The AI Dictionary.
Artificial Intelligence, and Robot Wisdom - Or An Outsider's Guide to Artificial Intelligence.
An overview of AI on the WWWeb, this provocative and opinionated short course is richly linked to useful
AskTec - "Founded by a team of former Executive Managers of the Gartner
Group in August of 1999, TechnologyEvaluation.com and AskTEC.com have
become one of the most popular technology content and search tools on
the Internet...AskTEC.com is a technology vertical metasearch engine that provides
access not only to content from TechnologyEvaluation.com's analysts staff, but to
the content created by InformationWeek, CIO Magazine, The Industry Standard and
other top content sources as well."
The Association for History and Computing - "An international organisation which aims
to promote and develop interest in the use of computers in all types of historical study at every level,
in both teaching and research."
Blinkenlights Archaeological Institute
BUBL Journals - Computing and Information Technology. Search several journals devoted to IT.
A Brief History of Programming Languages - "We've come a long way from computers programmed
with wires and punch cards. Maybe not as far as some would like, though. Here are the innovations in programming."
Calculatibg Machines - "The history of mathematics goes a long way back with devices and methods
of calculation. Starting with the ancient Abacus, the slide rule and the logarithms, the mechanical calculating machines,
the electromechanical calculators and finally the electronic computer. This site deals mainly with the mechanical
calculating machines from a collector's point of view."
The Center for the Study of Technology and Society - "Through original research and in-depth analysis,
the Center examines the interaction of technological change and society. The Center will strive to emphasize and clarify
the point that advances in technology are neither inherently good nor inherently evil—but that every new technology
has the potential to cause problems, and the capacity to solve problems."
Chronology of Events in the History of Microcomputers - A collection of product announcements and
delivery dates from various sources, mainly computer magazines and newspapers.
Classic Computer Magazine Archive - "The Classic Computer Magazine Archive is a small crusade to make
information from old computer magazines available on the Web..
The Colline Report: Collective Invention and European Policies -
A Critical History of Computer Graphics and Animation - "The study of the history of CGI (computer
generated imagery) is an important part of our overall educational experience, not necessarily to build on the historical
precedent, but to gain an understanding of the evolution of our discipline and to gain a respect for the key developments
that have brought us to where we are. The discipline is so recent in its early developments and so rapidly changing that
we are in fact living it, and it evolves as we speak. Yet we have been so busy in advancing the discipline that we have
often neglected to accurately record this history. So we will decide to agree upon certain past events in order to begin
to develop a definitive record of what has transpired in this evolutionary process."
The Computer Museum History Center - "Established in 1996,
The Computer Museum History Center is a non-profit entity dedicated to the
preservation and celebration of computing history. It is home to one of
the largest collections of computing artifacts in the world, a
collection comprising over 3,000 artifacts, 2,000 films and videotapes,
5,000 photographs, 2,000 linear feet of cataloged documentation and
gigabytes of software. The collection is housed in a visible storage
building in Mountain View, California, in the heart of Silicon Valley."
Computers: From Past to Present - by Michelle A Hoyle, University of Regina, Canada.
Computing Before Computers - "Edited by William Aspray, with contributions by
W Aspray, A G Bromley , M Campbell-Kelly, P E Ceruzzi, M R Williams. Copyrighted 1990 Iowa State University Press,
Ames, Iowa, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1. Scanned, and processed into Adobe .PDF format by Ed Thelen September 2000 from a
first edition copy lent by Michael R Williams, one of the contributors."
Computing History - An important website at Hofstra University. Includes History in the Computing Curriculum,
Chronology of Computing History, and Computing History Information.
Cyber Behavior Research Center - The "relationship between
humanity and the Web," or the role of human behavior in the development of the Internet.
Dictionary of Computing - "A searchable dictionary of acronyms, jargon, programming languages,
tools, architecture, operating systems, networking, theory, conventions, standards, mathematics, telecoms,
electronics, institutions, companies, projects, products, history, in fact anything to do with computing."
