4. Stephen E. Ambrose, author of Citizen Soldiers,
on the dust jacket:
"This book is disturbing to an extreme degree. As prosecutors, Hagerman and Endicott present a strong case. They cannot be said to be dispassionate, but they are careful, even judicious. At a minimum their research and revelations raise questions about the possible use of biological warfare by the United States in the Korean War that must be answered before we indulge in further moral condemnatiion of Iraq's research and development of a germ warfare capability."
5. Conrad Crane, professor of history, U.
S. Military Academy, West Point, N. Y., on www. amazon.com:
"This is a prime example of bad history....some of their claims verge on the ludicrous...Don't believe the comments on the book jacket, readers would be much better off reading something more balanced on this subject."
6. Col. William D. Bushnell, U. S.
Marine Corps, Library Journal, January 1999:
"Canadian historians Endicott and Hagerman present a disturbing political and moral exploration of the U. S. biological warfare program during the Cold War, claiming that the United States actually used biological weapons during the Korean War.... the authors' antiwar argument condemns the United States for its development and alleged use of biological weapons and its denial and cover-up when challenged."
7. Robert A. Lynn, editor, Military and
Bravo/Veterans Outlook Magazines, March 1999
"...must reading for anyone interested not only in national security issues but also in the overall moral issues as well. The need to break down the barriers of both secrecy and double-talk are clearly made in this excellent book. Both authors have done a tremendous service to future generations with the publication of this detailed and well-researched account."
8. Joint Centre for Asia Pacific Studies News,University
of Toronto - York University
"The authors use extensive American and Chinese sources to make a persuasive case that the US experimented with and deployed biological weapons during the Korean War. This is an important book for anyone interested in the history of the Korean War, American policy and the general question of the morality of modern warfare."
9. David Wilson, associate editor of the
United Church of Canada's, The Observer, April 1999:
"Supported by exhaustive archival research and interviews...the authors argue convincingly that the United States did indeed use germ warfare against China and North Korea in the early '50s....declassified documents place the
U. S. germ warfare program firmly in the context of the doctrine of total war....Aside from its political, ideological and military dimensions, the story of germ warfare in Korea is ultimately an ethical one. It's about how political and military leaders, convinced of the divinity of their cause, encouraged "ethical blindness" and went to great lengths to keep activities "that violated the moral consensus" shrouded in secrecy."
10. Douglas Fisher, dean of the parliamentary
press gallery, Ottawa, in The Toronto Sun, 21 March 1999:
"...a very learned book by two professors at York University....The conclusion seems to be that there is circumstantial evidence in abundance which 'strongly supports the allegations of use (of such weapons)...and implies a continuing high-level cover-up about the true relationship of the United States government to biological weaponry in general.'"
11. John Kim, in Korean Quarterly,
"A fascinating work of serious scholarship, the book brings together an array of evidence amassed from governmental archives and interviews, presenting a compelling argument that the Uniterd States did, in fact, secretly experiment with biological weapons during the Korean War."
12. Ed Regis, in The New York Times,
27 June 1999:
"The evidence Endicott and Hagerman present for their extraordinarily dubious claim is notable only for its weakness."
13. John Ellis van Courtland Moon, in The Bulletin
of the Atomic Scientists, May/Jun 1999:
"If the United States had used bio-weapons in the Korean War, it would have constituted an international crime of the first magnitude....Although the book fails to make its case, it does highlight the need to release records of the U. S. program during the early 1950's. Until this is done, the questions and accusations will not go away."
14. Frank Costigliola, University of Connecticut,
commentary at the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations,
26th Annual Conference, June 2000, at Ryerson University in Toronto:
"The authors have assembled massive documentation from a multinational archival search, and they have pieced together a highly plausible, tightly reasoned analysis to sustain their arguments....Despite some doubts about the `proof` of these secrets, I believe that Endicott and Hagerman have written a model book and paper that other historians of foreign relations might emulate. They have tackled an important subject and have pieced together fragments of evidence in a meaningful pattern."
15. Brian L. Evans, University of Alberta, in Canadian
Journal of History, April 2000:
"Stephen Endicott and Edward Hagerman have done a masterful job in marshalling the evidence and providing the arguments to make the case for the charge that the United States indulged in biological (bacteriological, germ) warfare under the umbrella of the Korean War. Their book is one that deserves wide discussion, not only for what it tells us about how governments deliberately misinform and mislead their citizens, while sacrificing the rights of individuals, but for what it means in the history of Western (American) relations with Eastern Asia."
16. Jonathan D. Moreno, University of Virginia
and senior staff member of President Clinton's Advisory Committee on Human
Radiation Experiments, in Undue Risk: secret state experiments on humans
(New York, W.H. Freeman & Co., 2000), pg. 114:
"Ever since the end of the Korean War there have been persistent rumors that the United States applied its captured Japanese biological warfare information in that conflict. Those rumors have proven resistant to evidence and have been heatedly denied by U.S. authorities. Recently, however, two Canadian investigators have built a compelling, if not conclusive, case that America's secret deal with Ishii and his colleagues had concrete consequences only a few years later....newly released documents from the United States, Canada, and China...undermine long-standing denials that the Japanese lessons were applied during the Korean War."
17. Daniel Paskowitz, University of California
San Francisco School of Medicine, on website of The Journal of the American
Medical Association, MSJAMA, "White Coats and War Crimes,"
March 1, 2000:
"Endicott and Hagerman cannot absolutely prove that the United States deployed biological weapons in the Korean War, because no US declassified documents yet exist that explicitly admits these claims. However, through exhaustive research and careful documentation, Endicott and Hagerman build an effective case that a biological attack could have happened and probably did. They show that the US government built biological weapons and prepared to use them in war, whether or not an enemy government had used biological weapons first. Testimony from US military personnel, Chinese health officials, and international observers who were asked to investigate Chinese allegations of biological warfare all weigh heavily toward the probability that it happened. The book is meticulously researched, carefully documented, and well written....Medical students and others preparing to enter the health professions will be especially interested in the roles played by physicians and medical researches in the biological warfare program."
18. Chen Ping, staff writer, CHINA DAILY,
(Beijing), "Germ warfare undeniable; plentiful evidence reveals biological
weapons used during the Korean War," December 6, 2000, page 9:
"The most in-depth investigation into the US biological warfare....To reveal the shrouded truth, Endicott and Hagerman conducted extensive research in the United States, Japan, Canada and Europe. They were the first foreigners to be given access to classified documents in the Chinese Central Archives."