Classics in the History of Psychology

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Definitions Coa - Com

Posted April 2000

Co-adaptation [Lat. co + adaptare, to adapt]: Ger. gegenseitige oder complicirte Anpassung; Fr. coadaptations, (variations) coadaptives; Ital correlazione d'adattamento. Complex as contrasted with simple adaptation, in which several structures by modification or variation are involved in a common adaptation. In cases of co-adaptation due to variation, the latter are called correlated VARIATIONS (q.v.). See also CORRELATION (in biology).

The supposed necessity for many structures to vary simultaneously so as to give rise to complex adaptation has been brought forward by Herbert Spencer, G. J. Romanes, and others as an objection to the application of Natural Selection in such cases. Wallace meets the difficulty by denying that the several component adaptations are necessarily simultaneous. Weismann meets it by suggesting that much of the adaptation is temporarily acquired by individual modification (INTRASELECTION, q.v.) and more recently by the hypothesis of GERMINAL SELECTION. The use of Intraselection -- in this connection -- has been carried further by the theory of ORGANIC SELECTION, according to which such modifications are gradually replaced by congenital variations.

Literature: HERBERT SPENCER, 'Princ. of Biol. (2nd ed.), 1898; also Contemp. Rev., Feb., March, and Dec., 1893; G. J. ROMANES, Darwin and after Darwin, ii. 64; A. R. WALLACE, Darwinism, 418; A. WEISMANN, Contemp. Rev., 1xiv, 1893; Effect of External Influences upon Development, Romanes Lecture, 1894; BALDWIN, Science, N.S., iii, 1896, 438 ff., 558 ff., and Psychol. Rev., 1897, 393 ff.; LLOYD MORGAN, Habit and Instinct (1896). (C.LL.M.- J.M.B.)

Code (in law) [Lat. codex, a tablet]: Ger. Gesetzbuch, Gesetzsammlung; Fr. code; Ital. codice. A written statement of the law on one or more subjects, arranged in systematic and orderly form. A code may be a private and unofficial work, like David Dudley Field's Draft Outlines of an International Code. It may be an official work, sanctioned and promulgated by the government, and having the force of law. In such case, it is a substitute for the pre-existing law on the same subject.

Ordinarily, private codes precede and pave the way for public ones. Thus the codes of imperial constitutions compiled by Gregorianus and Hermogenianus came to be received as authoritative in the Roman courts, and served as models for the later Theodosian and Justinian codes (Smith's Dict. of Greek and Roman Antiq., sub verbo).

The criminal code of Draco for Athens was promulgated about 624 B.C., and soon supplanted by the more general, and milder, code of Solon. From the latter, part of the Twelve Tables of Rome were probably copied, in the middle of the 5th century B.C. The Indian code, or Institutes of Menu, was probably a later production. The Theodosian code of edicts and general imperial constitutions from the time of Constantine was compiled by a commission of sixteen jurists, appointed by Theodosius II, and promulgated by him as the law of the Eastern empire, A.D. 438. It was soon afterwards confirmed as law for the Western empire by the Roman senate, at the instance of Valentinian III. It is in sixteen books, and most of it is still extant. The term 'Justinian Code' is commonly, but inaccurately, used to designate the compilation made about a hundred years later, under direction of the Emperor Justinian, more properly known as the Corpus Iuris Civilis. This consists of four distinct works. One is an elementary treatise or statement of the leading rules of Roman law, in four books, designed especially for the education of law students, and called the Institutes. Another is a more detailed statement of the general principles and rules of Roman law, in fifty books, known as the Digest or Pandects. Another is a collection of the imperial rescripts, edicts, and constitutions down to Justinian's time, in twelve books, called the Code. Finally, comes a compilation, made later, of Justinian's new constitutions (Novellae constitutiones), promulgated after the compilation of his Code, during the residue of his reign, known as the Novels. It is probable that the Novels were not officially collated and published until after Justinian's death.

