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Note :   These references are obviously not meant to represent an exhaustive resource, nor a substitute for the library, but simply a starting point.


  • 59 Optical Illusions & Visual Phenomena - "These pages demonstrate visual phenomena, called 'optical illusions' or 'visual illusions.' The latter is more appropriate, because most effects have their basis in the visual pathway, not in the optics of the eye. I selected these based on relative novelty and interactivity."
  • About Inventors - Inventors are not necessarily scientists. However, "learning the process of inventing develops students' problem solving and creativity in the broadest sense. Inventing provides a unique opportunity for learners of all ages to synthesize and apply their knowledge and skills in an interdisciplinary, real-life manner. It places a strong emphasis on defining an actual problem, formulating an original solution, developing a product, and sharing the results or products with appropriate audiences." [ from Why Invent? ]
  • ActionBioscience - "ActionBioscience.org is a non-commercial, educational web site created to promote bioscience literacy by examining issues that will: motivate the public to play an active role in bioscience education; show how developments in bioscience research can affect everyone; promote an understanding of biogeography and the biodiversity of life; engage the public to reflect on the relationship between human activity and the natural course of evolution; promote global ecological awareness; advance formal and informal bioscience education; encourage students to pursue studies in the biosciences. To meet these goals, the web site provides articles by scientists, science educators, and science students on issues related to seven bioscience challenges: environment, biodiversity, genomics, biotechnology, evolution, new frontiers in science, and bioscience education. In addition, the web site provides educators with original lessons and resources to enhance bioscience teaching. Up-to-date external links are provided at the bottom of each article to help the reader 'learn more' about or 'get involved' in the issue."
  • All About Snow - "Q&A answers the snow questions we receive. If you want to know why snow is white, or why forecasting snow can be so difficult, this is the section for you. Facts brings together interesting bits of information we have come across in answering questions. Use our Glossary to learn the difference between a blizzard and a squall, or to find out what graupel is. The Snow Gallery contains historic photos of blizzards and snow from the National Weather Service. Our Have Snow Shovel, Will Travel brochure chronicles snow removal activities in the United States and describes how we have dealt with snowstorms in cities in the United States since the 1700's. Avalanche Awareness answers ten common questions about avalanches. The Blizzards of 1996 also answers questions, provides weather maps and images, and includes links to other notable storms. Snow in the News lists the latest links to news site stories about snow."
  • All Info About Science for Families - "Your entry to a world of knowledge… All the sites on our network are written and managed by correspondents who are experts on their topics. They write informative and interesting feature articles on all aspects of their subjects giving an unrivalled coverage. They also provide relevant annotated links so that you can see other opinions and facets of the topics."
  • Am I Eating GE Corn? - "Yes. An estimated 40% of the US corn crop in 2003 was grown to genetically engineered corn hybrids (see map that follows). Because GE corn is not separated from conventional corn by mills and processors at harvest time, all corn-based food ingredients are very likely to have been made from a mixture of GE and non-GE corn varieties. Corn-based food ingredients include corn starch, flour, masa, corn syrup, corn oil, sweeteners, baking powder, alcohols, fillers used in pills and tablets, and some nutritional supplements, like Vitamin C. Sweet corn-- as fresh ears of corn-- is much less likely to be genetically engineered (3-5% of the US crop). Most US processors of canned sweet corn do not use GE varieties at all, and there is no GE popcorn on the market."
  • Arrow Spinning - Why arrows move through the air the way they do, and how and why we can alter their motion.
  • Art & Science Collaborations - "The purpose of Art & Science Collaborations, Inc. (ASCI) is to raise public awareness about artists and scientists using science and technology to explore new forms of creative expression, and to increase communication and collaborations between these fields."
  • Articles on "Electricity" - A series of short articles on electricity by W J Beaty, an electrical engineer at the University of Washington. Some of these articles address various, common misconceptions.
  • Artificial Intelligence, and Robot Wisdom - Or An Outsider's Guide to Artificial Intelligence. An overview of AI on the WWWeb, this provocative and opinionated short course is richly linked to useful net resources.
  • Ask an Astronomer at Cornell University - When you send an astronomy question to us, it will be forwarded to one of the participating scientists here at Cornell. Most of us are graduate students studying for PhDs in astronomy, and all of us are actively involved in astronomy research, but we love to take time out from our work to share our knowledge with those who are curious."
  • Ask a Scientist at Cornell University - "The Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers (MRSEC) program provides support for interdisciplinary materials research and education of the highest quality while addressing fundamental problems in science and engineering that are important to society. An essential and outstanding feature of CCMR is our Educational Programs activity. Many Cornell faculty (including many non-CCMR members), postdocs, graduate and Cornell undergraduate students are important contributors to this highly successful program. The graduate students in particular are enthusiastic and effective ambassadors for science in both the 'in house' programs and in traveling to regional schools to work with students and teachers. We are building the outreach culture into our graduate education so that all scientists understand their role and responsibility in helping the nation become scientifically literate."
  • The Association for History and Computing - "An international organisation which aims to promote and develop interest in the use of computers in all types of historical study at every level, in both teaching and research."
  • AstronomyOnline - "I designed this website to be a resource, a first stop for those who are interested in the subject of Astronomy. I have separated this website into major categories, with each main category grouped into easy to follow sub-categories. The content on this site is not to replace other websites, magazines or textbooks; only to serve as a starting point and to provide enough information to stimulate curiosity."
  • Background information for Sound - "What is sound? What is a sound vibration? What is the frequency of sound waves? What is the wavelength of a sound wave? What is the amplitude of sound waves? Can sound energy be changed into other forms of energy? What is an oscilloscope? How can we use the conversion of sound energy? How does a telephone work? What is the telephone electronics box? Why is there a telephone bell? How does a telephone dial work? How does the telephone handset work?"
  • Backyard Conservation - "Through a generous grant from the Natural Resources Conservation Service, a dedicated team of staff at the Wildlife Habitat Council in cooperation with environmental education experts developed a series of lesson plans to teach students about Backyard Conservation through hands-on studies that promote field investigation and action. These lessons inspire students to apply classroom knowledge to real-world situations by investigating local ecosystems. Students engaging in these lessons will learn the components of habitat and the specific needs of species such as birds, frogs and butterflies, study the interdependence of plants and animals, recognize invasive species and understand how community values impact the creation of wildlife habitat."
  • Beetles - "Beetles or Coleoptera (scientific Latin name) are the order including the largest number of species not only in the class of insects (Insecta), but also in the entire animal kingdom (Animalia). Not less than a quarter of all animal species on our planet are beetles. Beetles occur in every part of the world and in nearly every type of habitat. Beetles are studied by a special area of zoology - coleopterology. Studies of beetles have been conducted at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), St.Petersburg, since its foundation."
  • Beginners Guides to Measurement - "These beginners guides introduce important features & concepts on the following areas of measurement: Acoustics, Atomic Time, Colour, Computing and Measurement, Electricity, Ionising Radiation, Length, Light, Mass, Materials, Temperature, Traceability and Uncertainty. NPL has also produced the following two guides: A history of length, The Units of Measurement."
  • BloodLines: Technology Hits Home - "Are we creating a world that we won't want to inhabit? Explore this and many other questions in Making Precedent, an interactive feature where you make the difficult decisions—and face the ethical dilemmas."
  • Brain Briefings - "A series of two-page newsletters explaining how basic neuroscience discoveries lead to clinical applications."
  • Bridge to Classroom - "Designing and building a bridge to withstand earthquakes is no easy challenge. Explore the science, technology and people involved in the bridge with these interactive learning modules and simulations! Learn what causes earthquakes and see what scientists are predicting for the the coming quake. Explore key moments in the bridge's construction and meet some of the people and technologies involved in the new bridge.Take on the challenge facing bridge designers and design a bridge that can withstand a Maximum Seismic Event—then test your bridge to see how it fares!"
  • The Bug Review - Information, images and advice about the bugs we can find in most homes, from earwigs to carpenter ants, and more.
  • BugGuide.net - "An online resource devoted to North American insects, spiders and their kin, offering identification, images, and information."
  • Canadian Astronomy Education - The Canadian Astronomical Society offers educational astronomy materials, including an interactive tour of the universe. for teachers, students, and professional and amateur astronomers.
  • The Center for Bits and Atoms. Fab Lab Central - "How To Make (almost) Anything... How To Make Something That Makes (almost) Anything ..."
  • The Chance Project - "'What’s the chance of that!?' It is a question that almost all people ask—sometimes after the fact—in trying to make sense of a seemingly improbable event and, at other times, in preparation for action, as an attempt to foresee and plan for all the possibilities that lie ahead. In either case, it is mathematics in general, and probability and statistics in particular, that the public looks to for a final answer to this question. One out of one hundred, 4 to 1 odds, an expected lifetime of 75 years—these are the sorts of answers people want. When used honestly and correctly, numbers can help clarify the essence of a confusing situation by decoupling it from prejudicial assumptions or emotional conclusions. When used incorrectly—or even worse, deceitfully—they can lend a false sense of scientific objectivity to an assertion, misleading those who are not careful enough or knowledgeable enough to look into the reasoning underlying the numerical conclusions."
  • The Chemistry of Autumn Colors - "Every autumn across the Northern Hemisphere, diminishing daylight hours and falling temperatures induce trees to prepare for winter. In these preparations, they shed billions of tons of leaves. In certain regions, such as our own, the shedding of leaves is preceded by a spectacular color show. Formerly green leaves turn to brilliant shades of yellow, orange, and red. These color changes are the result of transformations in leaf pigments."