E–learning and Language Change. Observations, Tendencies and Reflections - An article
by H Hansson and S van de Bunt–Kokhuis which "discusses the globalization of e–learning, changes in languages
as an effect of distance technologies and the lingua franca of modern times, English, and its effects on other
languages. Hybrid languages such as Spanglish (Spanish English) and Swenglish (Swedish English) emerges as an effect
of the increasing interaction between non–English languages and the dominant English language. The need for speed
and efficiency in communication and the adaptation to new technology changes language dramatically as is observed
in chat and SMS–mediated communication. The complexity of modern human communication is discussed with a historical
perspective—the old modes of communication can now be used via Internet but this transfer changes their characteristics."
Echo Virtual Center - "Cataloguing, Annotating, and Reviewing Sites on the History
of Science, Technology, and Medicine." In particular, check the "Computers/Info Technology" section.
- EEVL - "The Internet Guyide to Engineering, Mathematics, and Computing"
Ethnomathematics on the Web - "What is ethnomathematics? The term was coined
by Ubiratan D'Ambrosio to describe the mathematical practices of identifiable cultural groups.
It is sometimes used specifically for small-scale indigenous societies, but in its broadest sense
the "ethno" prefix can refer to any group -- national societies, labor communities, religious
traditions, professional classes, and so on. Mathematical practices include symbolic systems,
spatial designs, practical construction techniques, calculation methods, measurement in time and
space, specific ways of reasoning and inferring, and other cognitive and material activities which
can be translated to formal mathematical representation. The ISGEm strives to increase our
understanding of the cultural diversity of mathematical practices, and to apply this knowledge
to education and development."
The Evolution of Culture - An article by Daniel Dennett, which illustrates one of
the most popular notions of information. From the e-zine Edge.
Google Search Engine - One of the better search engines.
"To enter a query into Google, just type in a few descriptive words and hit the 'enter' key
(or click on the Google Search button) for your list of relevant results. Google only searches
for pages that exactly match your search terms, so you can try using different versions of your
search terms. For example, if a search for "Boston hotel" didn't turn up what you were looking
for, try "Boston hotels" instead. Or you might try rephrasing your query. For example, searches
on "cheap plane tickets" and "cheap airline tickets" return different sets of results. Automatic
"and" Queries: Google automatically adds "and" between the words you enter so it only returns
those pages that include all of your search terms. To restrict a search further, just include
more terms. Google also prefers pages in which related query terms are near each other".
The Great Transatlantic Cable - The design, construction and science of the
2,000 mile cable beneath the Atlantic in 1866.
GUIdebook: Graphical User Interface Gallery - "Since the inception of the WIMP-based Graphical User
Interface more than 20 years ago at the legendary Xerox PARC laboratory, the world has seen many
GUIs come and go. While it is easy to think of graphical interfaces in terms of newest editions
of Windows (95 and up), it’s been much earlier and much more than that. This site is meant to be
an online museum of graphical interfaces, especially those old, obscure and in desperate need of
Highlights from The Computer Museum Reports (1982 - 1988) - "'The Computer Museum'
issued a series of reports during the period of 1/1982 through Spring 1988. The goal of this page
is to provide the highlights of this series, primarily for the trainning of museum docents. About 3/4
of the major articles are included and about 1/2 of the associated images. Informational paragraphs
about individual artifacts are not included, but are an interesting source of additional information.
Note that an Index is in Volume 16".
History of Computing - At the IEEE Computer Society.
The History of Computing - This course [ by MIT's Professor Slava Gerovitch ] focuses on one
particular aspect of the history of computing: the use of the computer as a scientific instrument. The electronic digital
computer was invented to do science, and its applications range from physics to mathematics to biology to the humanities.
What has been the impact of computing on the practice of science? Is the computer different from other scientific instruments?
Is computer simulation a valid form of scientific experiment? Can computer models be viewed as surrogate theories? How does
the computer change the way scientists approach the notions of proof, expertise, and discovery? No comprehensive history of
scientific computing has yet been written. This seminar examines scientific articles, participants’ memoirs, and works by
historians, sociologists, and anthropologists of science to provide multiple perspectives on the use of computers in diverse
fields of physical, biological, and social sciences and the humanities. We explore how the computer transformed scientific
practice, and how the culture of computing was influenced, in turn, by scientific applications.
