting his own innate abilities, would attempt to develop in him a sense of responsibility for his fellow men in place of the glorification of power and success in our present society.


  The market demand for technical skills has transformed education;

the basic logic for schooling, therefore, prepares students for a market mentality.   Corrigan (1979:20) admonishes:

The education system does not allow sufficient mobility for working-class girls.  They (the education system) have failed to realize the differential effects that home background has on different groups of pupils.  Thus some kids come from homes which are bereft of books, with parents who fail to appreciate the importance of education for their girls’ success in life; in short they come from educationally disadvantaged homes.  


The “social capital / network” perspectives suggest that impoverished parents and children lack supportive social relationships and networks within and outside of the family necessary for aspiring to and achieving success.  

 Education, as a critical socializing agent, reproduces the dominant culture of superiority.  

Large numbers of textbooks used in classrooms remain culturally biased, both in their presentation of material and in their omission of material on the culture, history, or achievement of many of the national and cultural groups represented in schools. Books inculcate cultural values and self-identification.

The monocultural curriculum fails to challenge the limited history, vision and expectations of the more privileged Anglo-centric emphasis and the devastating effects of oppression on minority children and their cultures.   


 The State, Discipline and Governmentalities: regulating youth


  The state secures control over the nature of our youth according to powerful resources, which proscribe state sponsored and self-serving criteria.

The Ontario secondary school program is designed to equip (some) students with the knowledge and skills that they need in order to lead satisfying and productive lives. 

According to the logic of official government policy, the program prepares students for further education and work, and helps them to become independent, productive and responsible members of society (Ministry of Education, 1999).  

 Every student  

a)  can learn, every student can and should come to school ready to learn;

b) should learn in a school that is properly funded and in good repair;

c) should be able to read, write, do math and comprehend at a high level by the age of 12 as the necessary foundation for later educational and social choices;

d) should have significant exposure to music and the arts;

e) should enjoy regular physical activity, appreciate the benefits of a healthy lifestyle and have access to a full range of extracurricular activities;

f) should be safe and feel safe at school and in the schoolyard, every student should reach the highest level of achievement that his or her ability and willingness to work hard will permit;

g) should receive a good outcome from publicly funded education, whether it is an apprenticeship, job placement, or admission to a college or university; and,

h) should know how to think for him- or herself, appreciate the rights and obligations of good citizenship and learn about character values (Ministry of Education 2005).


Code of Conduct   Cultures of Escape: Fugitive Youths  

 The social environment of the school is a key factor influencing the healthy development of young people.   

The culture of a school plays a critical role to play in many aspects of student life and learning.  

 a corresponding increase in numbers reported that teachers’ emphases on competition and relative ability translated into preferential treatment (good grades, or praise or care).  

Dropping out: physical and psychic

a)  ignorance and arrogance

 b) a dysfunctional accountability and  a displacement of responsibility: cowardice

c) From comments that youths make, they appear to detect a sense of lethargy that invites what youth refer to as the laziness of administrators and teachers

d) Despite all the rhetoric noted in school policies and governmental regulations regarding the rights of students, youths commented on the hypocrisy of school officials.  

e) A number of youths report that school officials tend to be too ego centric, an orientation that impacts on the self confidence and self image of many youths.  


 From Mirrors to Windows: Prospects of Power and the Promises of Pedagogy


The Essence of Teaching and Learning

Teaching is process of reaching in and reaching out wherein the personal and social converge rather than diverge as opposing interests

Authenticity as  the  Passion of Compassion


Empowerment of teachers and learners







Corporal punishment in schools has been defended as having merit by a government reviewer of education.



















Kent State





May 4, 1970 25 Ohio National Guard  , killing four students and wounding nine others; peaceful university anti war protest














































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E. Goldman