  • Chemistry of How Things Work, and Decisions—Good and Bad—that Bring Chemistry into Our Life - "ChemCases.com is a series of curriculum units that link responsible decision making in product development with chemical principles taught in General Chemistry."
  • ChemTeam: A Tutorial for High School Chemistry - "A man was out walking in the desert when a voice said to him, 'Pick up some pebbles and put them in your pocket, and tomorrow you will be both happy and sad.' The man obeyed. He stooped down and picked up a handful of pebbles and put them in his pocket. The next morning he reached into his pocket and found diamonds and rubies and emeralds. And he was both happy and sad. Happy he had taken some - sad that he hadn't taken more. And so it is with education."
  • Chickscope - "Using computers in the classroom with access to the Internet, students and teachers are able to access data generated from the latest scientific instruments. The goals include an increased understanding of the process of gathering scientific data and the opportunity to interact with scientists from several disciplines and students in other classrooms The access to unique scientific resources and expertise provides motivation for learning science and mathematics and stimulates interest in the scientific world."
  • Circular Motion and Planetary Motion - "Newton's laws of motion and kinematic principles are applied to describe and explain the motion of objects moving in circles; specific applications are made to roller coasters and athletics. Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation is then presented and utilized to explain the circular and elliptical motion of planets and satellites."
  • Clean Vehicles - "UCS [The Union of Concerned Scientists] continues to be one of the most visible groups on fuel economy issues.... The EPA proposed new standards for agriculture, construction, and other off-highway equipment that will cut pollution from these diesel-powered engines tenfold over the coming decade. UCS played an important role in efforts leading up to the proposal, and our report, Cleaning Up Diesel Pollution, helped create pressure for strong action and generated substantial media coverage. UCS and its members then helped to generate more than 25,000 comments to the EPA, encouraging the agency to both protect and strengthen its proposed regulation."
  • Climate-Society Reference Tool - "This is a comprehensive and growing listing of publications and projects relating to the interactions of climate, human society and the environment, with an emphasis on societal vulnerabilities or opportunities relating to variations in climate over one or several seasons. It is an information resource to aid educators, researchers, and practitioners … You can access the information with simple text searches, or by searching or browsing predetermined topic, sector, and region keywords."
  • Climate of Uncertainty - "A deafening clap of thunder and a brilliant stroke of lightening—though sometimes fun to watch, there is something troubling about moments of nature's beauty. Rain showers may be harbingers of an unwelcome future. Extra rain and snow might be evidence that global warming is coming to the northern half of the United States. Some scientists say the extra precipitation could disrupt a balance between fresh and salt water in the Atlantic Ocean, and might abruptly cripple a massive ocean current known as the Great Conveyor. If the Great Conveyer is disrupted, it could cause catastrophic climate changes including sudden cooling in some areas and devastating droughts elsewhere."
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  • Cloud Types - A marvelous multimedia NASA site
  • Culinary Microbes - "While the more notorious food microbes like E. coli and Salmonella may hog the spotlight, we shouldn't neglect all the lovely microorganisms that bring us such life-affirming foods as wine, cheese, and even chocolate. The following collection of Web sites presents a small sample of what these beneficial bugs do for us."
  • The Color Tree - "This site contains information about both electronic and pigment-based color theory. Emphasis is placed on exploratory exercises that allow the user to discover for themselves the theories and ideas introduced in each section. This site … has been designed for professor Roger Mayer at Brown University, to be used in his Studio Foundation course, and it was created as a project for Computer Science 92: Educational Software, also at Brown University … The contents of the site can be broken down into four main sections: Electronic Color: A short introduction to electronic color and its differences from pigment-based color; Color Models: A brief overview of the history of color models, both pigment-based and electronic, and an application of two of the electronic models; Color Mixing: An introduction to Goethe and his color triangle, and an application using his triangle to experiment with different color mixing; Color Contrast: An introduction to the ideas of Johannes Itten and Joseph Albers, and an application of several of Albers exercises."
  • Confusions About Human Races - Richard C Lewontin's precise and thorough debunking of the notion of race.
  • Cosmic Journey. History of Scientific Cosmology - "The history of cosmology is a grand story of discovery, from ancient Greek astronomy to space telescopes. This Website, prepared by experts, mirrors the structure of the science, with cosmological theory and astronomical instruments side by side.
  • Daylight Saving Time - "Come learn the history of daylight saving, from Benjamin Franklin to the present..."
  • Dairy Science and Technology - "This is an educational site focused on milk, dairy products, and dairy technology. It was developed (originally in 1995) for use with an undergraduate course in dairy processing at the University of Guelph. It is now available as a resource for university and secondary school students, industry personnel, and interested consumers around the world. This site was developed and is continually maintained by Professor Douglas Goff, University of Guelph."
  • The Dana Centre - "The Dana Centre is a stylish, purpose-built venue, complete with a cafèbar, appealing to 18-45-year-olds. It is a place for them to take part in exciting, informative and innovative debates about contemporary science, technology and culture... It's the place for experimental dialogue events, blending the best from science, art, performance and multimedia to provoke discussion and real engagement with the key issues of the day... State-of-the-art digital facilities link the Centre and its events with venues all over the UK, those on the Internet and everyone with a mobile phone... The events focus on themes that are important to you and present them in new and attractive ways - all in a lively, informal atmosphere. If you care about how the science behind the headlines affects you and your environment, want to challenge leading experts face to face, argue the case for valuing animals over human embryos, or learn how to make ice cream in 90 seconds, then check out what's on at the Dana Centre. The Dana Centre is a collaboration between the BA (British Association for the Advancement of Science), the European Dana Alliance for the Brain and the Science Museum."
  • Dictionary of Computing - "A searchable dictionary of acronyms, jargon, programming languages, tools, architecture, operating systems, networking, theory, conventions, standards, mathematics, telecoms, electronics, institutions, companies, projects, products, history, in fact anything to do with computing."
  • Discovering Materials Science and Engineering - "Work and study in the field of materials science and engineering is grounded in an understanding of why materials behave the way they do, and encompasses how materials are made and how new ones can be developed. For example, the way materials are processed is often important. People in the Iron Age discovered this when they learned that soft iron could be heated and then quickly cooled to make a material hard enough to plow the earth; and the same strategy is used today to make high-strength aluminum alloys for jet aircraft. Today we demand more from our materials than mechanical strength, of course--electrical, optical, and magnetic properties, for example, are crucial for many applications. As a result, modern materials science focuses on ceramics, polymers, and semiconductors, as well as on materials, such as metals and glasses, that have a long history of use."
  • The Discovery of Global Warming - "A hypertext history of how scientists came to (partly) understand what people are doing to change the Earth's climate."
  • Earth Science World - " The Earth Science World ImageBank has photographs of all aspects of Earth Science available to the public, educators, and the geoscience community. Interactive Geological Time Scale: select multiple time periods from a list and display them on an Interactive Geological Time Scale. Earth Data: Get climate data from weather stations around the world …"
  • EarthScope - "EarthScope is a bold undertaking to apply modern observational, analytical and telecommunications technologies to investigate the structure and evolution of the North American continent and the physical processes controlling earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. EarthScope will provide a foundation for fundamental and applied research throughout the United States that will contribute to the mitigation of risks from geological hazards, the development of natural resources, and the public’s understanding of the dynamic Earth."
  • Echo Virtual Center - "Cataloguing, Annotating, and Reviewing Sites on the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine."
  • Ecology Education Network - "The Ecological Society of America (ESA) is pleased to announce the beta launch of the Ecology Education Network (ecoed.net). The goal of this library is to provide educators a forum to contribute and locate peer reviewed, scientifically and pedagogically sound ecology education content. EcoEdNet will strive to foster a community of ecology education users and contributors."
  • El Niño and La Niña: - "Tracing the Dance of Ocean and Atmosphere. By now most people have heard of El Niño, if only to know the name refers to some kinds of abnormal weather. The definition of 'abnormal' varies widely with geography, though. For people who live in Indonesia, Australia, or southeastern Africa, El Niño can mean severe droughts and deadly forest fires. Ecuadorians, Peruvians, or Californians, on the other hand, associate it with lashing rainstorms that can trigger devastating floods and mudslides. Severe El Niño events have resulted in a few thousand deaths worldwide, left thousands of people homeless, and caused billions of dollars in damage. Yet residents on the northeastern seaboard of the United States can credit El Niño with milder-than-normal winters (and lower heating bills) and relatively benign hurricane seasons."
  • The Electronic Universe - "Welcome to the Electronic Universe, and educational outreach server maintained by physics professor Dr Greg Bothun. Here you will find materials and courseware on sciences of all fields, from Physics to Geology."
  • The Elegant Universe - "Eleven dimensions, parallel universes, and a world made of strings. It' not science fiction, it' string theory!"
  • Elementymology & Elements Multidict - Peter van der Krogt is "not a chemist, but a (map) historian much interested in the origin of names. On several of the sites listing elements you will find historical notes and often an explanation of the origin of element names. However, mostly, the authors of these pages copy each other and the same errors and mistakes are repeated. [ he ] tried to do some new etymological research on the element names, and find the original articles where the discoverer of a new element announced his find and explained the naming."

