Toronto: The League for Human Rights of B’nai Brith Canada



Freedom is nothing else but a chance to be better.”

-Albert Camus





The League is very grateful for the ongoing involvement and encouragement of the Taking Action Against Hate Community Advisory Committee, from the inception to the completion of the project.



Chair - Rochelle Wilner, B'nai Brith Canada


Ali Mohamed

Coalition of Somali Women Groups

Judge Pamela Appelt

Citizenship Court Judge (Retired)

Hilret Cato

Ontario Multicultural Association

Erma Collins

Jamaican Canadian Association

Detective Dino Doria

Toronto Police Service Hate Crimes Unit

Inez Elliston

Canadian Council for Multicultural & Intercultural Education

Jose Fernandez

York Region Board of Education Race Relations Coordinator

Jama Fadumo

North Somali Immigrants & Cultural Support Group

Detective Bernie Hoy

Toronto Police Service Hate Crimes Unit

Sergeant Brian Keown

Toronto Police Service Hate Crimes Unit

Talat Muinuddin

Women’s Intercultural Network and Council of Muslim Women

Greg Pavelich

519 Community Centre Victim Assistance Programme

Elaine Prescod

Ontario Coalition of Visible Minority Women

Dan Russell

Aboriginal Legal Services of Toronto

Laura Sarino van der Smissen

Dufferin Peel Roman Catholic Separate School Board

Mitra Sen

Sandalwood Productions

Toni Silberman

League for Human Rights of B’nai Brith Canada

Marcia Smellie

Anti-racist Multicultural Educators’ Network of Ontario

Mervin Witter

Canadian Human Rights Commission, Ontario Director


Project Coordinators

Charles Novogrodsky and Associates


Rona Arato Communications



Design by Jack Steiner Graphic Design


Project Director

Dr. Karen Mock, National Director

League for Human Rights of B’nai Brith Canada


* Please note that members’ titles represent their affiliation at the time of their involvement in this project.





The League also wishes to thank those individuals who contributed their ideas, knowledge and assistance: Nora Allingham for her assistance with the Ontario Ministry of Education policy and guidelines regarding hate-motivated activity; Ken H. Fockler of the Canadian Association of Internet Service Providers for ideas on the role of ISPs presented at the League's “Hate on the Internet” panel presentation, November 11, 1996; Eric Geringas for ideas about why youth join hate groups; Laura Heller for her expertise on information management and retrieval which helped to facilitate the League's anti-hate services; Robert Kellermann for additional suggestions on how to strengthen cooperation between police and communities; Tim McCaskell for sharing his experiences working in schools and with police on the problem of hate-motivated activity; Ken McVay for his insights into how to combat hate on the Internet; Antoni Shelton for sharing information about the work of the Urban Alliance on Race Relations and the particular impact of hate-motivated activity on visible minority communities; Greg Soames for forwarding information from the Ministry of the Solicitor General and Correctional Services; Kass Sunderji for advice on how to engage community-based organizations in anti-hate activities.


We would also like to thank all those authors and publishers who generously allowed their work to be included in the TRAINING MANUAL and the RESOURCE MATERIALS. We have made every effort to ensure they have been properly cited and we apologize in advance, if there have been any oversights.


Special thanks to the volunteers, staff and members of the League for Human Rights of B’nai Brith Canada, for information, technical materials and office support. They include: Sharon Anisman, David Cooper, Marina Fink, Natasha Greenberg, Janna Horowitz, Talia Klein, Corinne Bernatt, Annette Levy, Jeff Levy, Veronica Teichner and Sam Title.


The League for Human Rights of B’nai Brith Canada gratefully acknowledges the generous financial support of the Trillium Foundation, the City of Toronto Access and Equity Centre, and the B’nai Brith Foundation for the development phase of the Taking Action Against Hate project.











Overview of Hate-Motivated Activity

A-1. Glossary

A-2. About the League for Human Rights

A-3. Combatting Racism and Hate in Canada Today;

Lessons of the Holocaust

A-4. Anti-Hate Hotlines

A-5. Canadian Far Right Groups and Individuals

A-6. U.S. Far Right Groups and Individuals

A-7. Hate Group Symbols

A-8. Hate on the Internet

        i.            Anti-Hate Sites

      ii.            Extremist Group Sites

    iii.            Anti-Defamation League Special Report

     iv.            Hate E-mail

       v.            Why Haters Love the Net

     vi.            “Hate and the Internet”

   vii.            The Nizkor Project

A-9. Hate/Violence Pyramid

A-10. Victim Impact of Racially Motivated Crime

A-11. Immigrants and Refugees – Myths and Facts

A-12. Hate Erupts when Others Start Doing Too


A-13. Violence Against Women




Reporting and Responding to Hate Incidents


B-1. Incident Reporting Form

B-2. Victim Assistance

B-3. A Guide to Documenting Hate-motivated Activity

B-4. Front-line Policing/Facing Hate on the Street

B-5. Hate Bias Motivated Crime, Policing Standards














Working with Institutions – Government, Schools and Police


C-1. If You Have a Human Rights Complaint

C-2. Development and Implementation of School Board

Policies on Antiracism and Ethnocultural Equity,

Ontario Ministry of Education

C-3. Toronto Board of Education Policy and Procedure

on Racial and Ethnocultural Mistreatment

C-4. Why Kids Join Neo-Nazi Skinhead Gangs, Why

They Quit

C-5. Ontario Policy on Race Relations







Other Resources


D-1. Guide to Resource and Partner Organizations

D-2. Selected List of Print and Audio-visual Resources

D-3. Endnotes














It is wise to direct your anger towards problems – not people;

To focus your energies on answers – not excuses.”

- William Arthur Ward





A-1. Glossary


Aboriginal People: A term frequently used to describe the first inhabitants of what is now Canada, and their descendants. Each Nation of "Turtle Island" (North America) has a name for themselves which when translated implies 'The People" or "The Human Beings." Other terms include First Nations, Native, Indigenous, Indian, Metis, Dene and Inuit. Some of these terms are generic and some describe a subset within Aboriginal societies. The preferred terminology fluctuates for several reasons, including problems with "outside naming," categorization, and different Tribal and regional preferences. An effective approach is to consult with the person or group addressed in order to determine their preferred terminology.


Acculturation: The process whereby the culture, values and patterns of the majority are adopted by a person or an ethnic, social, religious, language or national group. This process can also involve absorbing aspects of minority cultures into the majority culture's patterns.


Adverse Impact: The numerical impact of employment practices that disproportionately exclude designated groups. This is a signpost to investigate possible discrimination. It is not a measure of discrimination.


Affirmative Action: A set of explicit actions or programs designed to increase participation at all levels of employment for and by individuals or groups previously excluded from full participation.


Anti-Racist Education: A perspective that permeates all subject areas and school practices, aimed at the eradication of racism in all its various forms.


Antisemitism: Latent or overt hostility directed towards individual Jews or the Jewish people, leading to social, economic, institutional, religious, cultural or political discrimination. Antisemitism has also been expressed through individual acts of physical violence, vandalism, and the organized destruction of entire communities.

Assimilation: The full adoption by an individual or group of the culture, values and patterns of a different social, religious, linguistic or national group, resulting in the elimination of attitudinal and behavioural affiliations from the original group.


Attitude: The state of mind, which makes us act in certain ways about social events or objects; a consistent pattern of thoughts, beliefs, emotions and reactions.


Barrier: An overt or covert obstacle; used in employment equity to mean a systemic obstacle to equal employment opportunities; an obstacle that must be overcome for equity to be possible.


Bias: A subjective opinion, preference, prejudice or inclination formed without reasonable justification, that influences an individual's or group's ability to evaluate a particular situation objectively or accurately; a preference for or against.


Bigot: One stubbornly or intolerantly devoted to one's opinions and prejudices.


Bilingualism: The ability to utilize two languages with equal fluency.


Black People: People originally of Black African heritage. Because of a long history of colonialism and migration, Black persons now come from all parts of the world, including Canada.


Bona Fide Occupational Requirement: A workplace requirement that is directly related to a person's ability to perform a specific job.


Censorship: The act of implementing a policy or program designed to suppress, either in whole or in part, the production of or access to information, sources, literature, the performing arts and letters.


Conciliation: Primarily an informal communications process aimed at getting the parties to establish meaningful dialogue, combat rumors and suggest cooperative ways of solving mutual problems.


Continuum: A description of hate motivated activity, as if on a ladder of escalating violence. Hate motivated activity is described as starting with feelings of individual prejudice expressed by verbal rejection. It can then advance toward acts of organized extremist violence including bombing and assassination (See the ”Hate/Violence Pyramid” in this Resource Materials document).


Culture: The ideas, beliefs, values, activities, knowledge and traditions of a group of individuals who share a historical, geographic, religious, racial, linguistic, ethnic or social context, and who transmit, reinforce and modify those ideas, beliefs, etc. A culture is the total of everything an individual learns by being immersed in a particular context. It results in a set of expectations for appropriate behaviour in seemingly similar contexts.


Designated Groups: Social groups whose individual members have been denied equal access to employment, education, social services, housing, etc. because of membership in the group. The designated groups in Ontario are visible minorities, women, aboriginal peoples and persons with disabilities.


Disability: Inborn or assigned characteristics of an individual that may prevent full participation in educational, social, economic, political, religious, institutional or formal activities of a group, or that may require accommodation to enable full participation. Visible disabilities are readily apparent and consequent discrimination or stigma may be more predictable than with invisible disabilities, which are not immediately apparent. Persons with disabilities form one of the designated groups in employment equity programs. An important aspect of this definition is voluntary self-identification.


Discrimination: The denial of equal treatment, civil liberties and fair opportunity to people from particular social groups. Discrimination may occur on the basis of race, nationality, gender, age, ethnic background, religion, sexual orientation, marital or family status or disability.


Dominant Group: See Majority.


Emigration: The process of leaving one's home or country in order to settle in another home, place or country, for personal, economic, political, religious or social reasons.





Employment Equity: A program designed to remove barriers to equality in employment by identifying and eliminating discriminatory policies and practices, remedying the effects of past discrimination, and ensuring appropriate representation of the designated groups.


Equal Opportunity Program: An explicit set of policies, guidelines and actions devised to eradicate discriminatory practices and to ensure access to and full participation in educational and employment opportunities, housing, health care, and the services, goods and facilities available to the general community.