Numerous codes have since been published in different states. Those of the continental nations in the dark and middle ages may be found in the Corpus Iuris Germanici of Heineccius. Louis XIV codified important titles of French law. The Code Napoléon was one of the greatest works of Napoleon I. Though commonly spoken of as one code, it really consists of eight. The principal one is the Code Civil, completed in 1804, which with comparatively slight alterations remains the law of France on the subject of private rights. It has been substantially adopted in Belgium and Louisiana, and had an important influence in shaping that of Italy. Germany has had a succession of partial codes beginning with that of Frederick the Great in 1751, and culminating in the Imperial Civil Code in 1896.

England has codified only a few titles of her law, notably that of Bills and Notes. In the United States a large number of the states have codes of civil procedure; and a few, Georgia being the first (1860), have general civil codes. Japan has adopted a penal and also a civil code. A penal code is one defining and declaring the punishment of crimes, such as the Code Pénal of Napoleon, or the German Strafgesetzbuch.

All the public statutes of each of the United States are at times compiled or revised by public authority, the product being known as a compilation or revision, or the Revised General or Public Statutes, as the case may be. Such a publication is a substitute for the former laws, but as they do not assume to cover the entire field of rights or remedies, and rest on the foundation of an unwritten common law, they are not customarily designated as codes. Private compilations of a similar kind are often called Digests. Such was Brightly's Digest of the Laws of the United States, which was in common use by the courts until the publication of the Revised Statutes of the United States (1873). (S.E.B.)

Literature: THIBAUT, Ueber die Notwendigkeit eines allg. bügerlichen Rechts f. Deutschland (1814); SAVIGNY, Vom Beruf unserer Zeit f. Gesetzgebung u. Rechtswiss. (1814); BENTHAM, Papers relative to Codification, &c. (1817); MAINE, Ancient Law, chap. i (1861); T. J. SEMMES, The Civil Law and Codification, Rep. of the Amer. Bar Assoc., ix. 189 (1886); J. C. CARTER, The Provinces of the Written and the Unwritten Law (1889); J. DOVE WILSON, The Recent Progress of Codification, Juridical Rev. (April, 1891), and the Proposed Imperial Code of Commercial Law, ibid. (Oct., 1896).

Codification: see CODE.

Coefficient (in psychology) [Lat. co- + efficiens, efficient]: Ger. Koefficient, Merkmal (in compounds), Qualität (in compounds); Fr. coefficient, propriété; Ital. coefficiente. 'An essential peculiarity or distinguishing mark' for consciousness.

Suggested, as defined above, in the present writer's Handbook of Psychology, Feeling and Will (1891), chap. vii. § 3, in connection with BELIEF (q.v.), the coefficient of reality in different spheres being the marks, of whatever kind, attaching to mental contents, by which consciousness attains its beliefs. So in other cases; e.g. the coefficient of recognition is what Höffding calls Bekanntheitsqualität.

Literature: STOUT, Analytic Psychol., 'Belief'; JERUSALEM, Die Urtheilsfunction; BALDWIN, loc. cit.; Mind, July, 1891; and Elements of Psychol., Glossary. (J.M.B., G.F.S.)

Coelentera [Gr. koiloV, hollow, + entron, intestine]: Ger. Pflanzenthiere; Fr. coelentérés; Ital. celenterati. That group or subgrade of Enterozoa or Metazoa which remains possessed of a single enteric cavity, without formation of a separate body-cavity or coelom, and possesses only two definite cell-layers. Cf. COELOMATA.

The term was proposed by Leuckart (1848) to include the classes Polypi and Acalephae; adopted by Huxley (1869) to comprise the Hydrozoa and Actinozoa; subsequently, owing largely to the work of Haeckel, taken to include also the Sponges or Porifera, which are now, however, often given an independent position.

Literature: E. RAY LANKESTER, art. Zoology, Encyc. Brit. (9th ed.). (C.LL.M.- E.S.G.)

Coelom [Gr. koilwma, a cavity]: Ger. Leibeshöhle; Fr. coelome, cavitédu corps; Ital. celomati. A cavity or series of cavities found in the mesoderm of many animals (hence termed COELOMATA, q.v.). It is surrounded by mesodermic walls, which frequently form a perivisceral sac or sacs enclosing the heart, and in many cases the alimentary canal. From its epithelial walls are derived the reproductive cells; and from them too are developed tubes or tubules for the excretion of nitrogenous waste.