  • Energy Tutorial - "Energy is defined in Webster's dictionary as 'capacity for action or performing work.' Any action that occurs in nature is accompanied by a reduction in the overall quality of energy while energy is neither destroyed nor created, but transformed into state(s) or form(s) with an overall lower quality or potential… Higher forms of energy are harnessed by natural or human processes and are downgraded to lower forms of energy and rendered often useless, thus a continuos depletion of useful energy forms occurs in nature."
  • Engineering and the Guitar - "One thing you learn in engineering school is to begin looking—looking at anything—bridges, ships, video games, cars and radio antennas. As engineers, we look at things through hypercritical eyes, always asking ourselves, 'How did they do that?' or 'What a crummy design! I know I can do better.' We can learn a lot about engineering principles simply by looking around, sometimes right in our midst. The guitar is a great example. Study the guitar and watch the musician who plays it. The guitar touches on a rich set of engineering principles, among them: resonant frequency, period, amplitude, distortion, harmonics, wavelength, stress & strain, elastic limit, am, fm, damping coefficient, Doppler effect, step response, coupled oscillations, fft’s and signal processing. Let’s play around with some of these and see what we can learn from the simple acoustic guitar."
  • Engines 101 - A NASA website with excellent introductions to jet engines, present and future, and about aeronautics in general.
  • Everyday MysteriesDid you ever wonder why a camel has a hump? If you can really tell the weather by listening to the chirp of a cricket? Or why our joints make popping sounds? These questions deal with everyday phenomena that we often take for granted, but each can be explained scientifically. Everyday Mysteries will help you get the answers to these and many other of life's most interesting questions through scientific inquiry. In addition, we will introduce you to the Library of Congress' rich collections in science and technology. All of the questions presented on this Web site were asked by researchers and answered by librarians from the Library's Science Reference Services."
  • Everyday Science - "Everyday Science is a radio series of two-minute vignettes that explore the wonders of science found in our everyday lives in a creative and interesting approach, framed by quality production featuring unique sound design, clever writing and an engaging host. Everyday Science was launched in 1995 by Bayer Corporation as part of 'Making Science Make Sense' a company-wide initiative that advances science literacy… "
  • Everyday Science at the National Synchrotron Light Source - "The National Synchrotron Light Source is a scientific facility that is funded by the US Department of Energy. Each year, more than 2500 scientists from all over the world come to perform experiments at the NSLS. This website describes some of the everyday science that goes on at the NSLS and how it may impact your everyday life."
  • Evolution and Analysis of the Toothbrush - "The following article on the evolution and analysis of the toothbrush was written by Kyle Sembera, a mechanical engineering senior at Lamar University, Beaumont, Tex, as a final assignment for an elective design class. Sembera’s toothy research project was inspired by course professor P R Corder who, during a recent visit to the dentist, found himself musing on the merits of modern toothbrush design."
  • The Evolution of Culture - An article by Daniel Dennett, which illustrates one of the most popular notions of information. From the e-zine Edge.
  • Evolution Website - "4,000 million years crammed into one website." Charles Darwin's Origin Of Species online; Essays on Darwin and Darwinism for beginners to experts; Play with Biotopia, an online artificial life environment; The Fossil Roadshow from the Natural History Museum in London; Why do species die out? etc.
  • Expansion of the Universe - A slideshow presentation by Maxine Phaisalakani, at the UNiversity of Toronto, which describes the research which led to the discovery of the expansion of the universe.
  • Explorations in Earth Science - An impressive range of topics such as: 3-D Earth Structure, Earth’s Interior Structure, Journey to the Center of the Earth, Earthquakes, Plate Tectonics/Foam Models, etc.
  • Exploring Fractals - "This World Wide Web project commenced in July 1994. It is is based on a curriculum, entitled 'Exploring Fractal Dimension,' developed by Mary Ann Connors and Anna Rose Haralampus at an NSF funded Institute for High School Mathematics Teachers at Georgetown University July - August, 1991. Its revision entitled 'Exploring Fractals: From Cantor Dust to The Fractal Skewed Web' has been edited by Mary Ann Connors 1994 - 2004."
  • Food and Environment - "Our [ Union of Concerned Scientists ] goal is to create a food system that encourages innovative and environmentally sustainable ways to produce high-quality, safe, and affordable food, while ensuring that citizens have a voice in how their food is grown. We focus on: Antibiotic Resistance, preserving life-saving antibiotics by eliminating their unnecessary use on farm animals; Biotechnology, strengthening federal oversight of genetically engineered products for food and agriculture; Sustainable Agriculture, promoting an economically sound food system that produces abundant and affordable food, clean water and air, and diverse landscapes and habitats."
  • Football Physics - "Every Husker home game, Dr Tim Gay attemps something as crazy as running against the NU defense: bringing physics to everyday life. In one-minute segments shown on the screens around the stadium, he talks about basic physics concepts that play an important role in the game of football."
  • Freshwater (Enrironment Canada) - "The primary objective of Environment Canada's Freshwater Website is to instill in Canadians a knowledge and understanding of the nature and extent of freshwater in Canada in the hope that they will recognize the need to value this precious resource and will be motivated to take action to conserve and protect it in their homes, schools, industries, businesses and communities. The Freshwater Web Site is 'subject driven.' Organized into five main subject categories, a number of sub-topics are provided under each category. The five main subject categories and the sub-topics [are] the nature of water, water policy and legislation, the management of water. water and culture."
  • Freshwater (UNEP) - "About one-third of the world's population lives in countries with moderate to high water stress. The problems are most acute in Africa and West Asia but lack of water is already a major constraint to industrial and socio-economic growth in many other areas, including China, India and Indonesia. If present consumption patterns continue, two out of every three persons on Earth will live in water-stressed conditions by the year 2025. The declining state of the world's freshwater resources, in terms of quantity and quality, may prove to be the dominant issue on the environment and development agenda of the coming century."
  • Friction at the Nano-Scale - "Nanomachines will depend on our knowledge of friction, heat transfer and energy dissipation at the atomic level for their very survival. Jacqueline Krim of North Carolina State University, US, explains" the little we know about this most common force--friction.
  • Fun Science Gallery - "Fun Science Gallery was born in 1995, it suggests experimental activities, it addresses Amateur Scientists and it can be useful in school too. In fact, experimental activities have important didactic functions in making the comprehension of abstract concepts easier… The activities also provide the possibility of observing the real world more closely and acting upon it… The Fun Science Gallery articles try to revalue scientific knowledge and the real world… which has been often made boring by abstract teaching."
  • Fundamentals of Physical Geography - Despite the 'text-book' title, this in fact a very good Introduction to the Biosphere, which can provide solid introductions to various topics discussed in the course. Here are the topics covered: Origin and Definition of Life; Biological Classification of Organisms; Natural Selection and Evolution; Organization of Life: Species, Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems; Abiotic Factors and the Distribution of Species; Biotic Interactions and the Distribution of Species; Concept of Ecological Niche; Species Diversity and Biodiversity; Plant Succession; Introduction to the Ecosystem Concept; Characteristics of the Earth's Terrestrial Biomes; Primary Productivity of Plants; Production by Consumers and the Grazing Food Chain; Organic Decomposition and the Detritus Food Chain; Trophic Pyramids and Food Webs; Biogeochemical Cycling: Inputs and Outputs of Nutrients to Ecosystems Soil Organic Matter Decomposition and Nutrient Cycling; The Carbon Cycle; The Nitrogen Cycle; and links to related resources.
  • Futurama πk - Mathematics in the Year 3000 - "Futurama is a rare exception in broadcast television—a satirical science fiction cartoon that aims its jokes squarely at the top of the brow. Futurama is especially fun to watch because math, science, or programming references seem to appear in almost every episode."
  • Gallery of Fluid Dynamics - "One of the most attractive features of fluid mechanics is the beauty of the flows one encounters. Whether one is observing vortex streets, the potential flow around an airfoil or body, shock refraction or diffraction, or waves breaking on a beach, the aesthetic appeal of fluid mechanics is impossible to deny. Because of this visual appeal of all things fluid, many people have generated Fluid Flow Galleries; this is my version of the genre. The approach here is to include images, pictures, and animations illustrating a wide variety of phenomena. I've also added explanations and discussions of the physics."
  • The Geee! in Genome - "Are you ready for genetic testing? Experts debated the issues at our first public forum. Genetic profiling of a population… a health care benefit? A threat to privacy?"
  • General and Human Biology Online Textbooks - Michael Gregory's excellent introductory texts.
  • General Chemistry Case Studies - "Chemistry of How Things Work and Decisions - Good and Bad - that Bring Chemistry into Our Life. Twelve case studies of chemistry in the products we use and the situations we meet. ChemCases.com helps you evaluate the decisions behind these products and situations."
  • Genes and History - "Find out how science can help solve historical riddles that have long perplexed historians, and how history can offer cautionary tales about the promise of science. Discover how the junk in your genes can point the way back to your ancestral past. Eugenics: how did the 'science of the well born' become genetics' ugly sister? Will the 'New Eugenics' learn the lesson from history? Find out how Carbon dating can help unlock the secrets of the past."
  • Geology for Everyone - "Many people have a somewhat irrational fear of science. Geology, as a science, can sometimes be a turn-off for the general public. Largely this fear, where it exists, arises from a perceived lack of knowledge and understanding of the subject. In the Geological Survey of Ireland, we believe that geology can be both interesting and easy to understand. In this section we intend to keep geology simple thereby opening it up as an interesting topic to a far wider audience than currently exists."
