AP/HREQ 1800 6.00 JUSTICE FOR CHILDREN
(Cross-listed to: AP/SOSC 1800 6.00)
Department of Equity Studies
Faculty of Liberal Arts & Professional Studies
Course Director: Professor L. Visano Department of Equity Studies
tel: 416-736-2100 ext. 66317 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
318 Atkinson Bldg. Office hours: Fridays: 2pm – 4:00
TIME and LOCATION: LECTURES and TUTORIALS
LECTURE: TUESDAYS -- 4:30 – 6:30 LAS (Lassonde Bldg) “A”
The objective of the course is to introduce a critical understanding of the role of justice in the lives of children (pre-adolescence, adolescence and youth) as well the social and historical constitution of the changing rights of children. To this end, the historical development of the concept of the “child” and the current social realities of children will be examined as well as they influence institutions of child socialization such as the family, friends, schools, law, and media. Essentially, this course introduces students to think about and study the differential impact of culture in shaping the relationship(s) between justice and children. The study of the impact of implicit and deliberate social policies on the constitution of childhood identity will be supplemented with a more fundamental concern for the child as social actor who is able to negotiate and resist forms of social pressure.
The concept of childhood is examined in terms of the "social self", that is, the complex relationship between self and society (identity and ideologies). This course moves beyond social psychology by investigating conceptually the “institutionalized” reproduction of the social "child". Our inquiries into socialization implicate social, political and economic struggles that reflect fundamental issues of injustice and inequality. Institutional forms of socialization are examined in terms of their respective relationship(s) with the state, political economy, law and culture. Children as offended against and as offenders (acting subjects and subjected actors) within the cultural calculus, are linked to hegemonic practices. For example, the social conditions of troubled children and children in trouble (poverty, abuse, violence, delinquency, etc.) informal and formal interventionist strategies and the consequences of containment, accommodation and resistance are highlighted. This course examines the relationship(s) of the self, groups, community and institutions; the interpretive framework for appreciating social realities; the location of agency and structure; generic processes of the situation; contexts, consequences and contests of meanings; challenges and prospects of linking the actor and community; theoretic convergences; and the philosophy of the psychoanalysis.
Specifically, this course directs attention to the dynamic, dialectical and yet differential impact of ideologies on identities and institutions. We will investigate how ideologies shape policies and practices as well as the behavior and beliefs of children. How for example does law advance justice for children?
After completing this course, students should be able to interrogate how discourses and practice create children as ideologically appropriate subjects and how theories form and inform conflicting narratives of hegemonic articulations of dependencies and the actual experiences of injustice. This course confronts contradictions inherent in liberal democratic (capitalist) states especially in the “official” authoritative treatment of children and related issues of fundamental equality. This course seeks to provide a critical reading of children as a site of inquiry within comparative and historical contexts of political economy, cultural reproductions and hegemonic state and corporate practices". Justice, as a set of texts, as narratives of inequality and as moments of morality are further contrasted. Moving well beyond the limitations of mainstream child socialization, this course encourages a progressive, strategic and engaged ‘praxis’ as a strategic site of social change.
Teaching and learning about justice and children allows students to understand the importance of treating people equitably and the responsibilities we all have to protect the rights of others. Upon the successful completion of this course, students should be able to:
The aims of this course are threefold:
First, to challenge the intellectual curiosities of students re. Justice for children and youth and facilitate the acquisition of intellectual tools: i. develop conceptual, thinking analytical skills; ii. Enhance writing skills; iii. Encourage the acquisition of oral skills.
Second, this course seeks to assist students in demonstrating a familiarity with the impact of ideologies on institutionalizing injustices in an effort to argue that the inherent normative nature of socialization in Canadian society exacerbates justice.
Lastly, students are urged to engage in debates about the role of culture in framing consciousness, law, popular media, public perception and current controversies regarding diverse interventive strategies.
