Precarious status is a concept that refers to various forms of less-than-full legal status.  Specifically, it is marked by any of the following: the absence of permanent residence; lack of work authorization; depending on a third party for residence or employment rights; restricted or no access to public services and protections available to permanent residents (e.g. healthcare, education, workplace rights); and deportability.  Precarious status in Canada includes “documented” but temporary workers, students, and refugee applicants, as well as unauthorized forms of status, such as visa and permit overstayers, failed refugee claimants and undocumented entrants (See L. Goldring, C. Berinstein and J. Bernhard (2009) “Institutionalizing Precarious Immigration Status in Canada.”  Citizenship Studies 13(3): 239-265).

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