  • Glaciers - "Today, glaciers contain nearly 75% of the world’s fresh water supply in ice that covers about 10% of land area. In contrast, ice covered as much as 30% of total land area during the most recent ice age. The largest concentration of ice today is the Antarctic ice sheet, up to 4,200 meters thick in some areas, and in the Greenland ice sheet. The remainder of glaciers is located in montane regions and in ice caps in polar seas. If climate were to suddenly warm enough to melt all land ice, there would be a eustatic sea level rise of about 70 meters. Sea level has risen about 100 meters since the last glacial maximum 20,000 years ago."
  • Global Climate Change - "Climate is the average pattern of weather over the long term. The earth’s climate has warmed and cooled for millions of years, since long before we appeared on the scene. There’s no doubt that the climate is growing warmer currently; indications of that change are all around us. Though climate change isn’t new, the study of how human activity affects the earth’s climate is. The exploration of climate change encompasses many fields, including physics, chemistry, biology, geology, meteorology, oceanography, and even sociology. At this Web site, you can explore scientific data relating to the atmosphere, the oceans, the areas covered by ice and snow, and the living organisms in all these domains. You’ll also get a sense of how scientists study natural phenomena—how researchers gather evidence, test theories, and come to conclusions."
  • Global Warming: Frequently Asked Questions - " This page is based on a brief synopsis of the 2001 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and the National Research Council's 2001 report Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions, as well as NCDC's own data resources... One of the most hotly debated topics on Earth is the issue of climate change, and the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) data centers are central to answering some of the most pressing global change questions that remain unresolved."
  • Gravity Discovery Center - "The Gravity Discovery Centre will integrate art, science and technology and will provide a cross cultural understanding of cosmology from the Dreamtime to the Big Bang Theory. The Gravity Discovery Centre is designed to help re-open doors of curiosity. It is designed for those who are susceptible to and want to know more about the universe at large and its creation. A journey down a progressively darkening gallery past displays of gravitational phenomena to a dark area showing laser defined gravity effects and back again is designed to be a practical economic plan. It will be a transitional experience for the visitor."
  • Great Achievements of 20th Century Mechanical Engineering - "The Automobile, Apollo Moon Landing, Power Generation, Agricultural Mechanization, The Airplane, Integrated Circuit, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, CAD/CAM and CAE Technology, Bioengineering, Codes and Standards."
  • The Grey Labyrinth - Archive of mathematical, philosophical, scientific puzzles. Try to solve some of them, then check if you are right.
  • Harvard University, Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Applied Mathematics and Mechanics - Don't let the title discourage you. This site, maintained by Professor L Mahadevan, is about some fascinating work on everyday phenomena, such as: why and how do flags flutter? how does a venus flytrap traps its prey?, do fungi move?, is there order in the wrinkling of the skin?, does the dripping of a dripping faucet have a pattern? etc.
  • Harvest Moon Arrives on September 21st [2002] - "The full Moon on Saturday, September 21st [2002], comes with a special name and meaning. It's the Harvest Moon. But—as you may always ask at this time of year—what is a Harvest Moon, anyway? Lots of half-right (or worse) explanations are floating around and get reported every year as fact. So here is the 100%-right explanation—courtesy of Sky & Telescope, the world's leading astronomy magazine."
  • Herbal Safety - " Introduction to the Herbal Safety website. Introduction to the Scientific Monographs. How popular is Herbal Medicine in the U.S.? The top selling Herbal products in the US. Why is the true identity of herbs important? How much scientific information about medicinal plants do we have at this time? The case of the Medicinal Plants of Mexico."
  • Higgs Boson: One Page Explanation - "In 1993, the UK Science Minister, William Waldegrave, challenged physicists to produce an answer that would fit on one page to the question 'What is the Higgs boson, and why do we want to find it?'" Here are the five winning entries.
  • High-Speed Visual Imaging - "Some common misconceptions about high-speed photography are that it's only for experts and that it requires specialized and expensive equipment. The HiViz site is dedicated to dispelling those myths by providing Tools (instructions for setting up and using your own high-speed imaging system, including triggers, flash units, cameras, and timing devices); Activities (guidance in photographing and demonstrating bursts, pops, snaps, smashes and splashes); FAQ (answers to frequently-asked questions about cameras, flash units, cameras, and timing systems); Links (high-speed photography resources on the web); Galleries (portfolios of exemplary student work); Projects (in-depth photographic studies of the 'unseen' world."
  • History of Locks - "A tour of locks from pre-history to the present"
  • Hobbes' Internet Timeline - An Internet timeline highlighting some of the key events and technologies which helped shape the Internet as we know it today.
  • Holding On to Reality - An excerpt from Albert Borgmann's new book Holding On to Reality: The Nature of Information at the Turn of the Millennium.
  • How A Boomerang Works - " Boomerangs were the world's first heavier than air flying machines, used most famously by the Australian Aborigines, but also found in other ancient cultures in Egypt, stone age Europe and the Indian Sub Continent. No-one knows how they were first invented and even though they look simple, they use a very complex combination of physics and aerodynamics to perform their amazing returning flights."
  • How a Corn Plant Develops - "There's more than meets the eye in a field of growing corn. One way to look behind the scene is to consider the cornfield as a complex and constantly changing community. It is a manufacturing community with many thousands of highly organized and highly efficient 'factories' per hectare or acre. Basically, the raw materials for the factories (plants) are water and mineral nutrients from the soil and carbon dioxide and oxygen from the atmosphere. The internal machinery that transforms these raw materials into useful products (yield) is powered by sunlight. The products, called dry matter, consist of different combinations of carbohydrates, proteins, oils, and the mineral nutrients. Differences in growth and yield between hybrids are a result of differences in factory internal machinery."
  • How Do Animals See in the Dark? - "After the emergence of vertebrates from the water some 300 million years ago, the evolving landscape became more and more crowded with large herbivores and predators. However, a rich ecological niche remained available to competitors with the right adaptations—the abilities to find food and avoid predators at night. Although mammals first evolved over 200 million years ago, the majority of them remained primarily nocturnal until the demise of their major predators, the dinosaurs about 65 million years ago. After that, new ecological niches became available in the light of day. Then the modern complement of both diurnal and nocturnal mammals evolved. In order to survive at night, these animals had to find food in the dark. Some developed a highly-advanced senses of smell or specialized hearing abilities such as echolocation. Others acquired eye adaptations for improved night vision."
  • How Everyday Things are Made - "If you've ever wondered how things are made—products like candy, cars, airplanes, or bottles—or if you've been interested in manufacturing processes, like forging, casting, or injection molding, then you've come to the right place."
  • How Stuff Works - "How Hurricanes Work, How E-mail Works, How Seatbelts Work, How Phone-line Networking WorksHow Winemaking Works,…"
  • How Things Work - This is Louis A Bloomfield's book's (by the same title) companion website. "Think of this site as a radio call-in program that's being held on the WWW instead of the radio. If you ask how something works, using the button below, I'll try to provide an explanation. You'll find a more comprehensive discussion of many common objects in my book How Things Work: the Physics of Everyday Life."
  • How Things Work: The Physics of Everyday Life - This is the website provided by the publisher (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) of the book described in the previous item. Searchable archive.
  • How Volcanoes Work - "This website is an educational resource that describes the science behind volcanoes and volcanic processes. The site is sponsored by NASA under the auspices of Project ALERT (Augmented Learning Environment and Renewable Teaching). It is intended for the education of university students of geology and volcanology and teachers of earth science."
  • How We See: The First Steps of Human Vision - "Take a look around the room that you are in. Notice how the various images and colors that you see update constantly as you turn your head and re-direct your attention. Although the images appear to be seamless, each blending imperceptibly into the next, they are in reality being updated almost continuously by the vision apparatus of your eyes and brain. The seamless quality in the images that you see is possible because human vision updates images, including the details of motion and color, on a time scale so rapid that a 'break in the action' is almost never perceived. The range of color, the perception of seamless motion, the contrast and the quality, along with the minute details, that most people can perceive make 'real-life' images clearer and more detailed than any seen on a television or movie screen. The efficiency and completeness of your eyes and brain is unparalleled in comparison with any piece of apparatus or instrumentation ever invented. We know this amazing function of the eyes and brain as the sense of vision."
  • Human Biology - Developed by Michael Gregory at Clinton Community College in Plattsburgh, New York, this site includes modules on: What is Science? What is Life? Natural Selection. Biochemistry. Cells. Energy and Enzymes. Cell Reproduction. Genetics. Chromosomes. DNA. Cancer. Biotechnology
  • Humanist Discussion Group - An international electronic seminar on the application of computers to the humanities. Its primary aim is to provide a forum for discussion of intellectual, scholarly, pedagogical, and social issues and for exchange of information among members.
  • Influenza - "Epidemics and newly-emerging infections are on the move as never before, threatening the health of people around the world and affecting travel and trade in the global village. Globalization, climate change, the growth of megacities and the explosive increase in international travel are increasing the potential for rapid spread of infections. Deforestation and urban sprawl bring humans and animals in closer contact and allow animal pathogens to 'jump species' more easily and new epidemics to emerge. Many of these epidemics, such as cholera and meningitis, recurrently challenge health systems in countries with limited resources. Others, such as influenza and dengue, have an increasing potential to create new pandemics. The return of yellow fever threatens large cities in the developing world, while the emergence and rapid spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis and malaria increase treatment costs dramatically. Travel, trade and tourism are all affected by emerging and epidemic disease threats, which could be used to cause intentional epidemics (bioterrorism)."