The History of Computing - One of the starting points of choice. The site includes a Virtual Computer Museum
and the first computer program for playing chess, written by Konrad Zuse in 1942.
THOCP: The History of Computing Project - This site is dedicated to the History of Computing in the broadest sense of the word.
There are seven different sections: Chronology of computers, All Tmelines, Biographies, Hardware, Software, Companies, Reference.
History of the Logarithmic Slide Rule - This is a famous study by Florian Cajori,
published in 1909 and now out of print. However, a digitally scanned copy of the book is available for
download at Greg's Slide Rules website.
Hobbes' Internet Timeline - An Internet timeline highlighting some
of the key events and technologies which helped shape the Internet
as we know it today.
Holding On to Reality - An excerpt from Albert Borgmann's new book The Nature of
Information at the Turn of the Millennium. Introduction: Information vs. Reality
How It Works...The Computer - Scanned images of a book published in 1971, and revised in 1979.
A fascinating look at the world of computing of 35 years ago...
Humanist Discussion Group - An international electronic seminar on
the application of computers to the humanities. Its primary aim is
to provide a forum for discussion of intellectual, scholarly,
pedagogical, and social issues and for exchange of information
Information Ethics: On the Philosophical Foundation of Computer Ethics - A good
article by Luciano Floridi.
>Information Society> - "The Information Society (TIS) journal, published since 1981, is a key critical
forum for leading edge analysis of the impacts, policies, system concepts, and methodologies related to information
technologies and changes in society and culture. Some of the key information technologies include computers and
telecommunications; the sites of social change include homelife, workplaces, schools, communities and diverse
organizations, as well as new social forms in cyberspace."
Intel Museum - "For the past 35 years, Intel has been a leader in technology exploration and innovation
worldwide. The Intel Museum showcases Intel’s history and operations through unique exhibits and presentations designed to let
you explore Intel® technology first hand. Browse our online collection of interactive exhibits and educational materials
developed to enhance your museum experience."
Intellectual Property in Cyberspace - Who owns what information on the
Internet? Who should own what information on the Internet? As usage
of the Net intensifies, these questions are becoming increasingly
important and controversial. Lawyers, legal scholars, judges,
lawmakers, and Internet users disagree concerning how the existing
set of legal rules should be applied to this new medium - and
disagree even more sharply concerning whether and how those rules
should be modified to manage the medium better.
Institute for Information Technology at the National Research Council of Canada.
Internet Culture - Martin Ryder's compilation of online resources on Internet Culture.
Kasparov vs Deep Blue - "In May 1997, IBM's Deep Blue Supercomputer played a fascinating
match with the reigning World Chess Champion, Garry Kasparov. The event was captured live only on this Web site,
where millions of chess and computing fans tuned in to witness the event in real-time. This Web site is an archive
of that event, and information on this site has not been updated since the end of the match."
Lisp History - The history of the language traditionally associated with Artificial Intelligence.
Man vs Machine: Who Is Winning? - "Every year computers are becoming stronger at chess,
holding their own against the very strongest players. So very soon they will overtake their human counterparts.
Right? Not necessarily, says statistician Jeff Sonas, who doesn't believe that computers will inevitably surpass
the top humans. In a series of articles Jeff presents empirical evidence to support his claim."
Martin Campbell-Kelly's List of Computing History Courses - A fairly complete
list of universities offering courses on the history of computing with on-line information.
Marvin Minsky's Home Page - Minsky has made many contributions to Artificial
Intelligence and related areas. In recent years he has worked chiefly on imparting
to machines the human capacity for commonsense reasoning. His conception of human
intellectual structure and function is presented in The Society of Mind (1987), which
is also the title of a course he teaches at MIT.
Mathematics in Various Cultures (MacTutor) - This great site is maintained by the School of Mathematics and Statistics
at the University of St.Andrews, Scotland, and selectively covers ancient Babylonian, ancient Egyptian, ancient Greek,
Indian, Arabic, Mayan, American and Scottish mathematics.
Media Lab Europe - "Media Lab Europe invents by bringing together scientists, engineers and artists
from different backgrounds, disciplines, cultures and nationalities to create technologies and explore applications that
have barely been dreamt of before. With the research we engage in and the tools we invent, science is being advanced,
knowledge increased, boundaries extended and human life improved."
