Kingdom Plantae

 

Adaptations to Life on Land

Protection from drying out

Transport system for water and nutrients

Support system

Changes from ancestral filamentous algae

 

Classification of Plants

4 major groups of plants

Non-vascular plants

Mosses, Liverworts, Hornworts

Vascular plants

Non-Seed - Ferns

Seed - Gymnosperms

Angiosperms

 

Non-Vascular Plants

Mosses, Liverworts, Hornworts

No vascular tissue

Depend on diffusion and osmosis to transport nutrients

No roots

Usually grow low to ground

 

Mosses

Bryophyta

 

Liverworts

Hepaticophyta

 

Hornworts

Anthocerotophyta

 

Vascular Plants

Vascular tissues consist of strands of specialized cylindrical or elongated cells that form a network throughout plant.

Xylem - Conducts water and dissolved minerals upward from roots.

Phloem - Conducts sucrose and hormone signals throughout the plant.

 

Seedless Vascular Plants

Ferns (Pterophyta)

Seedless Vascular Plants

Club Mosses (Lycophytes)

Seed Plants

Seed Plants first appeared about 425 mya.

Drought Protection

Enhanced Dispersal

Extend Embryo Viability Window

 

Gymnosperms

Conifers (Coniferophyta)

Cycads (Cycadophyta)

Ginkgo (Ginkgophyta)

Gnetophytes (Gnetophyta)

 

Angiosperms

 

Kingdom Animalia

Multicellular eukaryotes

Reproduce sexually

Heterotrophic

Motile

95% invertebrate

8 major phyla (33 total)

 

The First Animals

Sponges (Porifera)

Jellyfish, Corals, Anemones (Cnidaria)

 

Worms

Flatworms (Platyhelminthes and Nemertea)

Segmented Worms (Annelida)

 

Invertebrates

Molluscs (Mollusca)

Joint-Legged Animals (Arthropods)

Starfish (Echinoderma)

 

Chordates

Most are vertebrates

3 key characteristics:

A dorsal nerve chord

A notochord

Pharyngeal gill slits

 

Invertebrate Chordates

Tunicates (sea squirts)

 

Vertebrate Chordates

Jawless fishes

Jawed chordates

Cartilagenous fishes

Bony fishes

Amphibians

Reptiles

Birds

Mammals