  • Ingenious: Seeing Things Differently - "Ingenious is a new website that brings together images and viewpoints to create insights into science and culture. It weaves unusual and thought-provoking connections between people, innovations and ideas. Drawing on the resources of the National Museum of Science and Industruy, the site contains over 30,000 images which are used to illustrate over 30 different subjects, topics and debates."
  • Insultingly Stupid Movie Physics - "Technonerds go to movies strictly for entertainment, and of course, the most entertaining part comes after the movie when they can dissect, criticize, and argue the merits of every detail. However, when supposedly serious scenes totally disregard the laws of physics in blatantly obvious ways it's enough to make us retch. The motion picture industry has failed to police itself against the evils of bad physics. This page is provided as a public service in hopes of improving this deplorable matter. The minds of our children and their ability to master vectors are (shudder) at stake."
  • Intellectual Property in Cyberspace - Who owns what information on the Internet? Who should own what information on the Internet? As usage of the Net intensifies, these questions are becoming increasingly important and controversial. Lawyers, legal scholars, judges, lawmakers, and Internet users disagree concerning how the existing set of legal rules should be applied to this new medium - and disagree even more sharply concerning whether and how those rules should be modified to manage the medium better.
  • Intelligent Design? - "A special report reprinted from Natural History Magazine. Three proponents of Intelligent Design (ID) present their views of design in the natural world. Each view is immediately followed by a response from a proponent of evolution (EVO). The report, printed in its entirety, opens with an introduction by Natural History magazine and concludes with an overview of the ID movement."
  • Introduction to the Anthophyta: The Flowering Plants - "The flowering plants are important in many ways above and beyond their aesthetic appeal in flower arrangements. Not a day goes by in which our lives are not affected by flowering plants. Nearly all of our food comes from flowering plants; grains, beans, nuts, fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices almost all come from plants with flowers, as do tea, coffee, chocolate, wine, beer, tequila, and cola. Much of our clothing comes from them as well—cotton and linen are made from 'fibers' of flowering plants, as are rope and burlap, and many commercial dyes are extracted from other flowering plants. We also owe them credit for a large number of our drugs, including over-the-counter medicines such as aspirin, prescribed drugs such as digitalis and atropine, and controlled drugs such as opium, cocaine, marijuana, and tobacco."
  • The KnotPlot Site - "Here you will find a collection of knots and links, viewed from a (mostly) mathematical perspective. Nearly all of the images here were created with KnotPlot, a fairly elaborate program to visualize and manipulate mathematical knots in three and four dimensions. You can download KnotPlot and try it on your computer (see the link below), but first you may want to look at some of the images in the picture gallery."
  • The Last Word: Q's & A's on Everyday Scientific Phenomena - "Why is the sea salty? Why are airplane flights so bumpy, even in seemingly clear sky? Why some beer cans float and some don't? Will sound travel faster if the wind is blowing? Do any other animals beside humans eat fungi?"
  • The Laws List - "Laws, rules, principles, effects, paradoxes, limits, constants, experiments, & thought-experiments in physics."
  • Life Has a History - "Life Has a History provides students with an introduction to the history of life and how it results in the biodiversity of today. During this tour students learn about geologic time, fossils, ancestral relationships, cladograms, variation, natural selection, and extinction."
  • A Lightning Primer - "A historical essay on lightning research. This primer describes the characteristics of lightning and provides information on recent activities in lightning research."
  • Lightning Safety - "Lightning Kills, Play It Safe. Check this site for handouts, indoor and outdoor safety tips, medical facts, history, survivor stories, photos, teacher tools and more."
  • LiveScience - "LiveScience, a new original content website that is a fast-paced look at the new discoveries, intellectual adventures and idiosyncrasies of the world around us. 'We’re not just reporting the news, we’re taking on common misconceptions that surround scientific discoveries and deliver short, sharp explanations with a certain wit and style.'"
  • Making the Modern World - "Making the Modern World brings you powerful stories about science and invention from the eighteenth century to today. It explains the development and the global spread of modern industrial society and its effects on all our lives. The site expands upon the permanent landmark gallery at the Science Museum, using the Web and dynamic multimedia techniques to go far beyond what a static exhibition can do."
  • Lunar Meteorites - "Lunar meteorites, or lunaites, are meteorites from the Moon. In other words, they are rocks found on Earth that were ejected from the Moon by the impact of an asteroidal meteoroid or possibly a comet."
  • MadSci Network - "Welcome to the laboratory that never sleeps! MadSci Network represents a collective cranium of scientists providing answers to your questions. For good measure we provide a variety of oddities and other ends as well."
  • Marvin Minsky's Home Page - Minsky has made many contributions to Artificial Intelligence and related areas. In recent years he has worked chiefly on imparting to machines the human capacity for commonsense reasoning. His conception of human intellectual structure and function is presented in The Society of Mind (1987), which is also the title of a course he teaches at MIT.
  • Math and Physics Help - "This is a collection of papers that I, and my brother Gary Felder, have written to explain various concepts in math and physics." Examples: Negative Times Negative is What? Base Eight And other math for people who are missing fingers. How to Draw a Five-Dimensional Cube. Etc. etc.
  • Math in the Movies - Arnold G Reinhold's "guide to major motion pictures with scenes of real mathematics."
  • Mathematical Moments - "The Mathematical Moments program promotes appreciation and understanding of the role mathematics plays in science, nature, technology, and human culture."
  • Mathematical Patterns in African American Hairstyles - "Ethnomathematics is the study of such mathematical ideas involved in the cultural practices of a people ... Going into a community, examining its languages and values, as well as its experience with mathematical ideas is a first and necessary step in understanding ethnomathematics. In some cases, these ideas are embedded in products developed in the community. Examples of this phenomena are geometrical designs and patterns commonly used in hair braiding and weaving in African-American communities. For me, the excitement is in the endless range of scalp designs formed by parting the hair lengthwise, crosswise, or into curves."
  • A Mathematician Crunches the Supreme Court's Numbers - "The nine justices of the United States Supreme Court do not always issue unanimous decisions, nor do their votes match the pattern that would be shown by nine totally independent thinkers. For those who have ever wondered where the court's decisions might fall on the spectrum between monolithic unity and total randomness, an answer is now in."
  • Mathematicians of the African Diaspora - "In Mathematics, more than any other field of study, have we heard proclamations and statements similar to, "The Negro is incapable of succeeding." Ancient and present achievements contradict such statements. One of the purposes of this website is to exhibit the inaccuracy of those proclamations by exhibiting the accomplishments of the peoples of Africa and the African Diaspora within the Mathematical Sciences."
  • Mathematics in Various Cultures (MacTutor) - This great site is maintained by the School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of St.Andrews, Scotland, and selectively covers ancient Babylonian, ancient Egyptian, ancient Greek, Indian, Arabic, Mayan, American and Scottish mathematics.
  • Meteorology Education & Training - "The MetEd (Meteorology Education and Training) Website was established to provide education and training resources to benefit the operational forecaster community, university atmospheric scientists and students, and anyone interested in learning more deeply about meteorology and weather forecasting topics."
  • Milestones in the History of Thematic Cartography, Statistical Graphics, and Data Visualization: An Illustrated Chronology of Innovations - This site is maintained by Michael Friendly and Daniel J Denis at York University. "The graphic portrayal of quantitative information has deep roots. These roots reach into histories of thematic cartography, statistical graphics, and data visualization, which are intertwined with each other. They also connect with the rise of statistical thinking up through the 19th century, and developments in technology into the 20th century. From above ground, we can see the current fruit; we must look below to see the its pedigree and germination. There certainly have been many new things in the world of visualization; but unless you know its history, everything might seem novel."
  • Movement - "The NYU movement group is a new incarnation of the former Stanford Movement Group. It is a motion capture lab and research group dedicated to the analysis and animation of all forms of human movement. It is housed at NYU's Courant Institute and Center for Advanced Technology. Many projects are at the boundary between computer science, dance, performance art, animation, medical research, and other uses of motion capture technology."
  • Mathematics Museum - The name says it all...
  • The Museum of Unworkable Devices - "This museum is a celebration of fascinating devices that don't work. It houses diverse examples of the perverse genius of inventors who refused to let their thinking be intimidated by the laws of nature, remaining optimistic in the face of repeated failures. Watch and be amazed as we bring to life eccentric and even intricate perpetual motion machines which have remained steadfastly unmoving since their inception. Marvel at the ingenuity of the human mind, as it reinvents the square wheel in all of its possible variations. Exercise your mind to puzzle out exactly why they don't work as the inventors intended."
  • National Historic Chemical Landmarks - "he American Chemical Society, the world's largest scientific society, has declared nearly 40 places, discoveries, and achievements historic chemical landmarks. The process begins at the local level. ACS members identify milestones in their cities or regions, document their importance, and nominate them for landmark designation. An international committee of chemists, chemical engineers, museum curators, and science and technology historians evaluates each nomination and approves those meriting landmark status."
  • National Science Teachers Association: Science News - "…to promote excellence and innovation in science teaching and learning for all."