The Mercurians - "The Mercurians began meeting in 1986 for the purpose of generating networks between
people who share work and interests in the history of communication technologies, defining the field broadly. Our activities
include publishing a semi-annual newsletter, Antenna, meeting annually at Society for the History of Technology
(SHOT) conferences, organizing paper sessions for SHOT meetings, and pursuing contacts between meetings. Antenna
serves both as a clearing house for readers and an informal forum for their ideas."
Michael S Mahoney, Articles on the History of Computing - Michael S Mahoney is Professor of History in
the Program in History of Science, Department of History, Princeton University. This page includes several of his writings,
in particular The History of Computing in the History of Technology, which appeared in Annals of the History
of Computing, 10(1988), 113-125 [pdf], and The Histories of Computing(s), a lecture in the series
Digital Scholarship, Digital Culture, at the Centre for Computing in the Humanities, King's College, London, 18 March 2004.
Milestones in the History of Thematic Cartography, Statistical Graphics, and Data Visualization: An Illustrated Chronology of Innovations -
This site is maintained by Michael Friendly and Daniel J Denis at York
University. "The graphic portrayal of quantitative information has
deep roots. These roots reach into histories of thematic cartography,
statistical graphics, and data visualization, which are intertwined with
each other. They also connect with the rise of statistical thinking up
through the 19th century, and developments in technology into the 20th
century. From above ground, we can see the current fruit; we must look
below to see the its pedigree and germination. There certainly have been
many new things in the world of visualization; but unless you know its
history, everything might seem novel."
The Modern History of Computing - Part of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
this page is a good summary of the history of computing from Babbage to about 1950, and includes a
bibliography and links to other resources.
The Neo-Luddite Reaction - "Cultural change necessarily involves resistance to change. The term Luddite has
been resurrected from a previous era to describe one who distrusts or fears the inevitable changes brought about by new
technology. The original Luddite revolt occurred in 1811, an action against the English Textile factories that displaced
craftsmen in favor of machines. Today's Luddites continue to raise moral and ethical arguments against the excesses of modern technology to the extent that it
threatens our essential humanity." A large collection of good resources and links.
Netizens: An Anthology - On the Impact and History of Usenet and the Internet
An ambitious look at the social aspects of computer networking. The authors, Michael Hauben and Ronda Hauben,
examine the present and the turbulent future, and especially the technical and social roots of the Net.
Nicholas Negroponte's Home Page - With links to his WIRED Columns.
The Roads and Crossroads of Internet History - Gregory Gromov's "comprehensive and fascinating
overview of the philosophy and history of the Internet. Many related links and a section on pertinent
statistics. From Internet Valley, a Sacramento, California Internet consulting and publishing company."
SciTech Daily Review - "It can be hard to find intelligent, informed science and technology coverage,
so we treasure those writers and publications who make the effort to help keep us informed. Settle back and
read the thought-provoking coverage of scitech issues with SciTech Daily Review," as well as the latest
The Scout Report - The Scout Report is the flagship publication
of the Internet Scout Project. Published every Friday both on the web
and by email, it provides a fast, convenient way to stay informed of
valuable resources on the Internet. Our team of professional librarians
and subject matter experts select, research, and annotate each resource.
The Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence - "When the Singularity Institute
says that it intends to develop AI, we mean real AI, in the full, intuitive sense of the word. This is, obviously,
a long-term project, and there will be interim prehuman proto-minds that do interesting things but are not
human-equivalent. But the proposed project is not a project to design an interesting proto-mind, with real AI
coming at some point in the indefinite future; it is a specific proposal for building a genuine and complete mind,
recognizable as a complete mind to anyone who takes a few minutes to chat, and not just philosophers who believe
in a particular theory of mind."
Society, Cyberspace, and the Future - How Can New Interactive
Communication Technology Enhance Harmonious and Functional Communities
at all Scales Worldwide? Report of an Exploratory Aspen Workshop.
Some Dates in the History of Cultural Technologies - From Ideographic or syllabic writing to
Calculators and Computers.
The Spire Project: A Better Way to Find Information - An excellent guide to searching
for information. The entire site is freely downloadable in one zipped file.