Key concepts: Culture, Children, Justice
Theme: The Impact of culture on the relationship between justice and children
Conceptual Framework: the role of ideologies in institutionalizing identities
LEARNING EVALUATION AND GRADING
In addition, tutorial discussions will include specific advice on how to prepare for assignments and related matters as well as general and specific concerns about course materials (lectures). Important announcements regarding deadlines, reviews, dates for in-class tests and related course administration issues will be posted on the course website: http://www.yorku.ca/lavisano/courses.html
DATES (2017- 2018)
Classes start Sept. 7, 2017
Fall Reading Days (no classes, University open) Oct. 26-29
Fall classes end Dec. 4
Fall Study Day (no classes; University open Dec. 5
Fall examinations Dec. 6-21
Winter break - University closed Dec. 23 - Jan. 2
Winter Reading Week (no classes, University open) Feb. 17-23
Winter classes end April 6
Winter examinations April 9-23
Thanksgiving Day - University closed Oct. 9
Winter break - University closed Dec. 23 - Jan. 2
Family Day - University closed Feb. 19
Good Friday - University closed March 30
Last date to add a course without permission of instructor Sept. 20
Last date to add a course with permission of instructor) Oct. 18
Drop deadline: Last date to drop a course without receiving a grade Feb. 9
Course Withdrawal Period (withdraw from a course and receive a grade of “W” on transcript – Feb. 10 - Apr. 6
REQUIRED COURSE TEXTS / READINGS
FIRST TERM COURSE MATERIALS / READINGS
SECOND TERM COURSE MATERIALS / READINGS
ORGANIZATION OF LECTURES
FIRST TERM: PROFESSOR L. VISANO
CHILDREN AND THE “SOCIAL BEING”
PART ONE: THE IDEA OF CHILDREN
SEPTEMBER 12, 2017. LECTURE ONE: INTRODUCTION
Administrative concerns; grades and assignments; readings; tutorial participation; course protocol,
Preview of course content, themes and problematics
Knowledge as Mediated: "a matter of opinion"
Overview of themes and levels of analyses (macro/mecro/micro) --- key concepts.
Justice, Rights and Inequalities as Generic Processes and Structures
PART TWO: IDEOLOGY
THEORETICAL AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES: CULTURAL CONTEXTS
SEPTEMBER 19, 2017. LECTURE TWO: CONCEPT OF THE CHILD
Overview of the concept of children: mythologies, metaphors and morality
Traditions and Religion
Perceptions, fears and images
History and Disciplining youths: the phenomenon of youth and the origins of youth
Property, Persons and Rights
Cultures of child-saving as moral projects
Albanese. 2016. Chapter 1.
SEPTEMBER 26, 2017. LECTURE THREE: CHILD DEVELOPMENT AS MORAL DEVELOPMENT
Piaget, Kohlberg, Gilligan,
Albanese. 2016. Chapter 2.
OCTOBER 3, 2017. LECTURE FOUR: CONCEPTS OF JUSTICE AND ETHICS IN RESEARCH
Nature of Knowledge
Albanese. 2016 chapter 3.
INSTITUTIONS: THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF RESPONSES
OCTOBER 10, 2017. LECTURE FIVE: THE FAMILY
Doctrinal discipline: “home sweet home”
Policing the family; Docile bodies
Hegemony of roles and rules in disciplining children and youth
Children as victims and as trouble: Child and Family Services Act
Albanese. 2016. Chapter 4.
OCTOBER 17, 2017. LECTURE SIX: SCHOOLING
Discipline and conformity
Rules, roles and rights
Albanese. 2016. Chapters 5 and 7.
OCTOBER 24, 2017. LECTURE SEVEN: POPULAR CULTURE
Cool Cultures and Mediocre Messages
Play-- entertaining gaming
Alienation and Ideology
Albanese. 2016. Chapter 6.
October 31, 2017. LECTURE EIGHT
THE IMPACT OF CLASS: INEQUALITIES OF CARE
Freedom from Class Discrimination
Albanese. 2016. Chapter 7 and 10.
NOVEMBER 7, 2017. LECTURE NINE THE BEHAVIOR OF LAW
Child as offended
Children in trouble social work
“Doing Good / Doing Justice: welfare laws
Ideology of conscience and convenience; care and consent
Law as the normative calculus of rules
Law and ideologies
Albanese. 2016. Chapters 11 and 12.
NOVEMBER 14, 2017. LECTURE TEN: RACIALIZED, INEQUALITIES
Albanese. 2016. Chapters 8 and 9.
Written Essay (10%):reflection piece to be submitted to the Tutorial Assistant Nov 14, 2017
NOVEMBER 21, 2017. LECTURE ELEVEN: THE CHALLENGES OF CHILDOOD
Albanese. 2016. Chapter 13.