  • National Weather Service Radar Images: WSR-88D Radar FAQ's - "How does the radar work? Is everything I see on the images an accurate picture of my weather?What are the different types of radar images? How often are the images updated? What is Clear Air Mode? What is Precipitation Mode? What do the colors mean in the reflectivity products? What is the difference between base and composite reflectivity? What is UTC Time?"
  • Natural Resources Canada: Educational resources - The title says it all …
  • The Neo-Luddite Reaction - "Cultural change necessarily involves resistance to change. The term Luddite has been resurrected from a previous era to describe one who distrusts or fears the inevitable changes brought about by new technology. The original Luddite revolt occurred in 1811, an action against the English Textile factories that displaced craftsmen in favor of machines. Today's Luddites continue to raise moral and ethical arguments against the excesses of modern technology to the extent that it threatens our essential humanity." A large collection of good resources and links.
  • Netizens: An Anthology - On the Impact and History of Usenet and the Internet
    An ambitious look at the social aspects of computer networking. The authors, Michael Hauben and Ronda Hauben, examine the present and the turbulent future, and especially the technical and social roots of the Net.
  • Nexus: Architecture and Mathematics - "Nexus Network Journal is a peer-reviewed research resource for studies in architecture and mathematics."
  • Nicholas Negroponte's Home Page - With links to his WIRED Columns. (1993-1998).
  • NOISE - "NOISE (New Outlooks In Science & Engineering) is a new UK-wide campaign funded by the Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). NOISE aims to raise awareness of science & engineering among young people by making these subjects more relevant and accessible."
  • Number Watch - "Authored and maintained by John Brignell, this site is devoted to the monitoring of the misleading numbers that rain down on us via the media. Whether they are generated by Single Issue Fanatics (SIFs), politicians, bureaucrats, quasi-scientists (junk, pseudo- or just bad), such numbers swamp the media, generating unnecessary alarm and panic. They are seized upon by media, hungry for eye-catching stories. There is a growing band of people whose livelihoods depend on creating and maintaining panic. There are also some who are trying to keep numbers away from your notice and others who hope that you will not make comparisons. Their stock in trade is the gratuitous lie. The aim here is to nail just a few of them."
  • Of Mind and Matter. The Mystery of the Human Brain - This site "aims to promote awareness about the marvel of the human brain in an environment that is simple, enticing, and interactive. This Internet resource includes information about the anatomical, functional, and psychological aspects of this neurological organ along with details about disorders and ongoing research. These topics are also enforced by a broad range of fascinating applications to provide increased understanding of the material presented. So go ahead, and let your brain begin its journey to understand itself!"
  • Optics for Teens - Don't let the title put you off. "OpticsForTeens is brought to you by the Optical Society of America (OSA). OSA is a professional membership society representing a worldwide community of scientists, educators, engineers and students. The purposes of the organization are scientific, technical and educational. OSA member benefits, programming, publications and products set the profession’s standard of excellence. OSA’s membership totals nearly 15,000 individuals from over 100 countries." The site offers a solid introduction to optics and its applications in science, engineering, and medicine.
  • "Palais de la Découverte" - "Rendre compréhensible par tous la science et ses applications." http://www.palais-decouverte.fr/index.php?id=accueil2>/A>
  • Paleontology at the US Geological Survey - "Paleontology, the science which uses fossils to study life in past geologic time, has served an important role in geologic studies at the USGS since its establishment in 1879. As early as 1882, paleontologists like Othniel C. Marsh and Charles A. White, were making expeditions to the West, and returning with massive numbers of fossil specimens to be labeled, named, and described. In recent years, many of the paleontologic studies at the USGS have moved beyond the early collection, observation, and description endeavors. Today, USGS paleontologists are using the knowledge they gain in their study of fossils to answer important questions such as: (1) what was the world like in the past, (2) what were the forces that made the world change, and (3) how could these forces impact the world in our lifetime and that of future generations. Paleontologic tools also have changed significantly over the years. Scanning electron microscopes, ship-mounted drilling rigs, and computers are a far cry from the picks and hammers of early days, although these tools still are an essential part of every paleontologist's field kit."
  • Paper Airplanes - "I'm Ken Blackburn, and this web site is here to share what I know about paper airplanes. I held the Guinness record for time aloft for paper airplanes from 1983 to 1996 and have just regained the Guinness record with a flight of 27.6 seconds during an attempt on 10/8/98 in the Georgia Dome."
  • Physics.org - " The best physics resources, all in one place. Use our search technology to match your question, age and knowledge profile to the handpicked and refereed physics websites."
  • Physics 2000 - "To make physics more accessible to students and people of all ages and to counter its current negative image, by developing an innovative Internet Website, aimed at all ages, emphasizing imagery, interactivity and hierarchical organization… "
  • Physics and Acoustics of Baseball and Softball Bats - "There is a lot of really interesting physics in a study of baseball bats."
  • Physics Around Us - A series of beautiful images that should inspire intriguiing questions.
  • Physics Central - "We take you to a frontier area of physics every week. After a short introduction to the basic physics involved, we give you a taste of the current reseach in the field."
  • Physics in Everyday Life - Another list of useful links.
  • Physics in Sports - "PHYSICS! YUCK!! If you don't know what it is, or if the name scares you, don't let it. You use physics everytime you participate in a sport. It helps you kick or hit a ball, make a catch, or jump the farthest....select one of the titles below to take a look at some athletes in action and how their bodies and physics work together!"
  • Physics in Everyday Life - Another list of useful links.
  • http://www.aip.org/success/soundinvestment/index.htm
  • Physics News - News and information related to physics, and to science and public policy.
  • The Physics of … - "…see what my students have uncovered in their research."
  • Physics is a Sound Investment - "Acoustics is the science of sound. Acoustical scientists help to increase the clarity of music at concert halls, improve hearing aids, and reduce noise from highways and aircraft. Dating back to World War II, federally supported research on long-range underwater communication introduced sonar and ultrasound techniques which have become ubiquitous. Within industrial settings, robots use sonar for positioning themselves and pinpointing objects. Doctors now examine almost every pregnancy in the United States with ultrasound."
  • The Physics of Everyday Life - "All of [these] activities were developed for the Summer Institute for Excellence in Math and Science 'The Physics of Everyday Life' workshop held on the Clayton College & State University campus on June 12-16, 1995. This workshop focused on five key physical concepts: Newton's laws of motion, Bernoulli's equation, the 1st law of thermodynamics, Ohm's law, and Faraday's induction law. Through a demonstration and discussion format, the participants found ways to introduce and develop these topics using such activities as building a lever, flying an airplane, throwing a curve ball, boiling water, and turning on a light bulb."
  • The Physics of Racing - These articles were written by Brian Beckman, physicist, and member of No Bucks Racing Club.
  • The Physics of SCUBA Diving - "I have focused on the general knowledge of physics that diving instructors and divemasters need to know for their exams. It's very cool stuff for anyone interested in diving to know as well!"
  • The Physics of Skiing - "What's the radius of a pure carved turn? Do big people go faster? A simplified mathematical model of avalanches."
  • PhysLink - "The PhysLink.com is a comprehensive physics and astronomy online education, research and reference web site. In addition to providing high-quality content, PhysLink.com is a meeting place for professionals, students and other curious minds."
  • A Practical Guide to GPS - " When we have roads, power lines, heights of land, mountains, rivers and lakes, these are often sufficient along with the map and compass for us to establish with a reasonable degree of accuracy, where we are on the map. In those featureless areas however, where all looks the same for miles and miles of slowly rolling bush-land, grassland, desert, tundra, sea etc., the GPS takes over and will give a definitive location which may be found and plotted on a map. The usefulness of a GPS is now well recognized and interest is increasing all the time. As a result, there are those who do not know how to use a compass and map but, who after buying a GPS feel that they now have the ultimate tool for ease of travel in backcounry. If a person does not have a basic understanding of how to use a compass nor the desire and/or ability to learn, a hand held GPS is not for them."
  • Principles of Aeronautics - More accurately this website should be called 'Principles of Aerodynamics.' A very interesting site anyway, which provides good explanations of applied aerodynamics in many areas, including sports.
  • psci-com - "Your guide to quality Internet resources on public engagement with science and technology. psci-com offers free access to a searchable catalogue of Internet sites covering public engagement in science, science communication and the interpretation of science in society."
  • QuarkNet - "QuarkNet brings high school students and teachers to the frontier of 21st century research that seeks to research some of the mysteries about the structure of matter and the fundamental forces of nature. QuarkNet centers are connected to high-energy physics experiments operating at CERN in Switzerland, at Fermilab in Illinois, at SLAC in Califormia and others … Students learn fundamental physics as they analyze live online data and participate in inquiry-oriented investigations."
  • Rainbows on Titan - ... and on Earth. "" So, could rainbows form also on Titan? How do they form on Earth?
  • RatLab - "Ratlab is a nonprofit website that was created to spread a little science love to pretty much anyone who will listen. The site design and most of the content is by Kat, a 25 year old Microbiology PhD student who really should be reading research papers instead of playing on the net. The future plan for Ratlab is to include more content from other young scientists, so get in touch if you want to be involved."
  • Red Sprites and Blue Jets - "Red sprites and blue jets are upper atmospheric optical phenomena associated with thunderstorms that have only recently been documented using low light level television technology."
    Check How to Look For Sprites and Jets.