Steven Lubar's Course on the History and Sociology of Science - Technology
and Society/Information and Communications (University of Pennsylvania).
The Systers Home Page - An informal organization for technical women in
computing that began in 1987 as a small mailing list for women in
"systems", thus the name systers. There are now over 2500 systers in
Techmate - Garry Kasparov, 13-time world chess champion, sinks into a deep blue funk.
Tools For Thought - Howard Rheingold's "exercise in retrospective futurism." A full
on-line book "written in the early 1980s [and revised in 2000], attempting to look at what the mid
1990s would be like...[and] to piece together how Boole and Babbage and Turing and von Neumann--especially
von Neumann--created the foundations that the later toolbuilders stood upon to create the future we live in
today. You can't understand where mind-amplifying technology is going unless you understand where it came from."
Transatlantic Cable Communications - "The Original Information Highway. Explore the original
information highway in North America by looking at Canso, Nova Scotia in 1874. The Canso Historical Society,
in partnership with Industry Canada, has put together this interesting web site with period photographs and information."
The Turing Digital Archive - "This digital archive contains mainly unpublished personal papers and photographs of
Alan Turing from 1923-1972. The originals are in the Turing archive in King's College Cambridge. It contains letters, obituaries
and memoirs written by colleagues and used by Sara Turing for her biography of her son (Heffers: Cambridge, 1959); talks and
publications on the Automatic Computing Engine, his work at the National Physical Laboratory, the theories of computable numbers,
digital computers, morphogenesis and the chemical development of cells."
The Turing Test Page - "When talking about the Turing Test today what is generally understood
is the following: The interrogator is connected to one person and one machine via a terminal, therefore can't see
her counterparts. Her task is to find out which of the two candidates is the machine, and which is the human only
by asking them questions. If the machine can 'fool' the interrogator, it is intelligent.
This test has been
subject to different kinds of criticism and has been at the heart of many discussions in AI, philosophy and cognitive
science for the past 50 years."
The Turing Test and its Role in Modern Thought - By Mark Halpern. "This is the first part of a
two-part paper on the intellectual construct called the Turing Test (henceforth just 'Test'), and the role it has played,
mainly in Artificial Intelligence, but also to some extent in Robotics, Epistemology, the Philosophy of Mind, and
related disciplines and projects. This first part deals with direct appeals to the Test by AI workers, and various
interpretations that have been made of it; the second
[ ... ] deals with the most determined and thorough-going attempt to realize the Test, the Loebner Prize
Competition, and with the principal attack on the Test, John Searle’s Chinese Room thought experiment."
UNIVAC Memories - "This document is an ever growing collection of memorabilia, contemporary documents,
and anecdotes recounting the history of UNIVAC 1100 series mainframes. The first computer I ever used was a UNIVAC 1107, and
for more than a decade stretching from 1967 through 1978, most of my programming was oriented toward those machines, spanning
four generations of hardware: the 1107, 1108, 1110, and 1100/80 (which I used briefly to develop microprocessor software)."
Usenet: From the Campus to the World - "Usenet, the venerable Internet discussion board, is now over 20 years old. People
from around the world have gathered at its virtual roundtables to converse about topics from aeronautics to zoology,
in the process creating vibrant global communities surrounding thousands of topics. To honor Usenet's place
in the Internet revolution, the ECHO staff has created this site, which will gather important recollections
and pieces of Usenet history."
A Very Brief History of Computer Science.
The Vintage Calculator Web Museum - "A celebration of old calculators showing the evolution from mechanical calculator to hand held electronic calculator."
The Virtual Museum of Computing - This virtual museum includes an
eclectic collection of World Wide Web (WWW) hyperlinks connected
with the history of computing and on-line computer-based exhibits
available both locally and around the world.
Western Union Telegraph Company Records, 1820-1995 - The Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation at
the Smithsonian Institution presents the listing of Western Union Telegraph Company records. It includes a short history of the
The WWW Virtual Library: Computing.
The WWW Virtual Library: Information Management.
Yahoo! - Computers and Internet.
© Copyright Luigi M Bianchi 2001, 2002, 2003
Last Modification Date: 29 March 2007