Ethnicity: The multiplicity of beliefs, behaviours and traditions held in common by a group of people bound by particular linguistic, historical, geographical, religious and/or racial homogeneity. Ethnic diversity is the variation of such groups and the presence of a number of ethnic groups within one society or nation. The word ethnic is often used to denote non-dominant or less powerful cultural identities in Canada.


Ethnocentrism: Tendency to view others using one's own group and customs as the standard for judgment, and the tendency to see one's group and customs as the best.


Extremist Hate Group Activity: Organized group actions with a clear intention to achieve white nationalist goals. Extremist hate group activity is global and includes Internet and rock group propaganda, organizing white supremacist and other hate organizations, and violence against groups targeted for hate.


First Nations: A term used to describe the first inhabitants of what is now Canada, and their descendants. Each Nation of “Turtle Island” (North America) has a name for themselves which when translated implies “The People” or “The Human Beings”. Other terms include aboriginal people, native, indigenous, Indian, Dene and Inuit. The preferred terms may change and a recommended approach is to consult with the person or group being addressed to find out their preferred terminology.


Genocide: Deliberate decisions and actions made by one nation or group of people in order to eliminate, usually through mass murder, the entirety of another nation or group. The term has also been used to refer to the destruction of the culture of a people, as in cultural genocide.


Graffiti: Words or pictures written on walls or other surfaces. Hateful graffiti seeks to humiliate and insult groups targeted for hate motivated activity.


Harassment: Persistent, on-going communication (in any form) of negative attitudes, beliefs or actions towards an individual or group, with the intention of placing that person(s) in a disparaging role. Harassment is manifested in name-calling, jokes or slurs, graffiti, insults, threats, discourteous treatment, and written or physical abuse. Harassment may be subtle or overt.


Hate Group: An organization that advocates violence against, or unreasonable hostility towards, those persons or organizations identified by their race, religion, ethnic/national origin, sexual orientation, or disability. Hate groups also include

organizations or individuals that purposely disseminate historically inaccurate information with regards to these persons or organizations.


Hate Motivated Activity: Actions and crimes committed by individual white nationalists (and other individuals acting on prejudice towards those from social groups different from their own) and organized extremist groups.


Hate Propaganda: Ideologies and beliefs transmitted in written, verbal or electronic form in order to create, promote, perpetuate or exacerbate antagonistic, hateful and belligerent attitudes and action against a specific group or groups of people.


Holocaust: Widespread destruction and loss of life, especially by fire. The term (with a capital "H") specifically refers to the murder of over six million Jews by Nazi Germany and its allies during World War Two.




Holocaust Denial: A basic belief of some antisemitic extremists that the Holocaust never happened, is greatly exaggerated and a lie invented by the Jews. Extremists deny that the Holocaust occurred in order to promote the idea that Adolf Hitler, the leader of Nazi Germany, deserves to be admired for his antisemitism and his murderous policies.


Homophobia: Fear of transgendered people, lesbians, bisexuals and gays, and the feelings of hatred, intolerance, disgust and prejudice that arise from this fear. Homophobia refers to individual negative prejudice and discriminatory systems of behaviour.


Human Rights: Describes laws and policies designed to protect individual rights and provide opportunities free of discrimination for all residents and citizens.


Ideology (of Hate Groups): False ideas spread by extremist hate groups about identifiable groups they target for hate. These ideas falsely blame others for social and personal problems (scapegoating). They stir up violence against others and promote an extremist vision of a white Canada (with or without discrimination against) Jews, gay and lesbian people, people of colour, and First Nations people. See Hate Propaganda.


Immigrant: One who moves from one country to another with the intention of settling. This may be for a variety of personal, political, religious, social or economic reasons. The word is sometimes used incorrectly to refer, implicitly or explicitly, to people with colour or with non-dominant ethnicities.


Inclusive Language: The deliberate selection of vocabulary that avoids accidental of implicit exclusion of particular groups and that avoids the use of false generic terms, usually with references to gender.


Institutions: Agencies established in law through which vital social functions are carried out (e.g., government, business, unions, schools, churches, courts, police).


Integration: The process of amalgamating diverse groups within a single context, usually applied to inter-racial interaction in housing, education, political and socio-economic spheres of activity, or the incorporation of children, defined as disabled, into neighborhood schools and classrooms. Integration is the policies and action that end segregation. It may be differentiated from desegregation on the basis of interaction as opposed to technical conformity to desegregationist laws and policies.


Intercultural Communications: Information exchange where the sender and receiver are of different cultural, ethnic or linguistic backgrounds.


Majority: Refers to the group of people within a society that is usually the largest in number and/or that successfully shapes or controls other groups through social, economic, cultural, political, military or religious power. The term suggests superior social position. In most parts of Canada, the term refers to white, English or French speaking, Christian, middle to upper income Canadians.

Marginalization: With reference to race and culture, the experience of persons who do not speak the majority group's language, cannot find work or gain access to social services and therefore, cannot become participating members of society.


Mediation: The intervention into a dispute or negotiation of an acceptable impartial and neutral third party, who has no authoritative decision-making power, to reach voluntarily an acceptable settlement of issues in dispute. In a race relations context, its aim is to reach a signed agreement setting out specific steps to be taken by each side to restore racial harmony and peaceful relations.


Metis: Persons of mixed First Nations and white French ancestry. Metis populations live in greatest numbers in the western provinces and Northwest Territories of Canada.


Minority Group: Refers to a group of people within a society that is either small in numbers or that has little or no access to social, economic, political or religious power. The term may imply inferior social position. In common use, Racial or Visible Minority describes people who are not White; Ethnic Minority refers to people whose ancestry is not English or Anglo-Saxon; Linguistic Minority refers to people whose first language is not English (French in Quebec).


Multiculturalism: An ideology within one society that endorses cultural pluralism where all cultures have equal status. A policy announced by the federal government in 1971, acknowledging that many Canadians with non-dominant ethnicity experience unequal access to resources and opportunities.


Oppression: The subjugation of one individual or group by a more powerful individual or group, using physical, psychological, social or economic threats or force, and frequently using an ideology to sanction the oppression.


People of Colour: A term, which applies to all people who are not seen as White by the dominant group. The term is currently deemed preferable to non-white to describe people with a more positive term than non-White or minority, which frames them in the context of the dominant group.


Persons with Disabilities: Refers to persons who identify themselves as experiencing difficulties in carrying out the activities of daily living or disadvantage in employment, and who may require some accommodation because of a long term of recurring, physical or developmental condition.


Pluralism: A state in society where some degree of cultural, linguistic, ethnic, religious or other group distinctiveness is maintained and valued. Policies of multiculturalism and race relations, the Human Rights Codes and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms promote pluralism.


Prejudice: A state of mind – a set of attitudes held by one person or group about another. Prejudice literally means to “prejudge”. Prejudices tend to portray others as inferior, despite the absence of evidence for this feeling and are not always recognized as false or unsound assumptions. Through repetition, these prejudices are eventually accepted as common sense. Especially when backed by institutional power, prejudice can result in acts of discrimination and oppression against individuals or groups.


Race: A social and political, rather than a scientific idea. Race is a term used to classify people according to common ancestry. Race refers to physical differences between groups of people – differences such as skin colour, hair type, and facial features. Race may also be socially defined, based on religion or language.


Race Relations: The pattern of interaction, in an inter-racial setting, between people who are racially different. In its theoretical and practical usage, the term has also implied harmonious relations, i.e., races getting along. Two key components for positive race relations are: elimination of racial intolerance arising from prejudicial attitudes; and removal of racial disadvantage arising from the systemic nature of racism.


Racial Discrimination: According to the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (to which Canada is a signatory), racial discrimination is: any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, colour, descent, or national or ethnic origin, which nullifies or impairs the recognition, enjoyment or exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life.


Racial (or Visible) Minority: A term that applies to all people who are not seen as White by the dominant group. These people include Aboriginal, Black, Chinese, South Asian, South East Asian and other peoples. The term that many Black and Brown people prefer is "people of colour."


Racism: Racism stems from a set of implicit or explicit beliefs, erroneous assumptions and actions based upon an ideology of inherent superiority of one racial or ethnic group over another. It is evident within organizational or institutional structures and programs as well as within individual thought or behavioural patterns. Racism is any action or institutional practice, backed by institutional power, which subordinates people because of their colour or ethnicity. Racist slurs are insulting or disparaging statements directed towards a particular racial or ethnic group. Racist incidents express racist assumptions and beliefs through banter, racist jokes, name calling, teasing, discourteous treatment, graffiti, stereotyping, threats, insults, physical violence or genocide. The term racist refers to an individual, institution or organization whose beliefs and actions imply or state that certain races have distinctive negative or inferior characteristics.




Sexism: Sexism stems from a set of implicit or explicit beliefs, erroneous assumptions, and actions based upon an ideology of inherent superiority of one gender over another. It is evident within organizational or institutional structures and programs, as well as within individual thought or behaviour patterns. Sexism, like racism, is a discriminatory act backed by power. Sexism is any act or institutional practice, backed by institutional power, which subordinates people because of gender. While, in principle, sexism may be practiced by either gender, most of our societal institutions are still the domain of men and, therefore, women experience the impact of sexism. Sexism is also any action by an individual (usually male) supported by the threat of physical power, which seeks to subordinate another individual (usually female).


Sexual Harassment: Sexual harassment is: persistent or abusive sexual attention by a person who knows or should know that such attention is unwanted; the implied or expressed promise of reward for complying with a sexually-oriented request; an implied or expressed threat or reprisal, in the form of actual punishment; the withholding of opportunity for refusal to carry out a sexually-oriented request; sexually-oriented remarks and behaviour which may create a negative psychological and emotional environment.


Sexual Orientation: An individual’s expression of her or his sexual attraction.


Slurs: Insulting statements directed at a particular group. Slurs may include remarks about a person’s or group’s race, ethnic background, sexual orientation, gender, etc.


Social Justice: A concept premised upon the belief that each individual and group within society is to be given equal opportunity, fairness, civil liberties and participation in the social, educational, economic, institutional and moral freedoms and responsibilities valued by the community.


Stereotype: A false or generalized conception of a group of people which results in an unconscious or conscious categorization of each member of that group, without regard for individual differences. Stereotyping may be based upon misconceptions and false generalizations about race, age, ethnic, linguistic, geographical or natural groups, religions, social, marital or family status, physical, developmental or mental attributes, or gender. Stereotyping contributes to the development of prejudice.


Systemic Discrimination: The institutionalization of discrimination through policies and practices that may appear neutral on the surface, but have an exclusionary impact on particular groups so that various minority groups are discriminated against, intentionally or unintentionally.