NOVEMBER 28, 2017. LECTURE TWELVE:
MIDTERM TEST: TWO SHORT ESSAY- BASED RESPONSES (20%)
YOUTH, CRIME & CRIMINALIZATION
PART FOUR CHALLENGES AND CONFRONTATIONS
JANUARY 09, 2018. LECTURE THIRTEEN: THEORIZING CRIMINALITY
Youth Crime As Constructed And
Normative Approaches: “The Constructed Social Reality of Crime”
Crime as a collective conscience; crime and the normative calculus of rules
Tension - state and Strain; the Chicago School; Neutralization; Cultures and Subcultures; Control Theories: Attachments, Beliefs and Commitments; Differential Association
Continuities and Closures.
Interpretive Approaches: Constructing Youth Crime
Situations, meanings and subjectivity: the defining self
Neutralizations, trouble, excuses and appeals: negotiating, maintaining and legitimating identity
Peers cultures as coping strategies
Socialization as regulation/ integration: trust and suspicion
The self as a dialectical and social narratives of the self
Language and conversation
Differential values and responses to the social
Careers, contingencies (self, others and skills), and stages of involvements
Bonds, Networks and Communities
Negotiations and exchange
Visano, 2017. Chapter 1, Introduction and Relevant Sections in Chapter 2 Theoretical Perspectives (to be announced).
JANUARY 16, 2018. LECTURE FOURTEEN:
“CONSTRUCTORS OF YOUTH CRIME”
Power, Class and Inequality: Conflict / Power and Inequalities
(In)Justice and Inequality, social order as criminogenic
Visano, 2017. Relevant Sections in Chapter 2 Theoretical Perspectives (to be announced).
PART FIVE: EMPIRICAL MANIFESTATIONS
JANUARY 23, 2018. LECTURE FIFTEEN:
DOMINANT CULTURE as a LOCUS OF COERCION
Visano, 2017. Chapter Three: The Impact of Culture.
JANUARY 30, 2018. LECTURE SIXTEEN: THE BEHAVIOR OF LAW
Child as offender
Children as trouble
JDA/ YOA/ YCJA
Visano, 2017. Chapter Four: Criminal Law and Youth.
FEBRUARY 6, 2018. LECTURE SEVENTEEN: TYPOLOGIES and DIFFERENCE
Strategies of resistance or consumptive cooptation
Resistance, Risk and Conscience: Resistance as Conscientization
Visano, 2017 Chapter Five: Street Hustling.
FEBRUARY 13. LECTURE EIGHTEEN:
Test #2, In-Class: (30%) THREE SHORT CONCEPT-BASED ESSAY RESPONSES
FEBRUARY 20, 2018 READING WEEK , NO CLASS
PART SIX: INJUSTICES
FEBRUARY 27, 2018. LECTURE NINETEEN: PSYCHE AND RIGHTS
Adolescence as turbulence
Visano, 2017. Chapter Six: Addictions.
MARCH 6, 2018. LECTURE TWENTY: YOUTH INEQUALITIES
a) Gender and Delinquency
Cycles of Violence
Visano, 2017. Chapter Seven: Gendered Criminalization.
MARCH 13, 2018. LECTURE TWENTY ONE: YOUTH INEQUALITIES
b) Race and Delinquency
Visano, 2017. Chapter Eight: Racialized Criminalization.
MARCH 20, 2018. LECTURE TWENTY TWO: YOUTH RIGHTS
Community and National Intervention Strategies
Criminalization of Peace
Remedies and “Reform”
Visano, 2017. Chapter Nine: Resistance.
MARCH 27, 2018. LECTURE TWENTY TWO: CONCLUSIONS: “MORE OF THE SAME?”:
FROM LOCAL TO GLOBAL INJUSTICES
Visano. 2017, Chapter 10.
