October 31, 2017. LECTURE EIGHT
THE IMPACT OF CLASS: INEQUALITIES OF CARE
Freedom from Class Discrimination
Work, Unemployment and Poverty
“No to child labour is our stance. Yet 215 million are in child labour as a matter of survival. A world without child labour is possible with the right priorities and policies: quality education, opportunities for young people, decent work for parents, a basic social protection floor for all. Driven by conscience, let’s muster the courage and conviction to act in solidarity and ensure every child’s right to his or her childhood. It brings rewards for all.”Juan Somavia, ILO Director-General
What is a child?
Age 18 is the dividing line between childhood and adulthood according to the major ILO child labour Conventions, Nos. 138 and 182, and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC).
What is child labour?
Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.
Child labour is defined in ILO Conventions. It is work that children should not be doing because they are too young to work, or – if they are old enough to work – because it is dangerous or otherwise unsuitable for them.
Not all work done by children should be classified as child labour that is to be targeted for elimination.
What is child labour? Within this protected realm of childhood, ILO Convention No. 138 marks out minimum ages for different types of employment:
child labour refers to any work performed by children under the age of 12,
non-light work done by children aged 12–14,
and hazardous work done by children aged 15–17.
Child labour, then, is simply work done by children who are younger than the designated minimum age in one or another of these categories
Child labour tends to be concentrated in the informal sector of the economy.
Child labour is a complex problem and numerous factors influence whether children work.
Culture and tradition
The effects of income shocks on households
Inadequate/poor enforcement of legislation and policies to protect children
Forms of Child Labour
The involvement of children in illicit activities, for example, the production and trafficking of drugs
Street children, runaways etc
Work which is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children
DEBATE: whose rights???
Research from Brazil, Colombia, Vietnam, and the United States, has found that part-time work of adolescents, when the situation and competence of the children are right, can be positively related to subsequent employment up to ten years after graduating from high school and part-time employment in adolescence appears to reduce the amount of time spent unemployed later.
Whether or not there is a place for work in “good” childhoods, and if there is what kinds of work are appropriate. This issue concerns the disputed place of work and responsibility in the process of growing up.
Work and school
During the 19th and early 20th centuries most Canadian children, formerly economic assets, became economic liabilities.
By the beginning of the 20th century most provinces had enacted labour legislation to restrict the employment of children.
Legislation also exists to protect minors from working under dangerous or hazardous conditions, such as in the mining industry, manufacturing, construction, forestry, and where liquor is sold or kept for sale.
youths may start working in most industries and occupations at the age of 14 in New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Ontario, and Quebec, at age 15 in Alberta and British Columbia, and at age 16 in Manitoba. In Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan, children younger than 14 may work in many jobs without a permit, but there are restrictions.
Child Labor and Exploitation
Canadians like to think that child labour only happens overseas
Child Labour Is Canada's Invisible Crisis
A new report that analyzes Statistics Canada employment data has found that five years after the global economic crisis, Ontario is now the worst province outside of Atlantic Canada for youth unemployment.
unemployment rate for Ontario youth between the ages of 15 and 24 ranged between 16 and 17.1 per cent, higher than the average Canadian range of 13.5 to 14.5 per cent.
Few notions of the modern economy get more attention than the struggles of young Canadians in the job market. It’s become a sacred truth that today’s youth have it tougher than any time in memory when it comes to finding and keeping a job.
Children of African, Asian, Middle Eastern, Caribbean, and Latin American descent have a higher chance of living in low-income families.
A Children's Aid Society of Toronto report finds that there are almost 146,000 children growing up in low-income families in Toronto
In Toronto, 28.6% of children were living below the Low Income Measure After Tax (LIM-AT)