|The Nature and
Role of Social Campaigns
Glenn Gumulka, a Masters of
Environmental Studies student AND a graduated MBA who
works for Procter and Gamble, will come to speak to us
about Social Marketing. Find at the end of this page Glenn's
list of sources, to which he makes reference in his talk and
You also should check out
Glenn's website on
sustainable living, a project which made up a good part of
his final paper for his Masters in Environmental Studies degree.
"A social change campaign is an organized
effort conducted by one group (the change
agent) which intends to
persuade others (the target adopters) to
accept, modify, or
abandon certain ideas, attitudes, practices, and
(Kotler & Roberto 1989:6)
is the person or persons or organization setting out to change
is what in traditional Marketing we call the "target
market", whose behaviour or thinking the change agent is
trying to change. We are usually asking the target adopters to
do one of three things with respect to the social issue:
||to accept that that people
who suffer from AIDS are just as deserving of treatment
with dignity as those with any other disease
||to not overeat; to not
drink while driving. Note we don't ask to abandon eating
or drinking, just to do it in moderation or not in
||to quit smoking, littering,
abusing children - anything which just should not be
done at any time (in the mind of the change agent; these
are almost always value judgments)
Most social issues are a combination of idea,
attitude, practice, and behaviour, but in each case one of those
will be primary. In these examples, remember that different
people will have different perceptions of what is foremost, but
the list should give you a general idea of the
people with AIDS deserve fair treatment
Almost every social marketing concept involves an idea
at some level. But while the concept that people with
AIDS deserve equal treatment involves one's attitude
toward the disease and might involve certain practices
and long-term behaviours, we are primarily marketing an
Gays are people too
One's attitude toward gays involves the idea that they
are equals, and such practices as hiring them without
discrimination as to their sexual orientation, and
behaviours such as treating them like anyone else in any
instance from casual eye contact in the street to
inviting them to your home. But the main thing we are
marketing here is ATTITUDE
Practice and Behaviour are difficult to differentiate,
and it is perhaps ultimately on a moral ground on which
we do it. Practice involves something you do regularly,
customarily, habitually (to quote Webster). Recycling
involves the idea of not wasting and the attitude that
the earth is sacred, but mostly in marketing the concept
of recycling we are marketing a PRACTICE. You also may
label as Practice something which you wish your target
adopter to do for a short period of time, such as
writing to one's MP (as opposed to behaviour which
involves doing something longer-term)
||The most difficult to
define, behaviour is really how we conduct our lives in
solidarity and accord with societal norms and our own
deeply held beliefs. Any of these examples - AIDS, Gay
Rights, Recycling, may become a behaviour as one becomes
fully committed to the concept and integrates it into
Social marketers reach their target market in pretty much the
same way that traditional marketers do - through Channels of
Communication and of Distribution, and they effect change
through the same process that P&G uses to sell soap -
Examples of Social Marketing Campaigns through
History (from Kotler/Roberto)
do you think the column on the right is longer?
||women's right to vote
|alcohol and drugs
||food & drug quality
|drinking and driving
||nutrition & fitness
||preservation of parks
||improvement of schools
||getting kids to study math
||merit pay for teachers
||revitalizing old cities
||boosting job skills
any of these campaigns, decide:
Who is the change agent?
Who are the target adopters?
Are you asking people to accept, modify, or
abandon what they are currently doing?
Is the issue an idea, attitude, practice, or behaviour?
Why Do Information Campaigns Often Fail?
|In a recent scandal over tainted
water that killed 7 people in the Ontario town of Walkerton, can you identify/describe the following characters?
All of us care about our water
supply, but most of us are pretty ignorant about the
water purification process
Who is this person and why is s/he
so disinterested in the water issue?
How does this person react to the
problem? Who is it? What person in what kind of
Think about two different people in
the case and how they would interpret information
differently; perhaps a mother of a new-born and the
overworked supervisor looking for a quick solution
What Dilutes Mass Media Impact?
|Apathetic, Defensive, or
|The Message is Not Sufficiently Motivating
Placed in Inappropriate Media
|Provides No Way To Respond
What Makes a Successful Social Marketing
From the perspective of the social change agent
|It helps if
you hold a monopoly on the airwaves and there is not a lot out there
contrary to your
message. Just as it is easier to sell your brand of soap
if you're the only soap manufacturer advertising on a half
hour show, it is easier to reach magazine readers with
the message about not smoking, now that magazines are
forbidden to carry smoking ads
|It helps if
previous work in the same
area has carved a path for your issue. For a long time, too many
people took the issue of Drinking and Driving too
lightly; efforts were hindered
by the fact that no one had really brought the issue to
the attention of the public. Once MADD (Mothers against
Drunk Driving) started their campaign, other campaigns
became easier. This term canalization comes from the
concept that it is easier to sail your boat across the
land if a canal has been dug.
|It helps if you have help. It's easier
to conduct a social change campaign if mass media
efforts are supplemented by face-to-face and word-of-mouth
From the perspective of the target adopter
Intensity of commitment is greater if a person is already
pre-disposed toward the message; once you reach them, make
the message as stimulating as possible
Knowing how and where to respond to the campaign's message
Having an actual agency, office, or retail outlet to which
|Adequacy and Compatibility
Finding the agency able to do its job
Feeling that the effort put forth is going to be worth the
As the change agent you must reduce the
distance the target adopter must travel; not only
physically, as in the case of a recycling centre, but
psychologically, as in convincing them it is their problem
It's harder to sell an idea than a bar of
soap because of
Do your target adopters care about your issue?
Will they keep caring?
Is it going to be personally worthwhile to them?
If it costs too much in money or effort
they may not want to do it
Can they see a tangible result?
something that makes their effort worthwhile?
Is it something that everyone already wants?
(clean water should be)
Are you reaching the right groups with the right marketing
A Successful Project
now about the social issue for your final exam
substitute project, how do each of these apply?
Force, Direction, Mechanism, Adequacy, Distance
Involvement, Enduring Involvement, Benefits,
Benefit/Cost Relationship, Preexisting
Stages of Social Marketing
||a few go-getters with enough
charisma and energy to get others motivated start out to
||the idea takes off and others
begin to support it
||all those "others"
need to be coordinated and organized
||it becomes more like a
Types of Causes & Why They Fail
|Furnishing new information/raising awareness
||lack of research
|Persuade maximum number of
people to change
|Induce people to change for their own well-being
||mass communication is not
need interpersonal connections
|Alter deeply felt beliefs or
||threatens sense of identity
Change Strategies - Quitting Smoking
Technology - reduce level of carcinogens
Product Substitution Technology - worry
Product Innovation Technology - smoker's
||Tobacco subsidies issue
||Laws restricting tobacco
||School programmes re: ills of
||Putting it all together
The Social Marketing
Approach To Social Change
Starting the Project
about a social change campaign you may wish to use for
your final exam substitute project, do the following
Regarding your Social Marketing Plan product:
Is it an idea?
is it a belief, attitude, or value?
Is it a
practice? If so,
is it an act or a behaviour?
Or is it a
tangible object? If so, what?
Target Adopter Group
For the target adopter, list
Influence Holding Groups
Social Change Management Technology
What need is not being met or met well enough?
What will be
involved in positioning your idea?
If it is a
tangible product, where will you sell it?
What personal service might
might you have to make
as the campaign progresses?
Social Marketing Management Process
List three broad objectives for your social marketing
campaign and for each one an example of a kind of
behaviour you want to see in your target adopters
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