White: A social colour. The term is used to designate people belonging to the dominant group in Canada. It is recognized that there are many different people who are “white” but who face discrimination because of their class, gender, ethnic background, religion, age, language, and geographic origin. Grouping all these people as “white” is not to deny the very real forms of discrimination that people of certain ancestry, such as Italian, Portuguese, Jewish, Armenian, Greek, etc. face because of their origins.


White Nationalists: See White Supremacist Group


White Supremacist Group: An organized extremist group that spread the belief of white racial superiority in order to achieve racist political goals. White supremacists seek “white power” that would limit or eliminate human rights for those regarded as inferior. White supremacists refer to themselves as “white nationalists” or “white resistance” or “white separatists” in order to hide or take attention away from their racist political beliefs and goals.


White Supremacy: Refers to the basic idea of white nationalists that white people are biologically and intellectually superior to other people. White supremacy is almost always accompanied by the beliefs that homosexuality is a disease, that people with disabilities are inferior, and that Jews are mainly responsible for the world’s problems.



A-2. About the League for Human Rights


The League for Human Rights of B’nai Brith Canada is a national volunteer agency dedicated to combatting antisemitism, racism and bigotry. The objectives of the League include human rights for all Canadians, improved inter-community relations and the elimination of racial discrimination and antisemitism. The League accomplishes these goals through educational programs, community action and legal/legislative interventions.


Education – public service announcements; multicultual anti-racist workshops and seminars for students, teachers and administrators; public speaking engagements; resource library; publications; public awareness campaigns (pins and posters); workplace equity issues and training programs; Holocaust Education; Student Human Rights Achievement Awards; Media Human Rights Awards; Human Rights Youth League; Young Leadership Network.


Community Liaison – intercultural and interfaith dialogue program; assistance and support to aggrieved vulnerable communities and groups; crisis response network; community action; coalition building.


Legal/Legislative – government submissions; court interventions; monitoring hate group activity; hate on the Internet; responding to incidents of racism and antisemitism; liaison with government officials and politicians; media monitoring; research report; Annual Audit of Antisemitic Incidents. The League works in cooperative affiliation with the Anti-defamation League (ADL) and is the Canadian distributor of ADL materials.




A-3. Combatting Racism and Hate in Canada Today; Lessons of the Holocaust


Dr. Karen Mock’s probing article discusses hate propaganda and outlines ways in which communities can fight back. This article, which appeared in the summer 1995 issue of Canadian Social Studies, effectively sets the tone and theme of the TAKING ACTION AGAINST HATE project.


A-4. Anti-Hate Hotlines


When a hate incident occurs, there is help available. The following is a list of hotlines to call to report an incident and to seek guidance and counselling.



League for Human Rights of B’nai Brith Canada


1-800-892-2624 (1-800-892-BNAI)

Local B’nai Brith Hate Desk Lines:

Western Region/Calgary


Metro Toronto












Hate Crime Hotlines


Assaulted Women’s Helpline




Distress Line Peel


Durham Region


519 Church Street Community Centre


Guelph Distress Centre


Native Crisis Centre


North Halton Distress Centres


Oakville Crisis Centre


Scarborough Distress Centre


Toronto Rape Crisis Centre


Telecare Brampton


Telecare Etobicoke


Telecare South York Region


Distress Centre 1


Distress Centre 2





A-5. Canadian Far-Right Groups and Individuals


Canadian far-right groups and individuals, like their U.S. counterparts, advocate a nation that is “white and free.” These groups prey on the fears and insecurities of people looking for scapegoats to blame for their own shortcomings. The following is a list of those groups and individuals that are currently active in Canada.






Terry Long

Aryan Nations was founded in California. In 1984, Terry Long established a Canadian army from his home in Caroline, Alberta. He espouses the views of the Christian Identity movement: they are the true chosen people and that Jews are imposters and Satanic.


John Beattie

British People's Party organized a white supremacy rally attended by Skinheads in Mindon, Ontario in 1989. Beattie, located in Toronto, was considered the most prominent fascist in Canada in the mid-1960’s when he became the self-proclaimed leader of the Canadian Nazi party. In 1989 he organized a white supremacy rally at his home in Minden, Ontario.


Paul Fromm

Canadian Foreign Aid Reform (C-Far) is a racist and antisemitic far-right organization. Fromm, a Mississauga, Ontario teacher, blames visible minorities for almost every social ill and accuses Jews of attacking Christianity and using antisemitism as a ploy.


Canadian Association for Free Expression (CAFE)

is also run by Fromm. Its original stated purpose was anti-Communism, but anti non-white immigration and their view of Christian values also forms part of their mandate.




Ron Gostick

The Canadian League of Rights grew out of an earlier organization called the Christian Action Movement. Ron Gostick is one of the senior members of the fringe right.


James Keegstra

Christian Defense League is a teacher who used his classroom to teach about a worldwide Jewish conspiracy and that the Holocaust never occurred. When he was removed from the school and charged under Canada’s hate propaganda law, he used his court trials as an opportunity to speak out against the “Zionist” conspiracy.


Ben Klassen

Church of the Creator is a hard-core neo-Nazi organization that believes in white supremacy and advocates a violent overthrow of “JOG” – Jewish Occupied Government.


Malcolm Ross

Free Speech League’s leader, Malcolm Ross, is a teacher based in Moncton, New Brunswick. He claims that there is a Jewish conspiracy. He promotes the idea that the Holocaust never took place and that Jews are killing Christian babies through abortion.


Wolfgang Droege

Heritage Front, located in Toronto, believes that Canada’s present human right, immigration, foreign aid and multiculturalism policies are threatening the “uniqueness” of Canada as a nation founded by white Europeans.


James Alexander McQuirter

The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was founded in Canada in the 1920’s but it wasn’t until 1977, under McQuirter’s leadership that its presence was felt. Currently, the Klan’s focus has been anti-native and antisemitic in nature.


Don Andrews

Nationalist Party was formed in 1977 and re-established the presence of a Nazi party in Canada.




Ernst Zundel

Samisdat Publishing and

Concerned Parents of German Descent

Zundel is a prominent Holocaust denier. Through Samisdat Publishing, he became one of the biggest distributors of Holocaust denial material in the world.


John Ross Taylor



The Western Guard, formed in 1972, promoted racist ideology through their publication “Straight Talk.” Their “messages” included promotion of racial segregation, suggestions that Blacks and other visible minorities are inferior and disproportionately involved in crime, and calls for halting “coloured” immigration.







·         Aryan Resistance Movement is the most active of the racist Skinhead groups in Canada with chapters in Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia and Nova Scotia. They are against foreign aid and non-white immigration and oppose education that assists the disadvantaged and recognizes diversity, integration, employment equity, and multiculturalism. They believe that racial groups are inherently different and that Whites are superior; people of colour represent a “criminal element;” that the government is controlled by Jews, and that racial separation is needed.



·         Final Solution and White Aryan Youth is an antisemitic group based in Richmond, B.C. with chapters in Edmonton and Calgary, Alberta. The group is also linked to Aryan Resistance Movement group located in Halifax.



·         Mouvement Les Jeunesses Aryennes, in St. Foy, Quebec, is one of two female sections of the Aryan Resistance Movement. They helped publish the “White Warrior” which was distributed in Metcalf, Ontario during Aryan Fest ’90 and are lined to Women for Aryan Unity based in Toronto.





·         Stride for Pride is located in St. Catherines, Ontario and is linked to the Aryan Resistance movement network. They have expressed strong anti-Black sentiments, including blaming Blacks for the increase in crime and comparing them to “beasts” and “savages.” They have also distributed material under the name “Youth Action” that suggests that the survival of the white race is dependent on destruction of the Jews.



·         Women for Aryan Unity, with chapters in Ottawa, Toronto and Vancouver is the women’s organization of the Aryan Resistance Movement (A.R.M.). The group has stated that it is trying to prepare a female contingent for the “fight for racial purity.”



·         United Skins was the first Skinhead group to openly attach itself to a “neo-Nazi” ideology. The group operates mainly in Southwestern Ontario and has its base in the Windsor area. A youth affiliated with the group was implicated in a youth gang-related killing in the Niagara Falls area and a group of Skinheads have been charged in the brutal attack on a young woman at a party where a cross burning took place.









The Toronto Mayor's Committee on Community and Race Relations identified the following neo-Nazi and White Supremacist hate groups in Toronto. They can generally be divided into four broad groups: i


Identity Church, KuKlux Klan, Neo-Nazis, or Racist Skinheads.


Aryan Resistance Movement

Bonehead Groups

Canadian Nazi Party

Church of the Creator

Equal Rights for Whites

Euro Canadian Freedom Front

Heritage Front

Iron Guard

Knights of the Invisible Empire of the Ku Klux Klan

National Nights of the Ku Klux Klan

Nationalist Party

Northern Hammerskins

Resistance Records

White Aryan Youth

White Aryan Resistance2





Canadian Hate Groups and their Links


Canadian League of Rights

(Ron Gostick)


Christian Defence League

(James Keegstra)


Western Canada Concept Party

(Doug Christie and Keltie Zubko)


Western Guard

(John Ross Taylor)


British people’s Party

(John Beattie)


Aryan Nations (United States)

(Terry Long)


Party for the Commonwealth

of Canada


Association for the Preservation of

English in Canada


Free Speech League

(Malcolm Ross)


Church of the Creator

(Ben Klassen)


Institute for Historical Review

(United States)


Samisdat Publishing

(Ernst Zundel)


David Irving




Final Solution


White Aryan Resistance

(U.S. Tom Metzger)


Confederation of Regions Party


Canadian Association for Free Expression

Canadian Foreign Aid Reform (C-FAR)

(Paul Fromm)


Heritage Front

(Wolfgang Droege)


Ku Klux Klan

(Wolfgang Droege)


Ian MacDonald


Council on Public Affairs


Nationalist Party

(Don Andrews)


Aryan Resistance Movement



Women for Aryan Unity


Movement les Jeunesses Ayrennes


Stride for Pride


United Skins


A-6. U.S. Far-Right Groups and Individuals


The following two lists are taken directly from Danger: Extremism The Major Vehicles and Voices on America’s Far-Right Fringe, the encyclopedic directory of groups and individuals published in the United States in 1996 by the Anti-Defamation League.