  • The Roads and Crossroads of Internet History - Gregory Gromov's "comprehensive and fascinating overview of the philosophy and history of the Internet. Many related links and a section on pertinent statistics. From Internet Valley, a Sacramento, California Internet consulting and publishing company."
  • Rough Science - "Led by host Kate Humble, five scientists are challenged to put their collective scientific knowledge to practical use. Transported to isolated locations, they are presented with a series of tasks, with two notable restrictions: they must complete their work within three days and, with the exception of a rudimentary tool kit, must use only indigenous materials. Rough Science was produced by the BBC and Open University, in association with WETA Washington, DC."

  • Satellite Meteorology Module Library - Everything you may want to know about the use of artificial satellites in the study of weather and climate.
  • Saving Time, Saving Energy: Daylight Saving Time, Its History and Why We Use It - "One of the biggest reasons we change our clocks to Daylight Saving Time (DST) is that it saves energy. Energy use and the demand for electricity for lighting our homes is directly connected to when we go to bed and when we get up. Bedtime for most of us is late evening through the year. When we go to bed, we turn off the lights and TV. In the average home, 25 percent of all the electricity we use is for lighting and small appliances, such as TVs, VCRs and stereos. A good percentage of energy consumed by lighting and appliances occurs in the evening when families are home. By moving the clock ahead one hour, we can cut the amount of electricity we consume each day. Studies done in the 1970s by the U.S. Department of Transportation show that we trim the entire country's electricity usage by about one percent EACH DAY with Daylight Saving Time."
  • The Science Behind Drug Abuse - From NIDA, The National Institute on Drug Abuse.
  • Science NetLinks - "part of the MarcoPolo Education Foundation. MarcoPolo partners the AAAS, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Council of the Great City Schools, the National Council on Economic Education, the National Geographic Society, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, and the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. The MarcoPolo partnership provides free, Internet-based content across academic disciplines. Science NetLinks' role is to provide a wealth of resources for K-12 science educators, including lesson plans and reviewed Internet resources. SNL is a dynamic site with new content being added on a regular basis, so check back often."
  • The Science of Cooking - " Discover how a pinch of curiosity can improve your cooking! Explore recipes, activities, and Webcasts that will enhance your understanding of the science behind food and cooking."
  • The Science of Cycling - "What is the Science of Cycling? Why do road bikes have thin tires, while mountain bikes have fat tires? What is a gear ratio? And how do gears help make the bicycle so efficient? What are the best materials for frames? What are the best designs? How do you stop and steer a bicycle? What forces keep the bicycle from falling over? How does drafting help a cyclist? What is skin friction? Why is the bicycle the most efficient way to travel? How do your muscles work?"
  • Science of Everyday Life - "Science is all around us, we only need to keep our eyes open to see that! My aim is to make my audience aware of that and to offer a slightly unconventional view of physics that starts with whole objects and looks inside them to see what it is that makes them work. The usual approach in teaching science involves stating the principles and then finding examples; however, I will try to convey an understanding and appreciation for the concepts and principles of physics and science by looking for and finding them within specific examples of objects or experiences in everyday life."
  • Science of Gardening - "Like all great endeavors, gardening is both a science and an art."
  • The Science of Hockey - "This site takes you inside the game: you'll hear from NHL players and coaches from the San Jose Sharks, as well as leading physicists and chemists."
  • The Science of Music - "What is music? Is birdsong music? How about the tap-tap-tap of a hammer, or the wail of a creaking door? Is playing a garbage can different than playing a drum? Explore the science of music with us, through these online exhibits, movies, and questions. Along the way, you can compose, mix, dance, drum, experiment, and above all … listen."
  • The Science of Sports - "Basketball: Bouncing Balls Experiment; Football: The Perfect Pass Experiment; Soccer: The Perfect Kick (Just for Kicks); Experiment; Baseball: Swinging Away Experiment."
  • The Science Page - A good list of science and science education sites.
  • The Science Toy Maker - "Non-commercial site for people who like to roll up their sleeves and make fun, mysterious toys that entice scientific investigation … All projects are accessible (so cheap to make that nobody is excluded because of cost); don't require special skill, tools, materials, or work facilities beyond a kitchen; are thoroughly tested to work, yet also have the potential to be improved by creative inventors and tinkerers; have a 'more about' page with explanations, related activities and quality links for further research."
  • Science Toys - "Make toys at home with common household materials, often in only a few minutes, that demonstrate fascinating scientific principles."
  • SciTech Daily Review - "It can be hard to find intelligent, informed science and technology coverage, so we treasure those writers and publications who make the effort to help keep us informed. Settle back and read the thought-provoking coverage of scitech issues with SciTech Daily Review," as well as the latest news.
  • The Scout Report - "The Scout Report is the flagship publication of the Internet Scout Project. Published every Friday both on the web and by email, it provides a fast, convenient way to stay informed of valuable resources on the Internet. Our team of professional librarians and subject matter experts select, research, and annotate each resource." In particular, check the weekly NSDL Scout Reports for the Life Sciences and Physical Sciences.
  • "Sex and the City stars stay upright because h = Q.(12+3s/8)" Say Scientists - "As Sex and the City's Carrie finally wanders off our television screens, physicists at the Institute of Physics have devised a formula that high-heel fans can use to work out just how high they can go. Based on your shoe size, the formula tells you the maximum height of heel you can wear without toppling over or suffering agonies."
  • Silly Putty U - "While many of us see Silly Putty® as, well, silly, the pinkish, bouncing, stretchy stuff has been the subject of dissertations by aspiring physicists and chemists… Silly Putty is a pretty unique substance. It stretches without breaking, yet it can be 'snapped off' cleanly. It bounces higher than a rubber ball. It floats if you shape it in a certain way, yet sinks in others. It can pick up pencil marks from pages and comics from some newspapers. If you slam it with a hammer, it keeps it shape, yet if you push with light, even pressure, it will flatten with ease. Gravity has a slow, yet devastating effect on Silly Putty creations…"
  • Simple Machines - " Learn about simple and compound machines while you explore the House and Tool Shed."
  • SimpsonsMath - "The Simpsons … contains over a hundred instances of mathematics ranging from arithmetic to geometry to calculus, many designed to expose and poke fun at innumeracy. In fact, Al Jean, Executive Producer and head writer, has a bachelor's degree in mathematics from Harvard University. Several episodes of The Simpsons contain significant mathematics that relates to material we normally cover in our classes. For these reasons, this program is an ideal source of fun ways to introduce important concepts to students, and to reduce math anxiety and motivate students in courses for non-majors."
  • Sloan Science Cinémathèque - "A website about films + filmakers, science + scientists, Science Cinémathèque is a forum for short films, interviews and articles that enhance the public understanding of science and technology."
  • Small Scale or Backyard Composting - "A significant fraction of the solid waste generated in the United States is organic material that can be recycled through small scale composting. There are many advantages to this strategy of waste management. Households, businesses and institutions may save money by composting items such as food scraps and yard trimmings while sending less waste to landfills and incinerators. In addition, small scale composting is often the most environmentally sound way of recycling organic materials. The finished compost is a good soil amendment for a variety of gardening and landscape uses."
  • The Small World Project - "In 1967, the social psychologist Stanley Milgram conducted a seminal experiment to test the hypothesis that members of any large social network (in his case, the population of the United States) would be connected to each other through short chains of intermediate acquaintances. In order to test this contention, Milgram introduced a novel technique of sending passport-like packets to a few hundred randomly-selected individuals in Nebraska and Kansas, with the aim of sending the packets to one of two 'target' in the Boston area… His famous result, now enshrined in popular culture, and sociology dogma, was that the average lengths of the resulting acquaintance chains was roughly six, where the final member of the chain was the target itself. This result led to the phrase 'six degrees of separation' later popularized by John Guare's 1990 play of the same name and numerous parlor games. In the era of electronic mail, and the Internet, many people, from social scientists, to mathematicians, to lay people, assume that the hypothesis has been demonstrated and that the world is, in this sense at least, 'small.' But is it really true?"
  • Smell 101 - "Smell 101 is the place to start learning all about the sense of smell and the benefits of fragrance … Each mini-lesson in this section will provide a summary of the selected topic followed by a list of additional resources that may include links to research papers and other web sites as well as a 'Suggested Reading' list of books and articles that you can research on your own."
  • The Soil Biology Primer - "The Soil Biology Primer is an introduction to the living component of soil and how it contributes to agricultural productivity, and air and water quality. The Primer includes units describing the soil food web and its relationship to soil health, and units about bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, arthropods, and earthworms. This booklet is suitable for a broad audience including farmers, ranchers, agricultural professionals, resource specialists, conservationists, soil scientists, students, and educators."
  • The Space Science Education Resource Directory - "The Space Science Education Resource Directory provides educators an entry point into the wealth of educational materials funded by NASA's Office of Space Science Education and Public Outreach Program. In 1996, the Space Science Advisory Committee Education and Public Outreach Task Force recommended that NASA space science educational materials be made widely available and easily accessible, using modern information technologies where appropriate. Under the leadership of Dr. Jeff Rosendhal, Assistant Associate Administrator for Education and Outreach at NASA HQ, this Resource Directory has been designed to respond to that recommendation."
  • Space Science Institute - "The Space Science Institute is exploring a model for what a twenty-first century scientific research institution should be—one that is firmly committed to integration as well as inspiration. We strongly believe that the scientific reserarch enterprise must no longer be practiced in isolation from the public that supports it. SSI is currently unique among scientific research institutions in America for two primary reasons: 1. we are dedicated to facilitating the more active and effective involvement of the space and earth science research community in K-12 education, and 2. we are committed to a balanced program of research and education."
