Goel, V. (1995). Sketches of thought. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Review by Prof. Chandrasekaran)


Edited Volumes


Glatzeder, B., Goel, V., & von Müller, A. (Eds.) (2010).   Towards a Theory of Thinking.  Springer.


Goel, V., Navarrete, G., Prado, J., Noveck, I. (2017). The Reasoning Brain: The Interplay Between Cognitive Neuroscience and Theories of Reasoning.  Frontiers Media SA.



Book Chapters


Nicolle, A. & Goel, V. (2013). What is the Role of VMPFC in Emotional Influences on Reason. In Isabelle Blanchette (Ed), Emotion and Reasoning. Taylor & Francis.


Ollinger, M. & Goel, V. (2010). Problem-Solving. In B. Glatzeder, V. Goel, & a von Müller (Eds),  Towards a Theory of Thinking. Springer.


Goel, V. (2009). Cognitive Neuroscience of Thinking.  In G. Berntson & John T. Cacioppo (Eds.), Handbook of Neuroscience for the Behavioral Sciences.  Wiley.


De Neys, W., & Goel, V. (2011). Heuristics and biases in the brain: Dual neural pathways for decision making. In O. Vartanian & D. R. Mandel (Eds.), Neuroscience of Decision Making. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

 Goel, V. (2008).  Fractionating the System of Deductive Reasoning. In Neural Correlates of Thinking, Eds. E. Kraft, B. Guylas, & E. Poppel.  Springer Press.


Waechter, RL,& Goel,V. (2005).  Resolving Valid Multiple Model Inferences Activates a Left Hemisphere Network.  In C. Held, M. Knauff, & G. Vosgerau (Eds.), Mental Models and Cognitive Psychology, Neuroscience, and Philosophy of Mind. Elsevier.


Vartanian, O., & Goel, V. (2005). Neural Correlates of Creative Cognition. In C. Martindale, P. Locher, & V. Petrov (Eds.), Evolutionary and neurocognitive approaches to the arts. Baywood Publishing.


Goel, V. (2005). Cognitive Neuroscience of Deductive Reasoning. In Cambridge Handbook of Thinking & Reasoning, Eds. K. Holyoak & R. Morrison. Cambridge University Press.


Goel, V. (2004). Can There be a Cognitive Neuroscience of Central Cognitive Systems? In Mind as a Scientific Object: Between Brain & Culture, Eds. D. Johnson & C. Erneling. Oxford University Press.


Goel, V. (2002). Cognitive & Neural Basis of Planning. Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Macmillan.


Grafman, J. & Goel, V. (2002). Neural Basis of Reasoning. Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Macmillan.


Goel, V. (2000). Dissociation of Design Knowledge. In Knowing and learning to design: Cognitive perspectives in design education, Eds. C. Eastman & W. C. Newstetter. Elsevier.

Journal Articles


Goel, V., Lam, E., Smith, K.W., Goel, A., Raymont, V., Krueger, F., Grafman, J. (2017).  Lesions to polar/orbital prefrontal cortex selectively impair reasoning about emotional material, Neuropsychologia, Vol. 99, pp. 236-245.


Goel, V. (2015). Indeterminacy tolerance as a basis of hemispheric asymmetry within prefrontal cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9: 326. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00326


Smith, K.W.,  Balkwill, L-L.Vartanian, O., Goel, V. (2015). Syllogisms delivered in an angry voice lead to improved performance and engagement of a different neural system compared to neutral voice. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9: 273


Goel, V., Eimontaite, I., Goel, A., & Schindler, I. (2015). Differential modulation of performance in insight and divergent thinking tasks with tDCS. Journal of Problem Solving.Vol. 8: Iss. 1, Article 2.


Peipeng, L., Goel, V., Jia, X., Li, K. (2014). Different Neural Systems Contribute to Semantic Bias and Conflict Detection in the Inclusion Fallacy TaskFrontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8.


Smith, K.W., Vartanian, O., and Goel, V. (2014). Dissociable neural systems underwrite logical reasoning in the context of induced emotions with positive and negative valence. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 736.


Goel, V. (2014). Reason and Less.  Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 901.


Goel, V. (2014). Creative Brains: Designing in the Real World. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8, 241.


Eimontaite, I., Nicolle, A., Schindler, I., Goel, V. (2013). The Effect of Partner-Directed Emotion in Social Exchange Decision-Making. Frontiers in Psychology: Emotion Sicience., Vol. 4, Article 469.


Vartanian, O., Goel, V., Lam, E., Fisher, M., & Granic, J. (2013). Middle temporal gyrus encodes individual differences in perceived facial attractiveness. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts.