Kim A. Badynski

Ku Klux Klan (KKK), Northwest Region


Richard Barrett

“Nationalist Movement”


Louis Ray Beam

Ku Klux Klan; Aryan Nations


Don Black

Stormfront (Internet Web site)


Harold Von Braunhut

Aryan Nations


Robert Brock,

Pastor James Bruggerman

Liberty Lobby



Richard Butler (founder and head)

Aryan Nations



Willis A. Carto

Liberty Lobby


Harold Covington

National Socialist White People’s Party


Robert DePugh

The Minutemen


George Dietz

Liberty Bell Publications


Joseph Dilys

Non-affiliated – peddles religious and racial hate literature in Chicago, Illinois


David Duke

Ku Klux Klan


James Farrands

Invisible Empire Knights of the Ku Klux Klan


Ed Fields

National States Rights Party (NSRP)


Ralph P. Forbes

American Nazi Party; The Sword of Christ Good News Ministries


Roy Everett Frankhauser Jr.


Active in right-wing extremist organizations including

Ku Klux Klan and Minuteman

Dan Gayman

“Church of Israel”


Ron Gostick

The Canadian League of Rights; Canadian Intelligence Publications: The Canadian Intelligence Service and On Target


Richard Kelly Hoskins

Publishes two newsletters: Portfolios Investment Advisory and Hoskins Report


Matt Koehl

The New Order (formerly the National Socialist White People’s Party)


David Lane

Ku Klux Klan and neo-Nazi


Gary “Gerhard” Lauck

National Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter Partei – Auslands Organisation (National Socialist German Worker Party – Overseas Organization)


Kirk Lyons

CAUSE Foundation (acronym for Canada, Australia, United States, South Africa and Europe)


Margos (Mark) Margoian

The True Gospel of Jesus Christ” (self-produced antisemitic and racist fliers)



Tom Metzger



WAR, a monthly tabloid; “Race & Reason;” a World Wide Web site on the Internet; regular taped messages for a telephone hate line


Robert E. Miles

Ku Klux Klan


Jozef Mlot-Mroz

Anti-Communist Confederation of Polish Freedom Fighters, U.S.A.; New England Committee for Captive Nations; editor of SOS!!!, U.S.A., Ship of State – “A Magazine of Timely Truths”


Gordon “Jack” Mohr

Citizens Emergency Defense System (CEDS); until 1993, published The Christian Patriot Crusader


Rose Mokry

Produces letters addressed “To My Fellow Non-Jews [sic] of All Skin Colours”


Eustace Mullins

Anti-Jewish conspiracy theory propagandist




Lawrence T. Patterson



Criminal Politics – “The Magazine of Trilateral Politice” devoted to “Exploring the World’s Secret Power Structures”


Peter J. “Pete” Peters

LaPorte Church of Christ, LaPorte, Colorado


William Pierce

“Cosmotheist Community Church”


Theodore Winston “Ted” Pike

National Prayer Network


Oren F. Potito

National Christian News


Jack Rader

Antisemitic and neo-Nazi propagandist; distributed anti-Jewish circulars titled, “Jews Plan to Destroy Gentile Manhood”


E. Stanley Rittenhouse

German American Information and Education Association (GIEA)


Thomas (Thom) Arthur Robb

Grand Wizard of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan and “Pastor” of the Church of Jesus Christ


Archibald (Arch) E. Roberts

Committee to Restore the Constitution


Wilmot Robertson

Edits Instauration, a monthly extremist magazine


Hans Schmidt

German-American National Public Affairs Committee (GANPAC)


Richard Scutari

Formerly of The Covenant, the Sword and the Arm of the Lord (CSA); currently serving a 60-year sentence in Marion, Illinois


Robert Shelton

United Klans of America (UKA)


Shawn Slater

Ku Klux Klan


Bradley Smith

Committee for Open Debate on the Holocaust (CODOH)


J.B. Stoner

National States Rights Party (NSRP)


Mark Thomas

Christian Posse Comitatus.


James Townsend

The National Educator


Tom Valentine

Liberty Lobby’s Radio Free America (RFA)




James K. Warner



New Christian Crusade Church, the Christian Defense League, and the Sons of Liberty


Mark Weber

National Vanguard (neo-Nazi National Alliance publication)


James Wickstrom


“Minister” of the Church of Christ in Israel


Gordon Winrod

Our Savior’s Church & Latin School


Ernst Zundel

Samisdat Publishers Ltd.; German-Jewish Historical Commission and the Concerned Parents of German Descent





Danger: Extremism The Major Vehicles and Voices on America’s Far-Right Fringe, lists the following organizations and their avowed reasons for existence.



American Nazi Party


A reconstituted branch of the defunct National Socialist Party of America (NSPA)


American Renaissance

A monthly newsletter which describes itself as a “literate, undeceived journal of race, immigration and the decline of civility”


America’s Promise Ministries/Lord’s Covenant Church


An Identity organization run by “Pastor” Dave Barley and the Lord’s Covenant Church of Sandpoint, Idaho

Arizona Patriots

A now defunct antisemitic group with an emphasis on stockpiling weapons and baiting public officials


Aryan Brotherhood

A white supremacist prison gang tied to the Aryan Nations organization


Aryan Nations

Paramilitary hate group founded in the mid-1970’s


Christian Defense League

Publisher of The CDL Report and publisher of anti-Jewish and anti-Black flyers and letters


Christian Patriots Defense League

An antisemitic survivalist group involved in paramilitary activity and “martial arts” training


Church of the Creator

A violent organization on the radical right


Committee of the States (defunct)


Right-wing extremist tax protest group

Committee to Restore the Constitution

Far right group subscribing to conspiracy theory of history; publishes The Bulletin


‘Common Law Courts’

Conducts bogus judicial proceedings and disseminates phony legal documents in over 30 states


The Covenant, The Sword, The Arm of the Lord (CSA)


A paramilitary survivalist group

Elohim City

An identity settlement of 75-90 residents with ties to CSA


Euro-American Alliance

A racist and antisemitic group propagating Nazi-style notions of white “Aryan” superiority



The Freemen


A gang declaring themselves immune from U.S. law



The Identity Church Movement


A far right, pseudo-theological group dedicated to racism and antisemitism


Institute for Historical Review (IHR)

The world’s single most important outlet for Holocaust-denial propaganda


Internet-Based Extremists

Includes extremists such as Tom Metzger (WAR), William Pierce (National Alliance), and Holocaust deniers from the IHR.


The Jubilee

National umbrella publication for neo-Nazis, Identity followers, racist skinheads and some militia factions


The Ku Klux Klan

Racist group based in Pulaski, Tennessee


The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (Arkansas Faction)


The largest and most active Klan faction currently operating in the U.S.

Federation of Klans, Knights of the Klux Klan

A breakaway group founded in Chicago in 1994 by Ed Novak after his defection from Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.


The invisible Empire, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan and its splinter Groups (IE)


Until it was disbanded by court order in 1993, the IE was one of the most violent KKK groups.

The Keystone Knights of the Ku Klux Klan

A breakaway group from the IE founded in Pennsylvania in 1992


The Christian Knights of the Ku Klux Klan


Considered the largest Klan organization in the Carolinas

United Klans of America Inc. (UKA)


The UKA was the largest Klan organization of the 1960s and 1970s

Liberty Lobby

The most influential and active antisemitic organization in the United States


The Militia Movement

Bands of armed right-wing militants active in several states in the U.S.



National Alliance


The most prominent overtly Hitlerian organization in American today


National Association for the Advancement of White People (NAAWP)

NAAWP, founded by David Duke after he left the Klan; provides an organizational framework for racists and antisemites


New Order

The successor to the American Nazi Party



The Order (defunct)


The most violent and notorious U.S. terrorist group of the 1980s.


The Populist Party/American Nationalist Union


Launched in 1983 to promote the agenda of the Liberty Lobby

Posse Comitatus

A loosely organized group of “Christian Identity” activists dedicated to survivalism, vigilantism and antigovernment agitation


Neo-Nazi Skinheads

Gangs of shaven-headed youths sporting neo-Nazi insignia and preaching violence against Blacks, Jews and other minorities


SS-Action Group

One of the most active neo-Nazi propaganda outlets in the U.S.


White Aryan Resistance (WAR)

Founded by professional racist Tom Metzger who publishes WAR, a hate-filled newsletter




A-7. Hate Group Symbols



Many hate groups use symbols to give their members a sense of belonging. These symbols, some of which are adapted from the World War II German Nazi party, enpower members with a sense of belonging and feelings of importance. The following symbols are a sampling of those found on websites currently on the Internet.




Note: use the copy on page 59 of Communities Can Respond


A-8. Hate On The Internet


The Internet has recently emerged as a major means of communication. People who had never heard of the Internet until a few years ago are now using it to sell their products and ideas. Hate mongers love it because it gives them an uncensored stage on which to play out their hateful scenarios. Monitoring the Internet has become a major priority of anti-hate groups around the world.


As discussed elsewhere in the Manual, the Internet is being used to promote the respective positions of both white nationalists and those people working to combat them. Most organizations of any size (on either side) are developing World Wide Web (WWW) sites at a rapid pace. It is becoming faster and easier to navigate the Net and find sites of interest. Search engines (indexes and directories) and hot links (direct computer links between sites that are accessed by clicking on the screen) are also increasing in number.


There is one useful result from extremists’ use of the Internet. It is now much easier to stay up-to-date and to track international developments and hate-site activity. HateWatch and other organizations such as the Nizkor Project* which tracks hate-sites relating to the Holocaust, are now able to provide valuable information on developments throughout Europe, North America, South Africa and other areas where white nationalists are active.





HateWatch www.hatewatch.org

HateWatch is a valuable tool for staying current on the Internet. Its sole purpose is to provide “an online resource for concerned individuals, academics, organizations and the media to keep abreast of and to combat Internet hate activity.” The following directory of Internet sources has been downloaded from this site (monitoring hate groups button on the main menu). It should be referred to frequently, as it is always being updated.


The following Canadian anti-hate sites are not currently listed on the HateWatch directory:


B’nai Brith Canada www.bnaibrith.ca

The B’nai Brith Canada site provides information and current events of general interest to B’nai Brith and there is a page for the League for Human Rights as well. This site is continually under construction and will be extended and more thoroughly hot-linked in the near future.


Media Awareness Network www.media-wareness.ca/eng/issues monitors the way hate-incidents and hate groups are covered in the media and includes “challenging online hate,” a resource on how to tackle hate on the Internet.



White nationalists are making extensive use of the Internet and have had an Internet presence for some time. There are numerous. sites dedicated to Holocaust denial, white supremacist messages, and Nazi propaganda. Most of the key individuals and groups (see previous. sections of these Resource Materials) now have Web sites and these are tracked and reported on by HateWatch.