First suggested as a technical term by Haeckel in his monograph on Calc. Sponges (1872), the term has since undergone further delimitation. According to mode or origin Huxley (1875) subdivided it into Enterocoel (having origin as pouches from the enteric cavity) and Schizocoel (by subsequent cleavage of the mesoderm). To these he added Epicoel (having origin from the outer wall of the body, as in the atrium of Amphioxus); but this is not a homologous cavity. The Hertwigs presented in 1881 a coelom theory in Embryology. Lankester and most modern zoologists utilize the coelom in classification.

Literature: HAECKEL, Die Kalkschwämme (1872); HUXLEY, Quart. J. Microsc. Sci., xv. 54 (1875); LANKESTER, ibid., xvii. 441 (1877); HERTWIG, Coelomtheorie (1881). (C.LL.M.)

Coelomata: Ger. Coelomaten; Fr. coelomata; Ital. celomate, celomarii. That group or subgrade of Enterozoa or Metazoa which is characterized by the presence of a coelom in a distinct middle or mesodermal cell-layer.

The term was introduced by E. Ray Lankester (1877). Excepting the Porifera and Coelentera, all the great groups of the Metazoa are included in the Coelomata, although the coelom is quite rudimentary in the lower (Platyhelmia), and almost obliterated in others (Mollusca, Arthropoda) (E. R. Lankester, Quart, J. Microsc. Sci., N.S., xvii. 441). (C.LL.M.- E.S.G.)

Coenaesthesis [Gr. koinoV, common, + aisqhsiV, feeling]: Ger. Gemeinempfindung; Fr. cénesthésie; Ital. cenestesi. See COMMON SENSATION. The word Coenaesthesis appears to have been first used in English by Sir W. Hamilton in 1837 (Lects. on Met., II. xxvii. 157). (E.B.T.)

Coexistence [Lat. co- + existens, being]: Ger. Koexistenz; Fr. coexistence; Ital. coesistenza. (1) Togetherness in TIME (q.v.). (2) Law of coexistence: see ASSOCIATION OF IDEAS. (J.M.B.)

Cogitate and Cogitation [Lat. cogitare, to think]: Ger. nachdenken; Fr. méditer, méditation; Ital. cogitazione (noun). Used popularly for think and thinking of the more meditative and reflective sort. Cf. REFLECTION. (J.M.B.)

Cogito ergo sum [Lat.]. 'I think, therefore I am.'

The motto of Descartes and of modern philosophy; the appeal to the inner life as the final source of knowledge of the real. See the various emendations and explanations offered by many thinkers cited in Eisler, Wörterb. d. philos. Begriffe, sub verbo. (J.M.B.)

Cognition [Lat. cognoscere, to know]: Ger. Erkenntniss (- Vermögen); Fr. connaissance; Ital. cognizione. The being aware of an OBJECT (q.v.). (G.F.S., J.M.B.)

As above defined, cognition is an ultimate mode of consciousness co-ordinate with conation and affection. Cf. CLASSIFICATION (of mental functions). It may well be questioned, however, whether in current usage cognition does not imply judgment, at least in a rudimentary form, as well as presentation of object. It is not natural to speak of presentations as cognitions unless these objects are attended to in the sense of being noted and distinguished, and this may be said to involve judgment. The same difficulty arises with conation and affection, i.e. of finding 'pure' cases; but this does not render unnecessary the distinction of these rudimentary modes. The alternative term intellection is open to a similar objection to a greater degree (e.g. as used by Ward to include the logical processes). Knowledge is practically synonymous, but lacks an adjective form. (G.F.S.- J.M.B.)

Coincidence [Lat. co- + incidere, to happen]: Ger. Koincidenz; Fr. coïncidence; Ital. coincidenza. (1) Agreement in general; in space (Mathematics), two outlines coincide when either superposed upon the other completely hides it; in time, two events coincide when they coexist.

(2) An event which, while seeming to be due to another or connected with it, can be accounted for nevertheless independently of it. Such a juxtaposition of terms in two mutually independent causal series, suggesting cause and effect between the terms themselves, is also called coincidence (in the abstract).

The doctrine of coincidence belongs to the theory of PROBABILITY (q.v.). Popularly such a conjunction of events is said to be 'due to CHANGE' (q.v.). A current psychological instance is found in the discussion of coincidence in connection with so-called VERIDICAL HALLUCINATIONS (q.v.) and apparitions of all kinds. Cf. VARIATION. (J.M.B.)