Goel, V., Vartanian, O., , Bartolo, A., Hakim, L,  Ferraro, A.M., Isella, V., Appollonio, I., Drei, S., Nichelli, P. (2013). Lesions to Right Prefrontal Cortex Impair Real-World Planning through Premature Commitments. Neuropsychologia, Vol. 51 (4), pp. 713-724.


Waechter, R., Goel, V., Raymont, V., Kruger, F., Grafman, J. (2012). Transitive inference reasoning is impaired by focal lesions in parietal cortex rather than rostrolateral prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychologia. Vol. 51 pp. 464–471.


Nicolle, A. & Goel, V. (2012). Differential Impact of Beliefs on Valence and Arousal. Cognition and Emotion.


Stollstorff, M., Vartanian, O. and Goel, V. (2011). Levels of Conflict in Reasoning Modulate Right Lateral Prefrontal Cortex. Brain Research, 1428, pp. 24-32.


Goel, V. (2010).  Neural Basis of Thinking: Lab Problems vs. Real-World Problems.  Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, Vol. 1, pp. 613-621.


Goel, V. & Vartanian, O. (2010). Negative Emotions Can Attenuate the Influence of Beliefs on Logical Reasoning. Cognition & Emotion, Vol. 25 (1), pp. 121-131.


Goel, V., Stollstorff, M., Nakic, M., Knutson, K., Grafman, J. (2009). A Role for Right Ventral Lateral Prefrontal Cortex in Reasoning about Indeterminate Relations. Neuropsychologia. Vol. 47 (13), pp. 2790-2797.


Vartanian, O., Goel, V., Tierney, M., Huey, E. D., & Grafman, J. (2009). Frontotemporal Dementia Selectively Impairs Transitive Reasoning about Familiar Spatial Environments. Neuropsychology. Vol. 23, pp. 619-629.


De Neys, W., Vartanian, O., Goel, V.  (2008). Smarter Than We Think: When Our Brain Detects We're Wrong. Psychological Science, Vol 19 (5), pp. 483-489.


Goel, V. (2007).  The Anatomy of Deductive Reasoning.  Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 11 (10), pp .435-441.

Goel, V. & Dolan,  R.J. (2007). Social Regulation of Affective Experience of Humour.  Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 19, No. 9,  pp. 1574-1580.


Goel, V., Tierney, M., Sheesley, L., Bartolo, A., Vartanian, O., & Grafman, J. (2007). Hemispheric Specialization in Human Prefrontal Cortex for Resolving Certain and Uncertain Inferences. Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 17, 2245--2250.

Stavy, R., Goel, V., Critchley, H., & Dolan, R. (2006). Intuitive interference in quantitative reasoning. Brain Res, 1073-1074, 383-388.


Vartanian, O., and Goel, V. (2005).  Right Ventral Lateral Prefrontal Cortex Mediates Hypothesis Generation in an Unconstrained Anagram Task. NeuroImage, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp.927-933.


Goel, V., and Vartanian, O. (2005). Disassociating the roles of right ventral lateral and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex in generation and maintenance of hypotheses in set-shift problems. Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 15, No. 8, pp.1170-1177.


Noveck, I., Goel, V., Smith, K. (2004). The Neural Basis of Conditional Reasoning with Arbitrary Content. Cortex, Vol. 40, pp. 613-622.


Vartanian, O. and Goel, V. (2004). Emotion pathways in the brain mediate aesthetic preference. Bulletin of Psychology and Arts, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp.37-42.


Goel, V. and Dolan, R.J. (2004). Differential Involvement of Left Prefrontal Cortex in Inductive and Deductive Reasoning. Cognition, Vol. 93, No. 3, pp. B109-B121.


Vartanian, O. and Goel, V. (2004). Neuroanatomical correlates of aesthetic preference for paintings. NeuroReport, Vol. 15,  No. 5,  pp. 893-897.


Goel, V., Shuren, J., Sheesley, L. and Grafman, J. (2004). Asymmetrical Involvement of Frontal Lobes in Social Reasoning. Brain. Vol. 127,  pp. 783-790.


Goel, V., Makale, M., and Grafman, J. (2004). The Hippocampal System Mediates Logical Reasoning about Familiar Spatial Environments. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 654-664.


Goel, V., Bartolo, A., St. Clair, D., and Venneri, A. (2004). Logical Reasoning Deficits in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 66, No. 1, pp. 87-88.


Goel, V, & Dolan, R.J. (2003). Reciprocal Neural Response Within Lateral and Ventral Prefrontal Cortex During Hot and Cold Cognition. NeuroImage, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 2314-2321.


Goel, V. (2003). Evidence for Dual Neural Pathways for Syllogistic Reasoning. Psychologica, Vol. 32, pp. 301-309.