The Selected List of Print and Audio-visual Resources lists two useful print publications as well. They are The Web of Hate and Danger: Extremism: The Major Vehicles and Voices on America’s Far-Right Fringe. They are both current and easy-to-read overviews of the scope of hate on the Internet and the people who promote it.


The following are given as examples of the kind of propaganda and electronic hate literature that is being promoted on the Internet. The addresses have been taken off.








By logging on to an extremist group site, haters can find the writings of like-minded people. According to Internet specialists at the Simon Wiesenthal Center, in five short years, the number of hate sites on the Internet has increased from one to approximately 2,000. Stormfront.org is a prime example of such a site. It first appeared on the Internet in March 1995. It remains one of the most active hate-sites and continues to influence other groups wishing to spread their poisonous messages via the Internet.


The following examples of material downloaded from the Stormfront.org Internet site illustrates the way the organization disseminates its message and the kind of material that is currently being posted on these sites.




Church of the Creator founder George Burdie, established Resistance Records as a means of spreading his group’s vicious messages. RAHOWA is Resistance’s lead rock band. RAHOWA stands for RAcial HOly WAr. The following lyrics to their song “Third Reich” are typical of this group’s virulent antisemitism and anti-Black rhetoric.


Third Reich

(one, two, three, four)

You kill all the niggers and you gas all the Jews

You kill a Gypsy and a coloured too


Kill all the niggers and you gas all the Jews

Kill a Gypsy and a coloured too


You just killed a kike

Don’t it feel right

Goodness gracious, darn right


You wake up in the morning

You climb up to the tower

You say to yourself it’s nigger killing hour.


You wake up in the morning

You climb up to the tower

You say to yourself it’s nigger killing hour

Some say it’s wrong

You know it’s right

Goodness gracious, darn right


When we reach the final hours

We jump in to the showers

You gas them real good

Cause you’re full of white power







Reach the final hours

We take them to the showers

We gas ‘em real good

Cause you’re full of white power


They say that you hate

But you know what you like

Goodness gracious, darn right.







The following ADL report was issued in October 1998. It summarizes the development of hate sites on the Internet and discusses the current state of Internet hate activity.




The following sample of e-mail sent to Jewish recipients illustrates the vast potential of the Internet for spreading hate. In addition to broadcasting hate messages through their websites, hate mongers can also reach individuals at their private e-mail addresses and, thereby, invade their homes and/or places of employment.






There are many reasons why haters and hate groups use the Internet. The Internet is inexpensive, it is unstructured, and the content is not regulated. These people are, therefore, free to spew their hateful messages without fear of censorship or reprisal.


The following list of reasons that hate mongers love the Net is taken from a Nizkor and League presentation detailing the relationship of hate groups to the Internet.






Haters love the Net because it is a fast, easy and inexpensive way to communicate.


The Net:

·         is global in reach;

·         reaches a broad audience;

·         is up close and personal;

·         is easy to use;

·         makes publishing a breeze;

·         provides a multimedia environment;

·         gives complete control;

·         fits leaderless resistance;

·         appears legitimate;

·         is free of regulation.




Dr. Karen Mock, National Director of the League for Human Rights has been monitoring the rise of hate on the Internet since the movement began. The following article appeared in the Summer/Fall issue of Human Rights Forum published by the Canadian Human Rights commission. A more complete analysis of the topic by Dr. Mock can be found in “Hate and the Internet,” in Human Rights and the Internet, a new book edited by___ .





Ken McVay of Vancouver Island, British Columbia developed the Nizkor Project to counter Holocaust denial and hate on the Internet. Nizkor, meaning, "we will remember", is dedicated to the six million victims of the Holocaust. McVay is regarded as one of the leading authorities on Holocaust denial and has been awarded the Order of British Columbia and the League's Media Human Rights Award for his outstanding work. Along with a small but dedicated international team of volunteers, McVay monitors the Internet on a daily basis to locate and deal with electronic fascism. The Nizkor team regularly replies to Holocaust deniers and McVay has created the world’s largest Internet collection of Holocaust-related materials (over 30,000 pages). The Nizkor Project’s home page www.nizkor.org provides several Holocaust and fascism-related links. A “What’s New” section deals with changes to the archives.




A-9. Hate/Violence Pyramid


Barry Levin, a prominent U.S. Hate Crime authority, developed the following “Hate/Violence Pyramid” to illustrate the manner in which hate can escalate from prejudice to violence. It shows how acts of indirect prejudice such as feelings of dislike can grow into open acts of aggression, violence and, ultimately, life threatening situations.


HATE/VIOLENCE PYRAMID, reproduced from Hate Crimes in Canada, Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police, page 11.


A-10. Victim Impact of Racially Motivated Crime



In her article, “Victim Impact of Racially Motivated Crime,” Dr. Karen Mock talks about the growing awareness of the toll that racially motivated crime takes on its victims. The article makes a strong case for victim assistance programs and a heightened awareness of multicultural reality within the judicial system.


A-11. Immigrants and Refugees – Myths and Facts


The question of limiting immigration is not new. There have always been those who want to maintain the status quo by keeping newcomers out of Canada. Hate sites are replete with diatribes against immigration and spread propaganda about refugees. The following article appeared in The Toronto Star on Saturday, April 10, 1999. It lists the myths used by anti-immigration factions, then refutes them by pointing out the ways in which immigration actually benefits our country.




April 10, 1999



Beyond 200 - Home to the World

Myths and Facts of Immigration


Ethnic diversity is helping to make Canada strong and vibrant. Nowhere is there a better example of the power of diversity at work than in Greater Toronto, the economic hob of the country. Our city is flourishing thanks to generations of people who have settled here with their different languages, cultures, traditions and experiences. Valuing differences, and learning to respect and understand each other, are critically important underpinning of our society. However, many people’s discomfort with the city’s growing diversity has been translated into hurtful misconceptions and misunderstanding about immigrants that are not borne out of facts. Some common myths about immigrants and immigration are addressed here.


Myth: Immigrants take jobs away from Canadians.

Fact: Studies have shown that immigrants create more jobs than they take away and that generally, foreign-born workers do not displace Canadian-born. The first Canadian study to state that “on balance immigrants may create more jobs than they take” was demographer John Samuel in 1986. It was corroborated by the Economic Council of Canada in 1991. Many newcomers who are not employed in their profession or trade usually have sufficient financial resources to support themselves until they get a job - often any job.


Myth: Immigrants are a drain on the economy.

Fact: They have contributed greatly to the economy. Without them Canada would be in big trouble. Studies indicate immigration is a profitable investment for Canada. Immigrants bring skills, self-reliance, education and innovative flair to the Canadian economy. By consuming goods and services, such as housing, food, clothing and other basic necessities, refugees and immigrants create jobs for a great many Canadians, says a 1994 Toronto City Hall report. Toronto’s diversity has been calculated to help to generate as much as $5 billion each year in the hotel, restaurant and theatre businesses

as well as from a great many cultural events such as Caribana that attract tourists - and from travel of newcomers back to their homelands for vacations as well as visits from family members from overseas.


Toronto is also a world-class convention site because, in part, the city is considered to be multicultural, fascinating, enjoyable, hospitable and safe. Hundreds of thousands of visitors flock to conventions in Toronto each year, attracted in large part by the city’s diversity.


Myth: Immigrants are unskilled and uneducated.

Fact: Most newcomers are highly educated. They are twice as likely to have gone to university than people born in Canada. Many have advanced degrees.

The majority of immigrants enter Canada through the independent category, which means they are carefully chosen through a point system that measures their skills and education.

Data from 1996 Statistics Canada indicated that immigrants who arrived between 1991 and 1996 had higher levels of education than the Canadian-born population. About 34 per cent of recent immigrants aged 25 to 44 had completed university, compared with 19 per cent of the Canadian-born population in the same group. Further, about one-third of the immigrants with university degrees were in the science and technology fields, compared with 16 per cent of the Canadian-born graduates. And the percentage of recent immigrants who had not completed high school was 19 per cent, less than the 21 per cent among native-born Canadians.


Myth: Immigrants live in poverty.

Fact: Many are very successful - eventually. When newcomers are found to be living in poverty, it is usually because they have not been able (or allowed) to work in their professions and are struggling to make ends meet, or they came as impoverished refugees.

Immigrants selected for their skills had incomes nearly double the average for the Canadian population, showed a 1995 immigration department study that combined immigration date with tax records. But the study also showed that independent immigrants, selected for their education, language and job skills, do better than family-class immigrants and end up earning twice or three times as much as family-class immigrants.


Myth: Too much money is spent on immigrants.

Fact: Strong arguments can be made that not enough money is spent on immigrant settlement. Some years ago, immigrants were met at the airport by “welcome” groups. Other agencies helped ease the shock of starting life anew in Canada.

In recent years, however, there have been massive cutbacks in funds to agencies that traditionally have helped immigrants find apartments, schools and jobs, and helped them to “settle in.” Most new arrivals must now fend for themselves, and it can be a bewildering and frightening experience. It can also drain new arrivals of their life savings, plunging them into despair and causing family breakups. The longer it takes immigrants to settle in, the more time it takes for them to contribute money to the economy.


Myth: Canada doesn’t need immigrants.

Fact: Canada has always relied on immigration to maintain its population and development of it resources and infrastructure, taking the country from a frontier to being one of the most developed countries in the world. Without newcomers, our population growth would shrivel. Some reasons:

·         Canada’s birth rate is far too low.

·         Close to 100,000 people leave Canada each year, many going to the

United States.

·         Thirty years ago, there were four children in an average

family. Today, the number is about 1.7 children. This means that

Canadians don’t produce enough children to replace themselves. It is

estimated that Canada needs at least 200,000 newcomers a year to keep

the population stable.


Myth: Immigrants exploit welfare.

Fact: Newcomers use welfare much less than people born in Canada.

Immigrants as a group are less likely to draw welfare or other benefits than those born in Canada, according to 1991 Census Data and the 1988 Survey of Consumer Finances.


Myth: Immigrants commit more crimes.

Fact: The crime rate for newcomers is about half the rate for Canadians. All immigrants must pass criminal screening before they are allowed to enter Canada. Fewer are likely to go to prison. A 1993 immigration department study (by Derrick Thomas) based on 1991 federal prison statistics showed that the rate of federal imprisonment for foreign-born Canadians was 5.5 per 10,000 people compared with 10.6 per 10,000 who are Canadian-born.



Myth: Immigrants don’t pay their fair share of taxes.

