Referencing Style (APA) for Writing Papers
Referencing will follow the APA (American Psychological Association) style. A list of all journals used should be included at the end of the report (also APA style). Only this style of referencing is acceptable.
· APA journals use the author-date method of citation; that is, the surname of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point:
Smith (1993) compared reaction times
In a recent study (Smith, 1993) of reaction times
· When a work has more than two authors and fewer than six authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations include only the surnamen of the first author followed by “et al.” (not underlined and with no period after “et”) and year:
Williams, Jones, Smith, Bradner and Torrington (1995) found <first citation>
Williams et al. (1995) found <subsequent citations>
In a recent study (Williams et al., 1995), it was found that...
· Join the names in a multiple-author citation in running text by the word and. In parenthetical material, in tables and in the reference list, join the names by an ampersand (&):
...as James and Ryerson (1991) demonstrated.
...as has been demonstrated (James & Ryerson, 1991).
· List two or more works by different authors who are cited within the same parentheses in alphabetical order by the first author’s surname. Separate the citations by semicolons.
Several studies (Dorow & O’Neal, 1989; Mullaney, 1988; Talpers, 1991)...
· To cite a specific part of a source, indicate the page, chapter, figure, table or equation at the appropriate point in the text. Always give page numbers for quotations. Note that the words, page and chapter are abbreviated in such text citations:
(Czapiewski & Ruby, 1988, p.10)
(Wilmarth, 1990, chap. 3)
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EXAMPLES OF REFERENCES TO PERIODICALS
1. Journal article, one author
Paivio, A. (1975). Perceptual comparisons through the mind’s eye. Memory & Cognition, 3(6), 635-647.
2. Journal article, two authors
Becker, L. J. & Seligman, C. (1981). Welcome to the energy crisis. Journal of Social Issues, 37(2), 1-7.
3. Journal article, more than two authors
Horowitz, L. M., Post, D. L., French, R. S., Wallis, K. D. & Siegelman, E. Y. (1981). The prototype as a construct in abnormal psychology. Journal of
Abnormal Psychology, 90(3), 575-585.
4. Journal article, six or more authors
Winston, B. L., Reinhart, M. L., Sacker, J. R., Gottlieb, W., Oscar, B. B. & Harris, D.P. (1983). Effect of intertrial delays on retardation of learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behaviour Processes, 9(4), 581-593.
· In text, use the following parenthetical citation each time the work is cited: (Winston et al., 1983).
ELEMENTS OF A REFERENCE TO AN: Entire Book
Bernstein, T. M. (1965). The careful writer; A modern guide to English usage. New York, NY: Ahteneum.
Letheridge, S. & Cannon, C. R. (Eds.). (1980). Bilingual education: Teaching English as a second language. New York, NY: Praeger.
Article or chapter in an edited book, two editors
Gurman, A. S. & Kniskern, D. P. (1981). Family therapy outcome research: Knowns and unknowns. In A. S. Gurman & D.P. Knisker (Eds.). Handbook of family therapy (pp. 742-775). New York, NY:
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The variety of material available on the Web, and the variety of ways in which it is structured and presented, can present challenges for creating usable and useful references. Regardless of format, however, authors using and citing Internet sources should observe the following two guidelines:
1. Direct readers as closely as possible to the information being cited; whenever possible, reference specific documents rather than home or menu pages.
2. Provide addresses that work.
At a minimum, a reference of an Internet source should provide a document title or description, a date (either the date of publication or update or the date of retrieval), and an address (in Internet terms, a uniform resource locator, or URL). Whenever possible, identify the authors of a document as well.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize
health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved
November 20, 2000, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/ volume3/
Glueckauf, R. L., Whitton, J., Baxter, J., Kain, J., Vogelgesang, S., Hudson,
M., et al. (1998, July). Videocounseling for families of rural teens with epilepsy --
Project update. Telehealth News,2(2). Retrieved from http://www.telehealth.
GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from
*If the author of a document is not identified, begin the reference with the title of the document.
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Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., & Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and
education: New wine in newbottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational
futures. Retrieved August 24, 2000, from Columbia University, Institute for
Learning Technologies Web site:
*If a document is contained within a large and complex Web site (such as that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization and the relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.
Electronic copy of a journal article, three to five authors, retrieved from database
Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L. A.
(1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449. Retrieved October 23, 2000,
from PsycARTICLES database.
*When referencing material obtained by searching an aggregated database, follow the format appropriate to the work retrieved and add a retrieval statement that gives the date of retrieval and the proper name of the database.
Citations in Text of Electronic Material
To cite a specific part of a source, indicate the page, chapter, figure, table, or equation at the appropriate point in text. Always give page numbers for quotations. Note that the words page and chapter are abbreviated in such text citations:
(Cheek & Buss, 1981, p. 332)
(Shimamura, 1989, chap. 3)
For electronic sources that do not provide page numbers, use the paragraph number, if available, preceded by the paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para. If neither paragraph nor page numbers are visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it to direct the reader to the location of the material.
(Myers, 2000, ¶ 5)
(Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para. 1)