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What is Academic Integrity? » Forms of Academic Dishonesty

Forms of Academic Dishonesty

There are several other kinds of actions that are also considered offences against the standards of academic honesty. Among these are cheating, impersonation, aiding and abetting, collusion and falsification and fabrication, defined as follows:

Cheating

Cheating is the attempt to gain an improper advantage in an academic evaluation. Some forms of cheating include getting a copy of an exam or finding out an exam question before it is officially available; copying another person's answer to an exam question; consulting an unauthorized source during an exam; submitting the work one has done for one class or project in a second class; submitting work prepared in collaboration with other members of a class without authorization from the instructor; submitting work prepared in whole or in part by another person and representing that work as one's own.

Impersonation

It is a breach of academic honesty to have someone impersonate one's self in class, in a test or examination, or in connection with any other type of assignment in a course. Both the impersonator and the individual impersonated may be charged.

Aiding and Abetting

It is academic misconduct to encourage, enable or cause others to commit a breach of academic honesty. Anyone who helps or enables another in cheating, impersonation, plagiarism, or any other breach of academic honesty will be subject to the penalties outlined in York's policy. The giver need not be aware of the fact that the receiver will misuse the academic work. Simply providing it enables the receiver to misuse it and thus maybe considered aiding and abetting. Examples of aiding and abetting include sharing a lab report/formula/assignment/old exam/computer program with another student in person or electronically by email or on a social networking site such as Facebook. Both the owner of the lab report/formula/assignment/old exam/computer program and the person who copied maybe charged.

Collusion

There is a significant difference between collaboration and collusion. Collaboration is working jointly with others and is often encouraged by course instructors. Collusion is working jointly with others when it is not permissible or when the instructor does not authorize working in a group.

Permissible Collaboration includes:

  • Group work that clearly follows the course director's instructions
  • Sharing research findings or discussing course materials with other students when these contributions are fully acknowledged in one's individual work

In contrast, collusion includes:

  • Working with another student on an assignment when working in groups has not been approved by the instructor.
  • Dividing sections of an assignment or project among a group and then presenting it as work having been completed individually.
  • Splitting the tasks for group assignments unevenly where some students do most of the work while others do very little.

Fabrication and Falsification

It is a breach of academic honesty to fabricate (make-up) research or results. This includes: statistics, experimental results or data, research methodology, facts, quotations, references or bibliographic material and research and the ideas of others.

It is also a violation of academic honesty to falsify information. This includes:

  • "Massaging" or dishonest reporting of research, lab results or data1
  • Starting from expected results and working backwards2
  • Misrepresenting the research and ideas of others3
  • "Falsely reporting having met the responsibilities for a course, practicum or internship".4
  • Falsifying one′s attendance in a course or fieldwork5
  • "Falsifying letters of support or letters of reference
  • Falsifying academic records and transcripts
  • Misrepresenting the amount of work one has contributed to group assignments and activities"6
  • Falsifying doctors′ notes or other documentation related to petitions or missed work
  • Modifying graded, returned material then submitting it for regrading

1  Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, Fabrication (Science) URL:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fabrication_%28science%29, retrieved March 20th, 2009.
2  Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, Fabrication (Science) URL:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fabrication_%28science%29, retrieved March 20th, 2009.
3  Brigham Young University, Honor Code, Fabrication or Falsification. URL:
http://honorcode.byu.edu/content/view/3565/, retrieved March 20th, 2009.
4  University of North Carolina Geensboro, Dean of Students, Academic Integrity. URL:
http://academicintegrity.uncg.edu/violation/falsify/ , retrieved March 20th, 2009.
5  University of North Carolina Geensboro, Dean of Students, Academic Integrity. URL:
http://academicintegrity.uncg.edu/violation/falsify/ , retrieved March 20th, 2009.
6  University of Guelph Undergraduate Degree Regulations and Proceedures, Academic Misconduct, Offences. 2008-2009 Undergraduate Calendar, VIII. URL:
http://www.uoguelph.ca/registrar/calendars/undergraduate/current/c08/c08-amisconductoffen.shtml,
retrieved March 20th, 2009.

green checkFor further details on these and other forms of cheating, consult the Summary of Offences Against the Standards of Academic Honesty in the Senate Policy on Academic Honesty.


arrow image   Now that you know the different forms of academic dishonesty, let's go on to ask Key Points of York's Policy on Academic Honesty.