Fact: One study of data from the 1980 Census and 1991 Survey of Consumer Finances found the average immigrant household paid more in taxes than it used in public services. (Ather Akbari, The Impact of Immigrants on Canada’s Treasury, 1992).


Myth: Immigrants get special treatment.

Fact: Newcomers are pretty much on their own once they arrive in Canada. Newcomers are taxpayers and consumers. Responding to their needs and concerns creates economic, social and job opportunities that benefit everyone. In recent years, they have received much less so-called “special” treatment, and this has caused them increased hardship and has resulted in a slower rate of immigration.


Myth: Newcomers undermine the “Canadian Identity.”

Fact: Canada has been built by generations of immigrants. The “Canadian Identity” is a meld of many immigrant cultures, and is constantly evolving. One immigration expert (Derrick Thomas) has argued that the benefits of immigration include a culturally more diverse, richer, more interesting and more vibrant society. “An ethnically diverse society will be one in which a wider range of ideas and solutions is available to each individual.”


Myth: Race relations is only for big business and governments.

Fact: Everyone should be concerned about race relations; it’s a vitally important issue. Social cohesion to a large degree depends on all citizens having equal opportunities and enjoying the same privileges. Immigration is good economics for everyone.


Myth: There is no discrimination in Canada.

Fact: Unfortunately, discrimination has been a reality of Canadian society since the first contact by European settlers with the aboriginal people. Discrimination today in Canada can take many forms. In extreme cases, it can take the form of blatant acts of physical violence and abuse. In more subtle acts of systemic discrimination, it can take the form of using the excuse of requiring “Canadian experience” to refuse to hire people. Visible minorities, when compared with other Canadians of the same education and age, earn less, according to recent studies prepared by the City of Toronto.


The most recent hate statistics from Toronto’s Task Force on Access and Equity has heard considerable evidence from people who claim to have been

harassed or discriminated against solely because of their disability, faith, gender, race, national origin or sexual orientation. The denial of discrimination is sometimes based on assumptions that, because Canada upholds the ideal of democracy, it cannot possibly be discriminatory. But believing in egalitarian ideals does not mean they are acted upon.


Myth: Canada is too willing to take refugees.

Fact: An estimated 230,000 newcomers arrive in Canada each year. About 20,00 to 25,000 of these are refugees, of whom about 10,000 are resettled from overseas and are sponsored by organization such as churches, or the federal government. Canada’s refugee program is generally regarded by the United Nations to be among the most generous of the industrialized nations. However, the acceptance rate for refugee claims heard by the Immigration and Refugee Board currently stands at about 44 per cent, compared with 60 per cent in 1996 and 77 per cent in 1990. Canada provided a new home to about 24,000 refugees last year and expects to do the same this year, given the ongoing war in the Balkans and other wars around the world. The U.N. estimates that there are about 22 million refugees and displaced people in the world, but Canada’s annual intake of refugees has actually declined.


Myth: A lot of phony refugees come to Canada.

Fact: It’s true that a number of claimants seem fraudulent. Most refugees are desperate to leave their homelands, but they cannot qualify for entrance to Canada under the “cream of the crop” immigration policies. Some are lured into making false status claims by dishonest travel agents or unscrupulous immigration “consultants.” Some people lie or use false documents to flee oppression. International law allows the latter and recognizes that for some people this is their only way to safety. The immigration department has identified a serious problem involving refugee claimants who arrive in Canada without proper identification or using false documents. Refugee advocates maintain that most asylum-seekers must use false documents to escape the countries where they face persecution and to gain access to protection in Canada. Canada routinely deport hundreds of failed refugee claimants every year.


Myth: Refugees and immigrants bring diseases to Canada.

Fact: New immigrants are generally healthier than individuals who were born in Canada. All newcomers to Canada must undergo medical checkups before they are allowed to stay. People who are in good health and are more inclined to emigrate and immigrants to Canada have to pass a medical screening. A 1996 Statistics Canada study showed that 50 per cent of those who are foreign-born and age 18 or over reported a chronic health problem, compared with 57 per cent of Canadian-born adults. And while 18 per cent of immigrants reported a long-term disability, 22 per cent of Canadian-born adults reported such a disability.


Myth: Newcomer bring over all their relatives.

Fact: Immigrants to Canada are allowed to bring members of their immediate families, their spouses and dependent children. Canada’s immigration policy limits the further sponsorship of relatives under the family class. Generally speaking, only spouses, fiancées, dependent children, parents and grandparents qualify for sponsorship under the family class. Dependent children older than 19 can be sponsored under some circumstances. A criterion for accepting other members of the family is a proven ability to support them once they arrive should they pass admissibility tests such as health and security examinations. Spouses must also sign documents to promise to be responsible for the people they wish to bring into the country.



A-12. Hate Erupts When Others Start Doing Too Well


When minority groups prosper, they are often targeted by haters. The following article by Clarence Page, printed in The Toronto Star on December 14, 1989, examines this dangerous phenomena.








A- 13. Violence Against Women


Violence against women is reaching epidemic proportions. As the following article from the book, When Hate Groups Come to Town, published by the Center for Democratic Renewal in Atlanta points out, violence against women is motivated by hatred of women and, therefore, shares many traits with gay bashing, antisemitism and racist and antisemitic violence.















The bitterest tears shed over graves

are for words left unsaid and deeds left undone.”

- Harriet Beecher Stowe












B-1. Incident Reporting Form


When incident reports are phoned into The League for Human Rights of B’nai Brith Canada, trained professionals take the call and fill in the following incident report. Other groups can use this form to document incidents within their own communities. The Toronto Police Service and 519 Community Centre Victim Assistance Program have corroborated the form (hard copy). Incidents can also be reported on-line.



B-2. Victim Assistance


When a hate incident occurs, the first priority is to help the victim. The following pages from Hate, Communities Can Respond, lays out the steps you should take to assist a victim, including the do's and don'ts of victim assistance.



B-3. A Guide for Documenting Hate-Motivated Activity


When dealing with hate related incidents, it is important to create a paper trail to document your case. The following guidelines for documenting hate-motivated activity will assist you in this task.




Documentation forms a crucial part of many anti-hate efforts. It is a vital component of direct service to victims, as discussed in the reporting section of the Manual. Documentation is also a key element in public education, community protection, and legal interventions.


For successful documentation, you need to be clear in your objectives. Set up reliable systems and assemble the appropriate resources to carry out the work and ensure consistent results. Professionals and paid staff should be enlisted to help define the tasks, carry out training, and establish good systems. Once these are in place, you can involve volunteers, students, and administrative staff in many important ways. Volunteers and supporters with access to information in their own professions can help you collect and organize information.




In order to plan your documenting activities realistically, the following factors should be considered:



Based on what you are trying to accomplish:

·         set realistic, specific and reasonable objectives for the documenting activity;

·         refer to the various purposes of information in the fight against hate-motivated

activity – victim assistance, community protection, exposure and legal


·         make sure that the documentation is action-oriented and will support the

priorities and major programs of your organization.



Before you begin, identify:

·         the purpose your documentation will serve;

·         your targeted audience;

·         the scope of the information you plan to collect.






Connect with others who are involved in similar work to ensure that gaps are:

·         filled and no unnecessary duplication is taking place.

·         collection methods are standardized

·         information is organized so you can share the data once it has been



Collection Policy:

Be careful to:

·         develop and write up a specific policy outlining collection procedures;

·         state exactly what information will be collected or documented, along with the

details on procedures for doing so.



Be sure to:

·         develop policies and procedures to establish how the information will be


·         write down all the policies in a clear, easy to understand manner;

·         see that the people accessing the information are trained to use the system




Once you have gathered the information you should:

·         develop policies and procedures to disseminate and share the information being


·         be sure that issues such as security and confidentiality are considered;

·         make sure you have the resources to guarantee that the information is used

as you intended. If the information is not used, it will be very difficult to keep up

the effort or to modify the documentation activity as conditions dictate.




Once you have planned what you want to collect and decided how you are going to organize and disseminate it, you will need to know where to find the information. The following is a summaryii of some information sources that can be extremely valuable in anti-hate work.

·         Newspaper clippings

These can be collected by volunteers or by using a clipping service or an on-line selective dissemination service (SDI). Be sure to consider all useful mainstream press, as well as community press, ethnoracial-specific newspapers, and the publications of extremist groups themselves.





·         Victim Reports

There are many uses for victim reports. They can form part of a public awareness campaign such as the League for Human Rights of B’nai Brith Canada’s annual audit of antisemitic activities or they can be used to support criminal investigation and prosecution on behalf of victims. The key is to use a standardized intake or reporting form; to collect information from victims as exhaustively as possible, and to

supplement that information with newspaper clippings, police reports, court records and other available materials.


·         Extremist Group Literature and Propaganda

These sources include the newsletters, magazines, posters, musical recordings, hate phone lines and Internet sites of extremist groups. They provide excellent information on who is doing what in the hate movement, their plans, and how they present their hatred to the public. They can also be important indicators of who might be targeted. A word of caution: when subscribing to any of these sources, be sure to use the name of someone in your organization who is not well known and give a post office box rather than your address.


·         Mainstream Media:

Reporters can be an important resource for your organization. They can provide information and will sometimes allow access to their libraries and files. In return, you can become an important information source to them by establishing good relationships with news personnel in all media, including local radio and cable television.


·         Rallies of Extremist Groups

Public events and rallies organized by extremist groups provide a wealth of information about the activities and individuals involved in the group. Be sure to take security precautions when attending public (not private) events. Taping speeches and videotaping or photographing participants and their vehicle license plates can provide extremely useful information. Parade permits offer valuable data on the organizing group. In the event of legal proceedings, documenting the participants at these events can prove useful by proving motivation and participation in illegal activities. For example, documenting participation in certain activities was key in the recent firing of a Peel Board of Education teacher who had been specifically prohibited from associating with certain groups.


·         Monitoring Agencies

These are other organizations that are involved in monitoring the activities of extremist groups and individuals. Be sure you know who else is doing similar work. Share, cooperate and complement each other in order to make the best use of everyone’s resources. Subscribe to their publications and check the Internet regularly. The sections on the Internet and Partner and Resource Organizations give good leads to current monitoring agencies.


·         Election Reports

Check the financial contributions to candidates running for public office. This will

give good clues as to which extremist groups are supporting candidates.


·         Court Monitoring and Records: White nationalists tend to be regularly involved in both criminal and civil legal cases. The court documents and proceedings surrounding these cases are useful sources of information about the whereabouts, affiliations, and activities of white nationalists. Don’t overlook civil proceedings such as bankruptcies, lawsuits, and parking violations. A sympathetic lawyer can help with orientation and training on what information is useful and how to collect it.


