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Demonstrating Academic Integrity » How to Cite Right

How to Cite Right:

There are 2 elements needed to correctly document a source:

1. In your text: Whenever you quote, paraphrase, summarize, or otherwise refer to the work of another, you are required to cite its source, either by way of parenthetical documentation (bibliographic information within parentheses) or by means of a footnote/endnote (bibliographic information at the bottom of the page or at the end of the paper).

Example MLA style:
Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).

**Note you can place the author′s name in the citation (as above) or directly in the text. This is called a signal phrase (see below).

Burke explains that human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (3).

Long quotations: Each reference style will have specific directions for direct quotations that are more than 3 or 4 lines. For example, for APA and MLA styles the following rules apply:

  • In most cases, use a colon to introduce the quotation.
  • Indent the quotation one inch from the left margin.
  • Double-space the quotation.
  • Do not use quotation marks.
  • Place the parenthetical citation (author and page number) after the period (or other mark of punctuation) that closes the block quotation.

2. In your Bibliography/Works Cited/Reference List: Most style manuals require you to assemble a list of the works that you have cited in your paper. This list, included at the end of your paper, may be termed “Works Cited”, a “Reference List”, a “Bibliography”, or some similar term.

Example APA style:
Fleming T. (1997). Liberty!: The American revolution. New York: Viking.

Important elements in your Bibliography/Works Cited/Reference List

There are essential pieces of information that a writer must provide about the articles, texts and other sources they have drawn on. Some or all of them are necessary to uniquely identify and locate the original source, or to find similar materials.

Author, editor, Group/Association (name and initials)
Title of the work (where applicable)
Title of the book or journal where the work came from
Volume number (of a journal or series of books)
Publisher
Place of publication
Date of publication
Web page address (URL or DOI)

More information on how to cite resources and different style guides


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