  • Sport Science - From baseball to skateboard and surfing, from cycling to hockey …
  • Statistics in Sports - A section of the American Statistical Association. "The principal objectives of the Section are to foster statistics and its applications in sports, to promote unity and effectiveness of effort among all concerned with statistical problems in sports, and to increase the contribution of statistics in sports."
  • Stephen Hawkin's Universe - "Where do we come from? How did the universe begin? Why is the universe the way it is? How will it end? All my life, I have been fascinated by the big questions that face us, and have tried to find scientific answers to them. If, like me, you have looked at the stars, and tried to make sense of what you see, you too have started to wonder what makes the universe exist. The questions are clear, and deceptively simple. But the answers have always seemed well beyond our reach. Until now."
  • Steven Lubar's Course on the History and Sociology of Science - Technology and Society/Information and Communications (University of Pennsylvania).
  • Strange Matter - "Discover the secrets of everyday stuff. Developed by the Ontario Science Centre and presented by the Materials Research Society with the support of the National Science Foundation."
  • STSblog.org: Science and Technology Studies - "Science and Technology Studies looks at how science, technology, and medicine are actually done, understanding them as thoroughly embodied activities. This site brings some of the field's ideas to bear on current issues."
  • Superstrings! - "String theory is one of the most exciting and profound developments in modern theoretical physics. Unfortunately it is a highly technical subject that can only be well understood using the tools of Quantum Field Theory… The purpose of this online tutorial is to give a brief readable introduction to the basic concepts of string theory. Unfortunately we will have to sacrifice completeness and rigor in this non-technical treatment of the subject. Hopefully it will educate, spark the imagination, and leave you with an appreciation of this fascinating area of science and its implications. String theory is a science in progress; we are still learning new and unexpected things about it everyday. Whether or not string theory actually describes the universe that we live in is not known—yet."
  • The Surf Report - "A monthly list of educational Web sites prepared by the Wisconsin Educational Communications Board."
  • - "Loads of science tricks. Impress your friends and scare your family with these whacky science tricks: Balloon Shish Kebab, Pretty Spiral Spinner, Black out your sunnies, Flippin easy coin trick, Disappearing Dot, Nailing the act of balance, Indestructible Egg, When icebergs melt, Ripper Coin Trick, Make a 'Mexican Jumping Bean,' Move a paperclip with ESP, Toothpick Trick, Super-Strength Straw?, Paperclip Trick, Levitating Marble."
  • The Tease of Memory - "Psychologists are dusting off 19th-century explanations of déjà vu. Have we been here before?"
  • Techmate - Garry Kasparov, 13-time world chess champion, sinks into a deep blue funk.
  • TryScience.org - "TryScience.org is your gateway to experience the excitement of contemporary science and technology through on and offline interactivity with science and technology centers worldwide. Science is exciting, and it's for everyone! That's why TryScience and over 400 science centers worldwide invite you to investigate, discover, and try science yourself."
  • Understanding Genetics - "Find out how genes work and how they can affect your health and well-being. Learn the basics of genetics, how genes are inherited, genetic testing, ethics, new therapies, and much more."
  • Urban Agriculture Notes - "Urban Agriculture is a new and growing field that is not completely defined yet even by those closest to it. It concerns itself with all manner of subjects from rooftop gardens, to composting toilets, to air pollution and community development. It encompasses mental and physical health, entertainment, building codes, rats, fruit trees, herbs, recipes and much more."
  • UCSB ScienceLine - "UCSB ScienceLine is an innovative 'Ask a Scientist' program where students and teachers primarily from our local K-12 schools can submit science and engineering questions. The ScienceLine moderator sends these questions to designated scientists here at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The scientists usually send their responses back within one week. All questions and answers are posted in our archive."
  • Usenet Physics FAQ - Expert answers to all sorts of physics questions: Why are golf balls dimpled? Why do mirrors reverse left and right? Which way will my bathtub drain? Why is the sky blue? And if you are curious about more ponderous issues, the answers are there too: Is the speed of light constant? How is the speed of light measured? Why is the speed of light so high? What is dark matter? What is a black hole, really? How does the gravity get out of the black hole? Is the Big Bang a black hole? etc. etc.
  • Volcano Live - This website, by John Seach—one of the world's leading volcanologists— offers a wealth of information about live and dead volcanoes and the science of volcanology.
  • Volcano World - From the University of North Dakota. "Current Eruptions; Ask A Volcanologist; Interviews with Volcanologists; etc."
  • T S Warren Museum of Fluorescence - "Through exhibits, lectures, and workshops the Warren Museum seeks to reveal both the beauty and utility of fluorescence. More than 550 objects are currently on display. Thirteen cases of brightly glowing mineral specimens illustrate the diverse causes of fluorescence in the natural world, and an exhibit of such everyday items as drinking glasses, golf balls, plastic toys, and postage stamps reveals that fluorescence is a property shared by a wide range of common materials."
  • What are Fractals? - "Imagine [...] a picture of the coastline of Africa.You measure it with mile-long rulers and get a certain measurement. What if on the next day you measure it with foot-long rulers? Which measurement would give you a larger measurement. Since the coastline is jagged, you could get into the nooks and crannies better with the foot-long ruler, so it would yield a greater measurement. Now what if you measured it with an inch-long ruler? You could really get into the teeniest and tiniest of crannies there. So the measurement would be even bigger, that is if the coastline is jagged smaller than an inch. What if it were jagged at every point on the coastline? You could measure it with shorter and shorter rulers, and the measurement would get longer and longer. You could even measure it with infinitesimally short rulers, and the coastline would be infinitely long. That's fractal."
  • What Good is Math? - "…math will not give you the answer to 'the meaning of life,' but it will help you out in more ways than one. We all use math every day, most of the time without even realizing it! Here are some situations that you may find yourself in on any given day. Each one involves the use of math skills…"
  • What is a Blue Moon - "The trendy definition of "blue Moon" as the second full Moon in a month is a mistake."
  • What is Electricity? - "Electricity is a basic part of nature and it is one of our most widely used forms of energy. We get electricity, which is a secondary energy source, from the conversion of other sources of energy, like coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear power and other natural sources, which are called primary sources. Many cities and towns were built alongside waterfalls (a primary source of mechanical energy) that turned water wheels to perform work. Before electricity generation began slightly over 100 years ago, houses were lit with kerosene lamps, food was cooled in iceboxes, and rooms were warmed by wood-burning or coal-burning stoves. Beginning with Benjamin Franklin's experiment with a kite one stormy night in Philadelphia, the principles of electricity gradually became understood."
  • What is Physics? - "Physics is the study of how the physical universe works. Physicists want to know the answers to questions like 'How are stars born?', 'Why is the sky blue?', 'Why do things glow red then yellow and then white as they are heated?', 'What makes rubies red?', 'Why do magnets attract some metals and not others?', 'What are the smallest pieces we can split matter into?'."
  • What is the Ultimate Fate of the Universe? - "When you look out into the night sky, have you ever wondered about where the universe came from? Has it always been since the dawn of time, or can we measure its age? Is it expanding like scientists today seem to think? Is it infinite, or does our own universe seem to have a limit? That brings us to perhaps the most puzzling question: what is the ultimate fate of the universe? We may never know the answer, but that is the puzzle that modern cosmologists are trying to solve."
  • The Why Files - "The Why Files [are] part of the University of Wisconsin-Madison Graduate School, spinning off from the National Institute for Science Education (NISE), a National Science Foundation-funded think tank. First published on the World Wide Web in February of 1996, [provides] cogent, accurate and often droll explanations of the science and technology that underlie the news of the day... The Why Files format consists of alternating weekly features that key off developments that make headlines. Features are cataloged in an easily searchable archive and are regularly updated to keep pace with new developments in science....An important part of the project... is a program of research that seeks to determine the effectiveness of the web, and The Why Files in particular, as a way to better acquaint the public with issues of science and technology."
  • The Whys Guy - The Whys Guy is Mats Selen, a physics professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is the author of video clips of experiments on WCIA.
  • WISE: The Web-based Inquiry Science Environment - "Harness the power of the Internet… wisely. WISE is a simple yet powerful learning environment where students examine real-world evidence and analyze current scientific controversies. Our curriculum projects are designed to meet standards and complement your current science curriculum."
  • The Wooden Periodic Table - Theodore W Gray's actual periodic table http://www.theodoregray.com/PeriodicTable/index.html
  • World Year of Physics 2005 - "The World Year of Physics 2005 plans to bring the excitement of physics to the public and inspire a new generation of scientists. Timed to coincide with the centennial celebration of Albert Einstein's 'miraculous year,' the World Year of Physics will be coming to YOU before you know it."
  • The WWW Virtual Library - "The VL is the oldest catalog of the web, started by Tim Berners-Lee, the creator of html and the web itself. Unlike commercial catalogs, it is run by a loose confederation of volunteers, who compile pages of key links for particular areas in which they are expert; even though it isn't the biggest index of the web, the VL pages are widely recognised as being amongst the highest-quality guides to particular sections of the web."
  • You Can't Get There from Here! - or the history and meaning of infinity.



© Copyright Luigi M Bianchi 2003-2005
Last Modification Date: 19 March 2007