·         Government Sources: Legislation provides for the collection and access to information in Official files, which can also be good information sources. The Freedom of Information Act and collection of statistics by law enforcement agencies are but two examples of government data that may be collected.


·         Directories and Reference Tools: There are many print and electronic tools to help in tracking ‘elusive’ individuals. Again, professionals such as librarians, private

investigators (particularly those involved in debt collection), reporters, and lawyers can help you identify what tools exist and teach you how to use them. Some of these tools include voter registration lists, phone books, city directories, driving records and court references.




Police must decide whether or not to classify an incident as a hate crime. This judgment is based on certain types of evidence. If you want to ensure that hate crimes are correctly identified and treated as such, it is important to assist with relevant documentation.


The following is a list1 of considerations that the police will include in their decision-making process. Make sure that your efforts conform to their requirements and that any information the police need will be available to them in the form they need.


On a given incident, the officer will consider:

·         The motivation of the alleged offender;

·         Whether the victim perceived the action of the offender to have been motivated by bias;

·         Whether or not there was apparent provocation or motivation for the incident;

·         If there were religious, racial, ethnic, or sexual orientation remarks made by the offender;

·         If offensive symbols were shown;

·         If words or gestures were used that represent extremist groups;

·         If the incident occurred on a holiday or other day that is significant to the victim or offender’s group;

·         If the demographics of the area show it as an area frequented by members of the victims’ group.


In some cases evidence other than that related to a given incident will be considered. Often, it is the result of cumulative information that supports a finding. In sorting out the facts, the investigative officer may consider the following:

·         Existence of an historical animosity between the victim’s group and the suspect’s group;

·         The suspect has been involved in similar incidents or is a member of an organized hate group;

·         There have been several similar incidents in the community with victims of the same group;

·         The offense occurred at the same time or shortly after a hate group was active in the community;

·         The victim visited a neighbourhood where previous hate crimes had been committed;

·         The victim has engaged or is engaged in activities promoting his/her racial, religious, ethnic/national or sexual orientation group;

·         The offender had some understanding of the impact of his/her actions on the victim.”


It is clear that community documentation programs can assist with collecting this evidence.





There are several very good examples of community documentation efforts. The handbook When Hate Groups Come to Town profiles some interesting U.S. efforts. The section on the Internet points to others involved in tracking and monitoring hate on the Internet.


Three Canadian groups that have responded with useful documentation initiatives are: the Anti-Racist Response Network Information System (ARRNIS) hosted by the Urban Alliance on Race Relations; the 519 Community Centre Victim Assistance Program that documents and analyzes incidents of gaybashing and homophobia, and the League for Human Rights of B’nai Brith Canada, which produces the annual Audit of Antisemitic Incidents.


·         ARRNIS


ARRNIS was designed as a “virtual Library of Human Rights”. It is a subscriber-based information service, which includes a bibliographical database of library holdings and several specialized, topical bibliographies, a biweekly fax advisory service to help members keep up-to-date with each other’s activities and issues in the community, and several on-line directories. There are plans to include an up-to-date collection of statistics on hate-motivated activity and crime. The system can also submit an electronic incident report.


In addition to the services provided, ARRNIS is an interesting initiative to consider as a model. Setting it up involved considerable networking and the partners, some of which include the Mayor’s Committee on Race Relations, the League for Human Rights of B’nai Brith Canada, the Toronto Coalition against Racism, and the Canadian Jewish Congress, continue to contribute to the databases.


This effort demonstrates the potential for positive results in collaborative, community documentation projects. As such, it can serve as a model as well as a direct source of information in the fight against hate-motivated activity.


·         519 CHURCH STREET COMMUNITY CENTRE VICTIM ASSISTANCE PROGRAM The Centre responds to hate crimes and partner abuse. It helps with reporting to the police, monitors cases reported to the police, assists with the criminal justice system and provides court support referrals to legal, medical, social and counselling services. It also assists with Criminal Injuries Compensation, disability insurance applications, and with victim impact statements. Other services include: self-defense courses for lesbians, gay men, and transsexuals; dissemination of hate-crime information and same-sex partner abuse; workshops and public forums; participation in related coalitions and committees. The Centre conducts outreach and education campaigns to increase gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transsexual/transgendered (GLBT) awareness of available services and provides information for the GLBT on how to respond to potential or actual violence.






The League for Human Rights of B’nai Brith Canada publishes an annual Audit of Antisemitic Incidents in Canada. This community documentation effort is a model of how such projects can play a significant role in anti-hate work. The Audit has been published continuously for 18 years and is a major vehicle for reporting the League’s findings on antisemitism to the public. The definitions of the categories of incidents and the mechanisms to record such incidents have remained the same since 1982. This database, therefore, provides a unique historical record of hate crimes in Canada and has been cited by criminologists.


Incidents are recorded on a standardized reporting form and categorized as either vandalism (of property) or harassment (of people). They are then investigated, corroborated, documented and analyzed by League staff. The results are published annually in a report, which includes an overview of hate activity in Canada, and which receives much publicity and is cited by the media, police, government officials and others working in this field.


These and similar community audits are important tools in the public awareness campaign against such hate-motivated activity.




B-4. Front-Line Policing: Facing Hate on the Streets


Front-line police officers have a tough job to do when they are called to the scene of a possible hate crime. The following excerpt from Hate Crimes in Canada, In Your Backyard, outlines the role of the police when a hate crime occurs and discusses what does and does not officially constitute a hate crime.





Hate Crimes in Canada: In Your Own Back Yard, was produced by the Canadian Chiefs of Police, Police Multicultural Liaison Committee in Ottawa in1996. The following excerpt can be found on pages 15-16 of the manual.




(note: scan in Front-Line Policing: Facing Hate on the Streets)



B-5. Hate/Bias Motivated Crimes, Policing Standards Manual


It is important that every community plan ahead to deal with hate/bias motivated crime. An effective strategy can alleviate much of the stress associated with these incidents. The following pages from the Policing Standards Manual (Ministry of the Solicitor General and Corrections, 1994) outlines the procedures that communities should have in place.


















Government, Schools and Police


Whatever you do will be insignificant, but

it is very important that you do it.”

-Mahatma Gandhi



C-1. If You Have a Human Rights Complaint


The Ontario Human Rights Code sets out the basic rights of all people living in Ontario. The enclosed documents by the Ontario Human Rights commission explain the legal definition of human rights and the procedures for filing a human rights complaint.



C-2. Development and Implementation of School Board

Policies on Antiracism and Ethnocultural Equity,

Ontario Ministry of Education


In 1993 the Ministry of Education and Training issued the following Policy/Program Memorandum No. 119, on the “Development and Implementation of School Board Policies on antiracism and Ethnocultural Equity.” As a result, in the following years, almost all Boards of Education in Ontario developed policies and procedures for dealing with racism. Several Boards adapted these to include hate activity. Check with your local school boards to determine the status of their policies and to ensure implementation if an issue arises.



C-3. Toronto Board of Education Policy and Procedure

on Racial and Ethnocultural Mistreatment


The enclosed document on Development and Implementation of School Board Policies on Antiracism and Ethnocultural Equity is currently being updated by the Toronto District School Board. The enclosed document will be replaced by the new version as soon as it is available.



C-4. Why Kids Join Neo-Nazi Skinhead Gangs, Why They Quit


The Klanwatch Intelligence Report, a project of the Southern Poverty Law Center in the United States, tracks the activities of the Klan and documents shifts in movements. The enclosed February 1994 article explores the world of skinhead gangs and examines why kids join and why and how they quit.





C-5. Ontario Policy on Race Relations


The Ontario Human Rights Code is the basis for the Province's Human Rights legislation. This comprehensive document establishes the rights and responsibilities of every person living within the Province to live free of fear from racism, hate and discrimination.
















The sad truth is that most evil is done by people who never

make up their minds to be either good or evil.”

- Hannah Arendt

Marina’s numbers


D-1. Guide To Resource and Partner Organizations


This section lists key, established centres that can provide specific assistance to groups wanting further information, training, or partners-for-action programs. Please refer to the directory of Internet sites (Hate on the Internet - Anti-Hate Sites) for annotations of many of these





The League for Human Rights of B’nai Brith Canada

15 Hove Street

Toronto, ON M3H 2Y8

Phone: 416-633-6224

Fax: 416-630-2159




Anti-Racism Action

P.O. Box 291, Stn. B.

Toronto, ON M5T 2T2

Phone: 416-631-8835

email: ara@web.net



Canadian Anti-Racism and Research Society

210-124 East Pender

Vancouver, BC B6A 1T3

Phone: 604-583-4136


Canadian Centre for Police-Race Relations

c/o Canadian Police College

P.O. Box 8900

Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3J2

Phone: 1-800-461-1123

Fax: 1-613-993-4915


Canadian Coalition of Christians and Jews

2 Carlton Street, Ste. 820

Toronto, ON M5B 1J3

Phone: 416-597-9693

Fax: 416-597-9775

email: funds@interlog.com


Canadian Jewish Congress

4600 Bathurst Street

Toronto, ON M2R 3V2

Phone: 416-635-2883



Cross Cultural Communication Centre

2909 Dundas Street West

Toronto, ON M6P 1Z1

Phone: 416-760-7855

Fax: 416-760-7911


519 Church Street Community Centre

519 Church Street

Toronto, ON

M4Y 2C9

Phone: 416-392-6874

Fax: 416-392-0519

Email: vap@519.icomm.ca


Metro Access and Equity Centre

55 John Street, 6th Floor, Metro Hall

Toronto Ontario M5V 3C6

Phone: 416-392-3834

Fax: 416-392-3751


Salmon Arm, B.C. Coalition against Racism (SACAR)

3521-20th Toth Avenue N.E.

Salmon Arm, B.C. V1E 4M4


Toronto Coalition Against Racism (TCAR)

Box 133, 339A College Street

Toronto, ON M5S 1S2



Urban Alliance on Race Relations and Anti-Racism Response Network (ARRNIS)

642 King Street West

Suite 100

Toronto, ON M5V 1M7

Phone: 416-703-6607

Fax: 416-703-4414








Anti-Defamation League

823 United Nations Plaza, #1100

New York, New York 10017

Phone: 212-490-2525



Center for Democratic Renewal

P.O. Box 50469

Atlanta Georgia

Phone: 404-244-0025


Coalition for Human Dignity

P.O. Box 40344

Portland, OR 97240

Phone: 503-281-5823


Fairness & Advocacy in Reporting (FAIR)

175 Fifth Avenue, Suite 2245

New York, NY 10010

Phone: 12-633-7600

Publishers of EXTRA!, a bi-monthly magazine offering well documented criticism to correct media bias and imbalance.