Goel, V. and Dolan, R. (2003). Explaining Modulation of Reasoning by Belief. Cognition, Vol. 87, No. 1, pp. B11-B22.


Goel, V. & Dolan, R. J. (2001). Functional Neuroanatomy of Three-Term Relational Reasoning. Neuropsychologia, Vol. 39, No. 9, pp. 901-909.


Goel, V. & Dolan, R. J. (2001). Functional Neuroanatomy of Humor: Segregating Cognitive & Affective Components. Nature Neuroscience, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 237-238.

Goel, V., Pullara, D., Grafman, J. (2001). A Computational Model of Frontal Lobe Dysfunction: Working Memory and the Tower of Hanoi. Cognitive Science, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 287-313.

Goel, V., Buchel, C., Frith, C., Dolan, R. (2000). Dissociation of Mechanisms Underlying Syllogistic Reasoning. NeuroImage, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 504-514.

Goel, V., Grafman, J. (2000). The Role of the Right Prefrontal Cortex in Ill-structured Problem Solving. Cognitive Neuropsychology, Vol. 17, No. 5, pp. 415-436.

Goel, V. and Dolan, R. (2000). Anatomical Segregation Of Component Processes in an Inductive Inference Task. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp.1-10.

Goel, V., Gold, B., Kapur, S., & Houle, S. (1998). Neuroanatomical Correlates of Human Reasoning. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp.293-302.

Goel, V., Grafman, J., Tajik, D., Gana, S, Danto, D. (1997). A Study of the Performance of Patients with Frontal Lobe Lesions in a Financial Planning Task. Brain, Vol. 120, pp.1805-1822.

Goel, V., Gold, B., Kapur, S., & Houle, S. (1997). The Seats of Reason: A Localization Study of Deductive & Inductive Reasoning using PET (O15) Blood Flow Technique. NeuroReport, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 1305-1310.

Goel, V., Grafman, J., Sadato, N., Hallet, M. (1995). Modeling Other Minds. NeuroReport, Vol. 6, No. 13, pp.1741-1746.

Goel, V., and Grafman, J. (1995) Are Frontal Lobes Implicated in Planning Functions: Re-examining the Data from the Tower of Hanoi. Neuropsychologia, Vol. 33, No. 5, pp. 623-442.

Goel, V. (1994). A Comparison of Design and Nondesign Problem Spaces. Artificial Intelligence in Engineering, Vol. 9, pp. 53-72.

Goel, V. & Pirolli, P. (1992). The Structure of Design Problem Spaces. Cognitive Science, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 395-429.

Goel, V. (1991). Notationality and the Information Processing Mind. Minds and Machines, Vol. 1, pp. 129-165.

Goel, V. & Pirolli, P. (1990). Der Design-Problem-Raum. Archithese 3.

Goel, V. & Pirolli, P. (1989). Motivating the Notion of Generic Design Within Information Processing Theory: The Design Problem Space. AI Magazine, Vol. 10, No. 1.

Goel, V. (1988). A Cognitive Strategy for Structuring Space. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering, Design, and Manufacturing, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 89-103.

Goel, V. (1988). Complicating the Logic of Design. Design Studies, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 229-234.

Published Conference Proceedings (Refereed)


Vartanian, O., & Goel, V. (2004). Exploring aesthetic preference using fMRI. Proceedings of the XVIII Congress of the International Association of Empirical Aesthetics (pp. 251-253). Galouste Gulbenkian Foundation: Lisbon, Portugal.


Goel, V. & Grafman, J. (1993). Modularity and the Possibility of a Cognitive Neuroscience of Higher Cognitive Functions. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Goel, V. (1992). Ill-structured Representations for Ill-structured Problems. Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Goel, V. (1992). A Comparison of Well-structured and Ill-structured Task Environments and Problem Spaces. Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Goel, V. (1992). Are Computational Explanations Vacuous? Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Abstracted Conference Proceedings


Goel, V. (2014). Real-World Problem-Solving: Back to the Future. Resource Bounded Problem Solving, Schloss Dagstuhl, Leibniz-Zentrum fur Informatik, Germany.

Nicolle, A., Navarrete, G., Modrono, C. Goel, V. (2014). Assessing the Neurodevelopmental Basis of Risk Taking and Impulsive Choice. Reading Emotions: Capturing brain changes across the lifespan. Reading, UK.


Goel, V. (2010). Fractionating the Rational Brain. In Y. Yao, R. Sun, T. Poggio, J. Liu, N. Zhong, & J. Huang (Eds),  Brain Informatics..Tenth International Conference on Brain Informatics 2010 Proceedidngs. Springer.