Coincident Variations: Ger. übereinstimmende oder koincidirende Variationen (Ortmann); Fr. variations coïncidentes (Y.D.); Ital. variazioni di coincidenza (E.M.) Those congenital variations which are similar in character and direction to particular acquired modifications, with which they are said to 'coincide.'

A term suggested by Lloyd Morgan, who contends that such variations, since they are shielded from the incidence of natural selection by the modifications with which they are coincident, will escape elimination. Thus fostered, they may appear to be acquired characters transmitted through inheritance, gradually increase and supersede the modifications (see ORGANIC SELECTION), and so give rise to evolution along definite lines illustrating ORTHOPLASY (q.v.).

Literature: LL. MORGAN, Habit and Instinct (1896); BALDWIN, Nature, 1v. (1897) 558; and the references to OSBORN and POULTON given under ORGANIC SELECTION. (C.LL.M.- J.M.B.)

Cold-blooded Animals: Ger. kaltblütige Thiere; Fr. animaux à sang froid, animaux à température variable; Ital. animali a sangue freddo. Animals whose body temperature varies with the medium in which they live: the hematocrya, reptiles, amphibia, fishes. See ANIMAL HEAT. (C.F.H.)


Cold Spot: Ger. Kältepunkt; Fr. point froid; Ital. punto di freddo. A current term for one of the smallest spots on the skin which respond to the stimulus of cold. See TEMPERATURE SPOT. (J.M.B.)

Collapse [Lat. collapsus, from con- + labi, laps-, to fall]: Ger. Kollaps; Fr. collapsus; Ital. collasso. A sinking and partial abeyance of the vital powers; a condition of extreme nervous and general asthenia. Collapse may be due to shock, but occurs as well from other causes. Cf. SHOCK. (J.J.)

Collaterals [M. Lat. collateralis]: Ger. Collateralen; Fr. collatérales; Ital. collaterali. Fibres branching from the NEURITES or DENDRITES of a NEUROCYTE, and forming means of communication with other nervous elements. See those terms, and cf. SPINAL CORD. (H.H.)

Collective (in logic): Ger. Sammel- (in compounds, e.g. Sammelwort); Fr. collectif; Ital. collettivo. A collective term is, in logic, the word or complex of words expressing the thought of a number of objects or a group, taken and treated together as a whole. A proposition is collective when the predicate is asserted of a number of individuals on the ground or assumption that it has been found to attach to them severally. A peculiar type of collective term is that which contains the thought of a series, or coexistent plurality, as a whole or unit. Such terms are fruitful sources of fallacy. (R.A.)

Collective Psychology: see SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY.

Collectivism [Lat. colligere, to collect]: Ger. Kollektivismus (Barth); Fr. collectivisme; Ital. collettivismo. Theoretical SOCIALISM (q.v.). The policy of public ownership of land and capital, and public management of industry. (A.T.H.- F.H.G.)

Specifically, Socialism and Communism as manifested in France since 1850; loosely used as a convenient synonym for either Socialism or Communism.

'The collectivists are French socialists and social democrats, who have adopted the views of the Germans, chiefly Marx and Lassalle' (Richard T. Ely, French and German Socialism in Modern Times, 149). 'Dans l'individualisme, l'homme est abandonné à lui-même, son action est portée à un maximum, et celle de l'État à un minimum. Dans le collectivisme, ses moindres actions sont dirigées par l'État, c'est-à-dire, par la collectivité' (Gustave Le Bon, Psychol. du Socialisme, Liv. I. chap. iii). (F.H.G.)

'Collectivism is a favourite word, especially affected by those theoretical French socialists who, while demanding a public ownership of the instruments of production and a collective organization of labour, are still content to leave private property intact, so far as objects of consumption are concerned, and even take the extreme view which allows of their transmission from father to son, and in general by testamentary disposition' (Cossa). (A.T.H.)

Literature: P. LEROY-BEAULIEU, Le Collectivisme: Examen critique du Nouveau Socialisme (1884); BARTH, Philos. d. Gesch. als Sociol., i. 214 ff. (and references there given; works cited above). (A.T.H.- J.M.B.)