Facing History and Ourselves

16 Hurd Road

Brookline MA 02146



FAIR (Fairness & Advocacy in Reporting)

175 Fifth avenue, Suite 2245

New York, NY 10010



Freedom of Information

FOI-PA Section, Room 6296

J. Edgar Hoover Bldg.

Washington, DC 20535



Hotline for Freedom of Information Problems



The National Conference (of Christians and Jews)




4805 Mt. Hope Drive

Baltimore, MD 21215



National Gay and Lesbian Task Force

1734 14th Street NW

Washington DC 2009-4309



PrairieFire Rural Action Inc.

550 Eleventh Street

Des Moines IA 50309



Searchlight Magazine

37 B New Cavendish

London WlM8JR England

Monthly, English-language magazine providing the most authoritative information on neo-Nazi activities throughout Europe. Inquire by mail about subscriptions.


Simon Wiesenthal Center

9760 Pico Blvd.

Los Angeles, CA 90035




Southern Poverty Law Conference

400 Washington Avenue

Montgomery, Alabama 36104

205-264-0286 (telephone)









D-2. Selected List Of Print And Audio-visual Resources





Antisemitism in Canada: Realities, Remedies, and Implications for Anti-Racism.” Mock, Karen. In Perspectives on Racism and the Human Services Sector: A Case for Change, ed. Carl E. James, 120-34. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996. An excellent overview of the issues that connect antisemitism within the broad context of racism, both historically and in current Canadian reality. It outlines a clear perspective on the issue of hate propaganda, which can be confusing when posed within a freedom of speech framework.


Danger: Extremism the Major Vehicles and Voices on America’s Far-Right Fringe. Anti-Defamation League. New York: Anti-Defamation League, 1996. 307 p. (Available from the Anti-Defamation League, 823 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017)

A comprehensive and current directory of groups and individuals involved in the far right in the U.S. Arranged alphabetically by name, this guide summarizes involvements, aliases, philosophies, publications and Internet sites throughout the U.S. Many of these groups and individuals operate or have connections in Canada.


Disproportionate Harm: Hate Crime in Canada. 1995. Roberts, Julian. Study commissioned by the Department of Justice Canada - presents an empirical analysis of recent statistics to determine the level and nature of hate-motivated activity as well as responses to the problem across Canada. The survey was sent to human rights commissions, justice departments, police and relevant federal agencies. Three major categories were selected as the indicators of hate-motivated activity: behaviour, presence of organized groups, and the distribution of hate propaganda, including that delivered by telephone or electronic networks.6


The Extent of Hate Activity and Racism in Metropolitan Toronto. Mock, Karen. Toronto: Access and Equity Centre of the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto, 1996. 60 p. A recent and thorough study of hate incidents and activity in the Metro Toronto area which documents, often with useful statistics, the nature of hate activity in the area and how it is manifested. It also includes powerful testimony of the impact of such activity on victims, gathered through focus groups, which were part of the study. A list of 15 recommendations is useful to communities and institutions looking for action ideas, as well as lobbying points that might become part of a larger preventative strategy.













Hate Activity: Communities Can Respond: A Community Handbook. Fernandes, Cassandra, and Costanzo, Donna. Toronto: The Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto, Access and Equity Centre, 1996. 90 p. A practical handbook covering the major manifestations of hate activity and ways in which communities can respond. Topics include victim assistance; community, institutional and legal responses and law enforcement for the Metro Toronto Police Force. It also has a directory of organizations and media contacts, which can be used as a starting point for finding more information and assistance.


Hate Crimes: Confronting Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men. Berrill, Kevin T. and Gregory M. Herek. Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications, 1992.

This book is a straightforward analysis of gay bashing: the victims, the perpetrators and responses to it.


Hate Crimes in Canada: In Your Own Back Yard. Canadian Chiefs of Police, Police Multicultural Liaison Committee, Ottawa: Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police, 1996. A short and practical guide to hate crime from the perspective of the police: defining their responsibilities and jurisdictions; concrete information on how to work with police on preventing, reporting and following up with hate crime activity. A summary of community responses is succinctly broken down under three headings: hate/bias problems, partnerships, and intervention. Each section provides a clear set of real life situations and descriptions of how they were handled.


Klanwatch Intelligence Report. Available from Southern Poverty Law Center, 400 Washington Avenue, Montgomery Alabama 36104. This bimonthly publication of the Southern Poverty Law Center covers activities of the Ku Klux Klan as well as other extremist groups.


Quarantines and Death: The Far Right’s Homophobic Agenda. Segrest, Mab and Leonard Zeskind. Atlanta: Center for Democratic Renewal, 1989. 39 p. This booklet explains how and why hatred of lesbians and gay men is an integral part of the philosophy and recruitment tactics of the far right.


Racism in Canada. McKague, Ormond, ed. Fifth House Reader. Saskatoon: Fifth House Publishers, 1991. 230 p. Covers the broad range of issues related to racism in current Canadian society – its historical roots, structural nature (political, social and institutional fabric), the combined elements of racism, gender and culture, and a final section on what is being done and what still needs to be done. Particularly relevant is

the chapter by Stanley R. Barrett (pp. 85-99) “White Supremacists and Neo-Fascists: Laboratories for the Analysis of Racism in Wider Society” which gives a brief overview of the neo-nazi and white supremacists groups active in the 1980s.







Rebirth of Hate: The New Face of Fascism in Canada.” Lethbridge, David. n.p.: Salmon Arm Coalition against Racism, 1995. 30 p.




Reports to the 519 Church Street Community Centre Lesbian and Gay Bashing Report Line: Statistics and Analysis. Baldwin, Karen. Toronto: The 519 Church Street Community Centre, forthcoming.


The Resurgent Right: Why Now?” Hardist, Jean. Tideline (January 1995).


Searchlight Magazine. 37B New Cavendish St., London W1M 8JR England - a magazine documenting the activities of the new right and fascists internationally, particularly in Europe. This monthly English-language magazine provides the most authoritative information on neo-Nazi activities throughout Europe. Inquire by mail about rates to subscribe.


Skinheads in Canada and their Link to the Far Right. League for Human Rights. Toronto: The League for Human Rights of B’nai Brith Canada, 1991. (Available from the League for Human Rights for $5.00) Updated in 1995 and available in The Skinhead International - A Worldwide Survey of Neo-Nazi Skinheads for $10.00. See LHR catalogue for annotation.


Victim Impact of Racially Motivated Crime: Summary and Recommendations. League for Human Rights. Toronto: The League for Human Rights of B’nai Brith Canada, 1993. (Available for $4.00 from the League. See LHR catalogue, p. 3 for annotation).


The Web of Hate: Extremists Exploit the Internet. Hoffman, David S. New York: Anti-Defamation League, 1996. (Available for $13.50 from LHR) 60 p. “... This document provides an overview of most hate sites on the Internet, a glossary of terms and discussion of issues on the new technology.”


Web of Hate: Inside Canada’s Far Right Network. Kinsella, Warren. Toronto: Harper Collins Publishers Ltd., 1993.


When Hate Groups Come to Town: A Handbook of Effective Community Responses. Center for Democratic Renewal. 2nd ed. Atlanta: Center for Democratic Renewal, 1992. 189 p. This American handbook covers the topics of Understanding Racism and Bigotry; The White Supremacist Movement; Responses; and Resources. It is very readable and the section on Responses is full of practical ideas and examples of strategies that were successful in the American context, many of which apply to Canada.








Beyond Hate. Videotape, 90 min. PBS (source) colour

“Bill Moyers examines the historical, philosophical and psychological roots of hatred through interviews with Elie Wiesel, Vaclav Havel, and Jimmy Carter. He also visits gang members in South Central Los Angeles, members of “White Aryan Resistance”, American civil rights activists, Holocaust and hate crime victims, and young people trying to cope with violence in their lives.”


Crimes of Hate. Anti-Defamation League. New York: Anti-Defamation League, 1990. Videotape, 29 min. Colour. Source: The League for Human Rights of B’nai Brith Canada or Anti-Defamation League. The video consists of an overview of hate crimes in three segments: “The Crime of Racism,” “The Crime of Antisemitism,” and “The Crime of Gay-Bashing.” VHS, 27 minutes, Discussion Guide


The Courage to Stand: CFMT Television with the assistance of the British Columbia Ministry Responsible for Multiculturalism, Human Rights and Immigration. This video depicts the recent experience of communities in B.C. dealing with hate incidents in the Okanagan Valley. It profiles victims of hate whose love for Canada helps them endure, activitsts who rally support and groups dedicated to exposing hate.

Hate Crime: A Training Film for Police Officers: New York: Anti-Defamation League and the Department of Law and Public Safety of the State or New Jersey, 1989. This video and discussion guide for law enforcement agencies is designed to train individual police officers in how to properly investigate hate crimes and assist individual victims and the community. VHS 17 minutes, Discussion Guide


Not in Our Town. California Working Group. Oakland: California Working Group. Videotape, 25 min. Colour. Source: California Working Group Inc., 5867 Ocean View Drive, Oakland, CA. 94618 (510) 547-8484. This “is the inspiring story of the people of Billings, Montana who took a stand against a series of hate crimes in their community. Together they lived up to the American values of courage, tolerance, and cooperation when forces of disintegration threatened.” This video takes a case study approach, illustrating innovative community responses, including the involvement of the local press, religious communities, painters’ union, and others. This is a good discussion starter, showing both victim impact and community response.





D-3. Endnotes


1.      Hate Activity: Communities Can Respond, Toronto, Community Advisory Committee on anti-Hate and Anti-Racism, Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto, Access & Equity Centre, 1996, pp. 18-19.


2.      Hate Groups in Toronto, The Toronto Mayor’s Committee on Community and Race relations, 1994, p. 13.


3.      Ibid.


4.      This list has been adapted from ”Monitoring, Research and Security,” a chapter in When Hate Groups Come to Town, 2nd ed., Atlanta, Georgia, Center for Democratic Renewal, 1992, p.


5.      Hate Activity: Communities Can Respond, Community Advisory Committee on Anti-Hate and Anti-Racism, Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto, Access & Equity Centre, 1996, p. 32.


6.      The Extent of Hate Activity and Racism in Metropolitan Toronto, the Access and Equity Centre, the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto, Karen Mock, June 1996, p. 6.