In-Text Citations


In-text citations (author/date) for APA are parenthetical bibliographic notes included in the body of the essay citing the work of another author.  


For example:


Although Canadian urban migration has been considered in both academic literature (MacDonald, 2004) and literary fiction (Munro, 1971), one can learn…



Footnotes consist of a small superscript number followed by a corresponding note at the bottom of the page giving information about the work being cited.


For example:  


1 Michiel Horn, York University: The Way Must be Tried (Montreal, QC: McGill-Queens University Press, 2009), 271.

Bibliographic Citation


Complete bibliographic information about a document or material. Also called a ‘reference.’


For example, an article citation in APA style:


MacDonald, J.T. (2004). Toronto

    and Vancouver bound: The

    location choice of new Canadian

    immigrants. Canadian Journal

    of Urban Research, 13, 85-101.


Citations and Bibliographies

When you use the words, ideas or arguments of other writers in your academic papers, you must acknowledge those authors in two places:


    1. in the body of the paper (in-text citation or footnote)

    2. in a bibliography which appears at the end of your paper

        (bibliographic citation)

While the bibliography at the end of the paper presents full bibliographic information for each source, the in-text citations provide very brief identifying information without breaking the flow of the paper and point the reader to the full reference in your bibliography.


When using another author’s work, you may quote the author directly, by inserting his or her words in your paper, or indirectly, by summarizing or paraphrasing the author’s text (for more information, visit the Gathering & Noting Ideas and Writing Strategies modules).  


Whether you quote directly or indirectly, do give credit to the original author in your essay, using in-text citations or footnotes, and in your bibliography.