Collier, Arthur. (1680-1732.) An English philosopher and clergyman, who was born and died at Langford Magna, Wiltshire. He became rector of Langford Magna, 1704. In his best known work, Clavis Universalis, he seeks to demonstrate the 'non-existence or impossibility of an external world.' He was in substantial agreement with his contemporary, Bishop Berkeley.

Colligation [Lat. con- + ligare, to bind]: Ger. Colligation; Fr. colligation (suggested); Ital. collegazione (suggested). The union of qualitatively like elements in consciousness.

Opposed to the union of the disparate as in Complication and Association. Drobisch (Neue Darstellung der Logik (5th ed.), § 29) makes the union one of like objects in a (logical) class or Colligationsbegriff (cf. Eisler, Wörterb. d. philos. Begriffe, sub verbo). This is opposed to the usage of the translator of Külpe's Outlines of Psychology, who assigns to colligation the meaning we give to INTEGRATION (q.v.). (J.M.B., G.F.S.)

Colligation (in logic). A term introduced by Whewell to indicate the function which an appropriate or illuminating conception discharges in binding together a group of facts. It is not easy, perhaps it is hardly desirable or necessary, to make a distinction between colligation and the general process which finds expression in the formation of hypotheses.

Literature: WHEWELL, Nov. Organ. Renov., 61-96; MILL, Logic, Bk. III. chap. ii, and Bk. IV. chap. ii. (R.A.)

Collins, Anthony. (1676-1729.) An able English deistical writer on theological themes. Born near Hounslow, in Middlesex, educated at Cambridge, he was an intimate friend of John Locke. He studied, but did not practise law. In 1718 he became treasurer of the county of Essex.

Colony [Lat. colonus, farmer]: Ger. Kolonie; Fr. colonie; Ital. colonia. (1) In sociology and social psychology: used loosely for COMPANY (q.v.), especially where differences of locality are influential in determining an aggregation (sense not recommended).

(2) In biology: a biologically determined group of units; as in the phrases, 'colony of cells,' 'colonies' of Protozoa, of parasites, of insects, &c.; and in the phrase 'colonial animal,' for an animal whose organization does not extinguish the relatively separate mode of existence and physiological function of its component units. See Perrier, Les colonies animales (2nd ed., 1899). (J.M.B.- G.F.S.)

(3) In political philosophy: a community of emigrants who have settled territory at a distance from their mother land, and who remain under the protection, and in general policy under the government, of the mother country. Also, a group of permanently settled emigrants forming a distinct self-governing community.

Literature: the first great theoretical writer on social and political colonies was ADAM SMITH, Wealth of Nations, Bk. IV. chap. vii. The exhaustive modern authority on the history and policy of colonization is PAUL LEROY-BEAULIEU, De la Colonisation chez les Peuples modernes. (F.H.G.)

Colour: see VISION (headings Light and Colour Sensation).

Colour (in aesthetics) [Lat. color]: Ger. Farbe; Fr. couleur; Ital. colore. (1) The pigment used in painting. (2) The general colour tone or scheme of a natural object, or a work of art. (3) Metaphorically, the characteristics giving individuality to a work of art.

The aesthetic significance of colour was, like that of symmetry, recognized at an early date among the Greeks. This is brought out by Socrates' conversation with Parrhasius, as reported by Xenophon in the Memorabilia. Plato finds the beauty of colour in its intrinsic significance and symbolism, admitting also its pure sensuous agreeableness. Plotinus criticizes the doctrine that beauty is adequately described in terms of colour and symmetry. We do not until the present century, however, meet with any radically novel treatment of the aesthetic principles involved. Darwin, Spencer, Fechner, Allen, Groos, have sought to account for the aesthetic value of colour through the principle of association, and the various factors making for the conservation of the individual and the species in the evolution of the race. Aside from such considerations, the import of colour, as distinct from the principles of technique in its use in painting, has not constituted a topic apart from general aesthetic theories. Cf. BEAUTY, and ASSOCIATION (aesthetic).