Vartanian, O., Goel, V., Bartolo, A., Hakim, L., Ferraro, AM., Budriesi, C., Apollonio, I., Isella, V., Nichelli, P. (2009, April). The Role of Right Prefrontal Cortex in Real-World Planning. Talk presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Cognitive Neuroscience, San Francisco, CA.


Smith, K. W., Goel, V., Balkwill, L.-L., Vartanian, O., & Dolan, R. (2008, June).  Neural Systems Recruited for Reasoning about Neutral Material are Affected by Mood Manipulation.  Poster presented at the Canadian Neuroscience Society Meeting, Montral.


Vartanian, O., Goel, V., Tierney, M., Huey, E.D., & Grafman, J. (2008, April). Frontotemporal Dementia Selectively Impairs Transitive Reasoning about Familiar Material. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Cognitive Neuroscience, San Francisco, CA.


De Neys, W., Vartanian, O., Goel, V., & d’Ydewalle, G. (2007, November). Smarter than we think: Conflict monitoring in decision making. Paper presented at the Psychonomic Society Meeting, Long Beach, USA..


 Arsalidou, M., Goel, V., Pascual-Leone, J. (2007).  Neural correlates of visual problem solving and task demand. TENNET XVII, Montréal.


Vartanian, O., Goel, V., Fisher, M., & Lam. E. (September, 2005). Preference for faces. Paper presented at the Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.


Vartanian, O., & Goel, V. (September, 2005). Preference for paintings. Paper presented at the Body and Mind Forum, Helsingor, Denmark.


Goel, V., Fisher, M., Vartanian, O., & Lam, E. (2004, July). The rewarding nature of perceived facial attractiveness. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society, Berlin, Germany.


Lam, Hoi-Ling & Goel. V. (2004).  The Neural Basis of Facial Attractiveness.  Canadian Society for Brain, Behaviour and Cognitive Science 14th Annual Meeting.


Smith, K.W., Goel, V. (2004). Inductive and Deductive Reasoning about Theory of Mind is Characterized Differently from Reasoning About Physical Events Involving People: an fMRI Study. First Joint Conference of the Society of Philosophy and Psychology and the European Society of Philosophy and Psychology. Barcelona, Spain.


Vartanian, O. & Goel, V. (2004). Exploring Aesthetic Preference using fMRI. International Association of Empirical Aesthetics. Lisbon.


Stollstorff, M. & Goel, V. (2004). Prefrontal Cortex Activation during Attentional Inhibition in Syllogistic Reasoning.  Society for Neuroscience.


Bartolo,  A., Goel, V., Hakim, L., Ferraro, A.M., & Nichelli, P. (2004). Concrete and abstract thinking in a planning task: Left and right frontal lobes involvement.  Bressanone, Italy.


Bartolo, A., Goel, V. & Nichelli, P. (2003). Differential Frontal Lobe Involvement in Ill- and Well-structured Planning: Preliminary Results. Bressanone, Italy.


Hussey, D., Bell, T., Wilson, A., Goel, V., Houle, S. (1998). Validation of an Automated [15O] H20 injection System for PET Activation Studies. Human Brain Mapping '98.

Gold, B., Goel, V., Kapur, S., Houle, S., Crawford, J. (1997). Neuroanatomic Correlates of Deductive and Inductive Reasoning. Society for Neuroscience.

Goel, V., Grafman, J., Sadato, N., Hallet, M. (1995). Modeling Other Minds: Monitoring the Involvement of the Frontal Lobes using PET (O15). Human Brain Mapping '95, Paris, France. Wiley-Liss.

Goel, V., Grafman, J., Sadato, N., Hallet, M. (1995). Modeling Other Minds. Cognitive Neuroscience Society.

Goel, V., Grafman, J., and Riggs, R. (1994). Why are Frontal Lobe Patients Impaired on the Tower of Hanoi? Cognitive Neuroscience Society.


Commentaries & Reviews


Goel, V. (2008).  Pedagogy Revealed Through Functional Anatomy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 12, No. 5.


Goel, V., Nichelli, P. & Grafman, J. (1997). What is the Locality Assumption and how is it Violated. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3), 519-520.

Goel, V. (1994). Review of Moody's Philosophy and Artificial Intelligence. Philosophia Mathematica (3) Vol. 2, pp. 89-91.

Goel, V. (1993). Comments on the Connection Principle. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 1.

Goel, V. (1990). Smolensky's Proper Treatment of Connectionism: Having it Both Ways. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 2.

Pirolli, P. & Goel, V. (1990). You Can't Get There from Here: Comments on R. W. Sperry's Resolution of Science and Ethics. American Psychologist, Vol. 45, No. 1.