April 3, 2018 LECTURE TWENTY FOUR
FINAL TEST: TWO SHORT ESSAY- BASED RESPONSES (20%)
ACADEMIC POLICIES / INFORMATION
Plagiarism, using commercial essay writing services and unauthorized multiple submissions of academic assignments are just three of the issues that arise under the heading of academic integrity. Students taking this course are reminded to familiarize themselves with the York University policies on academic integrity. The relevant website is:
Academic Standards and other issues
It is a York University Requirement that all students familiarize themselves with the information contained of the Senate Committee on Curriculum & Academic Standards webpage (see Reports, Initiatives, Documents), available at:
IMPORTANT COURSE INFORMATION
The Senate Committee on Curriculum & Academic Standards (CCAS) provides a Student Information Sheet that includes:
• Services for Mature and Part-time Students
The Atkinson Centre for Mature and Part-time Students (ACMAPS) maintains and strengthens York University’s ongoing commitment to welcome and to serve the needs of mature and part-time students. For further information and assistance visit: http://www.yorku.ca/acmaps
“The mind is like an umbrella, it functions best when open”
GRADING EVALUATION for AP/HREQ 1800 6.00 A
E: Excellent; VG: Very Good; G: Good; W: Weak; I: Incomplete; NA: Not Applicable
Common Grading Scheme for Undergraduate Faculties
Approved by Senate Committee on Examinations and Academic Standards
GRADE, GRADE POINT, PER CENT RANGE AND DESCRIPTION
A+. 9. 90-100%. Exceptional Thorough knowledge of concepts and/or techniques and exceptional skill or great originality in the use of those concepts, techniques in satisfying the requirements of an assignment or course. 90%-100%
A. 8. 80-89%. Excellent Thorough knowledge of concepts and/or techniques with a high degree of skill and/or some elements of originality in satisfying the requirements of an assignment or course.
B+. 7. 75-79%. Very Good Thorough knowledge of concepts and/or techniques with a fairly high degree of skill in the use of those concepts, techniques in satisfying the requirements of an assignment or course.
B. 6. 70-74%. Good Good level of knowledge of concepts and/or techniques together with considerable skill in using them to satisfy the requirements of an assignment or course.
C+. 5. 65-69%. Competent Acceptable level of knowledge of concepts and/or techniques together with considerable skill in using them to satisfy the requirements of an assignment or course.
C. 4. 60-64%. Fairly Fairly Competent Acceptable level of knowledge of concepts and/or techniques together with some skill in using them to satisfy the requirements of an assignment or course.
D+. 3. 55-59%. Passing Slightly better than minimal knowledge of required concepts and/or techniques together with some ability to use them in satisfying the requirements of an assignment or course.
D. 2. 50-54%. Barely Passing Minimum knowledge of concepts and/or techniques needed to satisfy the requirements of an assignment or course.
E. 1. Marginally Failing
F. 0. Failing
FOCUS, CLARITY, CONSISTENCY AND LOGIC ARE VERY IMPORTANT ELEMENTS
Comprehension of material/concepts discussed
Application of relevant analysis
Logic, clarity, and consistency of analysis: quality not quantity of paragraphs/ pages
Linking together of theory and application
Weak; superficial depth, missing persuasiveness, descriptive/not analytical counter, ill-informed/ opinions/ journalistic/ (stream of consciousness) not thoughtful etc.
Substantiate all arguments raised; defensible position; supportable; thematically arranged; new ideas raised; innovative; courageous; bold; timid; ambitious; too informal; circular; trite\ cliché\ shallow\; how defensible/tenable is the analysis/
Accuracy and skill at applying concepts/techniques; thoroughness of application
Comprehension of assumptions necessary to render concept/technique/method applicable to problem. Inadequate/ inappropriate use of theory to support argument; unclear theoretical perspective; method inconsistent with theoretical perspective
Absence of rationale for theoretical perspective or method; no recognition of limitations of theory/method adopted
CONTENT: quality of arguments: poorly researched; current trends and theories shortshrifted; appreciation of the literature; related explicitly to the course headings; funnel approach
DEVELOPMENT OF ISSUE(S):
Asking the appropriate questions (very important).
Indication of thinking through the thinking process
Setting out of main points and central issues (grounding the arguments)
Provision of background context and/or history
Integration of course material into development and presentation of argument.
Application of “hourglass” shape of development (general-specific-general). Shape a) general b) specific c) general. Circular? well corroborated, demonstrates critical capacities; clearly stated thesis; levels of articulation; levels of coherence; direction, flow and logical sequencing; too discursive /descriptive; too many issues raised and foci buried; deplete of foci/ ; muddled interpretations/ excessive jargon/ clichés/slogans; Is the Main Argument Supported; How so? What kinds of evidence (empirical?); loses sight of the salient themes
Development: unclear logical or thematic development; relation to course material unclear; incomplete/distorted/contradictory argument
Expression of issue(s) and their respective significance.
Identification and explanation of theory/ methods/ policy implications.
Thesis statement focus. (Significance; utility; originality; too general, too much territory; focus; too narrow - insensitive to related issues).