Literature: KÖSTLIN, Aesthetik (1869); FECHNER, Vorschule d. Aesth. (1876); DARWIN, Descent of Man (1871); GRANT ALLEN, Physiol. Aesth. (1877), and The Colour-Sense (London, 1879); ROOD, Textbook of Colour (1881); GROOS, The Play of Animals, 'Sexual Selection.' (J.R.A.)

Colour (of tones): Ger. Klangfarbe, Klangfärbung; Fr. couleur du son, timbre; Ital. colore del suono, timbro. A figurative synonym of TIMBRE (q.v.). E.B.T. uses 'clang tint,' which is not recommended (cf. CLANG). (J.M.B.)

Colour (primary): Ger. Grundfarbe; Fr. couleur fondamentale; Ital. colore fondamentale. See Visual Sensation under VISION. (E.B.T.)

Colour-blindness: Ger. Farbenblindheit; Fr. achromatopsie, achropsie, dyschromatopsie; Ital. discromatopsia, cecità dei colori. The name given to certain anomalies of vision characterized by the absence of particular colour tones, and in some cases by the shifting of the point of maximal brightness in the solar spectrum. See VISION (also defects of).

Hering's theory and classification are the most satisfactory. We have (1) partial colour-blindness, including (a) the two types of red-green blindness. In both the spectrum falls into a blue half and a yellow half, with a central neutral band. But the one type places the maximal brightness in (normal) yellow, the other in (normal) yellow-green; hence to the former the long-wave end of the spectrum is relatively bright, to the latter relatively dark. (b) Blue-yellow blindness. The short-wave end of the spectrum is very dark and little coloured; yellow is confused with white; red and green are distinguished (or rather blue-green; see König, Sitzber. d. Berl. Akad., 1897, 718, for the only monocular cases). (2) Total colour blindness. No colour tone is seen; the maximal spectral brightness lies in (normal) green.

Observations of colour-blindness have been greatly influenced by preconceived theory. All cases of partial colour-blindness were at first regarded by Helmholtz as due simply to the lack of the red, green, or violet substance. Since the facts contradict this view, a shift of excitability in the three sets of fibres has been assumed, and the terms 'trichromates,' 'dichromates,' 'monochromates,' retained; but the auxiliary hypotheses are extremely improbable. Wundt's theory makes him ready to accept the absence of any sensation or group of sensations from the visual series. Hering's theory of antagonistic processes forbids the isolated abrogation of any principal sensation. The two types of red-green blindness he explains as due to difference of macular pigmentation. Blue-yellow blindness may be due to failure of the blue-yellow substance, or to a yellowish colouration of the lens. The rare cases of monocular colour-blindness are of very great importance for theory.

The methods of testing for colour-blindness are as follows: --

(1) Seebeck's and Holmgren's method. Coloured papers or worsteds are sorted and matched by the patient, without naming. This is the best rough method.

(2) Equations of mixed colours (with black and white sectors) are obtained by means of rotating disks, to be identified and matched. An exact method.

(3) Stilling's method. Numerals, made up of blotches of colour, are printed on a page dotted over with blotches of a different colour. Confusion is supposed to denote colour-blindness. Of little value.

(4) Spectroscopic examination: direct comparison of spectral colours, or mixture of different colours in colour equations. Essential.

(5) Leucoscopic method of equalizing complementaries. Not much used.

(6) Hering's special apparatus for partial colour-blindness. Excellent. (E.B.T.)

Colour-blindness is a frequent defect, being found in from 3.5 to 5 per cent. of males, and 2 to 4 per cent. of females; it may be either congenital or acquired, is frequently hereditary, and when congenital is always incurable. Although a few important cases of monocular colour-blindness have been described, the defect usually exists in both eyes. Its cause has not been satisfactorily determined; the theories which attempt to account for the varieties of its occurrences are considered under VISION (q.v.).

Considered descriptively, as a visual defect, there may be distinguished (a) total lack of colour sense, and (b) an abnormal form of colour sense, or partial colour-blindness. (a) Total colour-blindness is rare; only about fifty cases have been described. All objects are seen simply in shades of gray, and the spectrum appears like 'a delicately executed pencil drawing,' lighter in the centre (the region of green) and becoming gradually darker at both (somewhat shortened) ends. (b) Partial colour-blindness is the typical prevailing form upon which statistics are based. All persons who are partially colour-blind are able to make a considerable number of colour distinctions. These have been differently described by different investigators. Sir John Herschell said, 'What the sensations of the colour-blind really are we shall never know.' But the existence of cases of monocular dichromasy has proved (what was in fact definitely made out long before by William Pole from the study of his own case) that in all the ordinary instances the defective person sees all degrees of saturation of yellow and of blue, together with black and white, and sees nothing else. These individuals are nevertheless of two types, with no intermediate forms: for one set the spectrum is shortened at the red end (these were formerly called red-blind), and for the other it is not (green-blind). The occurrence and nature of blue-yellow blindness (Hering) or (blue) violet-blindness (Helmholtz) are not clearly determined. Acquired colour-blindness occurs in case of degenerated diseases of the eye, and the perception for form, which is independent of the colour sense in congenital colour-blindness, is frequently also affected. Such defect in typical cases begins in the peripheral portions, and as the disease proceeds, extends into the fovea; and furthermore the perception of green is apt to be disturbed first, then red, while yellow, and most of all blue, is retained to the end. Exceptional cases of hysterical, traumatic, and psychical colour-blindness have been described. It is also said to be more common among epileptics, criminals, and lunatics -- classed by the Italian criminologists as degenerates. (J.J.- C.L.F.)

Literature: HELMHOLTZ, Physiol. Optik (2nd ed.), 371; WUNDT, Physiol. Psychol. (4th ed.), i. 507; HERING, Arch. f. Ophthal., xxxvi; NUEL, in Richet's Dict. de Physiol., i. 98; GOUBERT, De l'Achromatopsie (1867); GALEZOWSKI, Chromatopsie rétinienne (1869); DE WECKER and LANDOLT, Traité complet d'Ophthal., 566; LANDOLT, Arch. d'Ophthal. (1881, 114; 1891, 202); CH. FÉRÉ, Boîtes chromatoscopiques pour l'exploration et l'exercise de la vision des couleurs, C. R. Soc. de Biol. (1897), iv. 877 ff.; KIRSCHMANN, Philos. Stud., viii. 173 f., 407 f.; SACHS, Arch. f. Ophthal., xxxix. 108; G. LUCCIOLA, Guida all' esame funzionale dell' occhio (1896). Cf. Visual Sensation under VISION. (E.B.T.- L.M.)

Colour Circle: Ger. Farbenkreis, Farbentafel; Fr. table des couleurs, cercle chromatique; Ital. disco di Newton, circolo cromatico. A figure designed by Sir I. Newton to represent the laws of colour mixture. On the periphery of the circle are arranged the seven saturated colours of Newton, and also purple; at the centre is white; the mixed colours lie upon the surface of the disk. Cf. COLOUR MIXTURE, and COLOUR TRIANGLE.

Literature: NEWTON, Optics, I. ii. prop. 6; HELMHOLTZ, Physiol. Optik (2nd ed.), 325; HESS, Arch. f. Ophthal., xxxv; ZINDLER, in Zeitsch. f. Psychol., xx. 225. (E.B.T.)

Colour Mixture: Ger. Farbenmischung; Fr. mélange des couleurs; Ital. mescolanza dei colori; Colour mixture consists in the bringing of rays of different wave-length upon the same point of the retina.

Laws of colour mixture: (1) For every colour tone there is a correlated tone which, mixed with it in the right proportion, produces grey or white. See COMPLEMENTARY COLOUR, and Visual Sensation under VISION. (2) If two non-complementary terms of the closed colour series are mixed, there results an intermediate colour, whose tone depends on the relative amount of the two primaries taken, and whose saturation (provided those amounts are somewhat nearly equal) is determined by the distance that separates them in the colour series. (3) Mixture of similarly appearing colours gives similarly appearing colours, provided that the conditions of retinal ADAPTATION (q.v.) are approximately maintained.

Corollaries; (1) Any unsaturated colour may be produced by mixing the saturated colour with white, or black, or grey. (2) The series of colour tones can be produced by the mixture, in right proportions, of three colour tones, each pair of which would make, if mixed, the complementary of the third. The mixture of red, green, and blue-violet gives the most saturated colours and the best white. (3) The mixture of all colour tones, in right proportions, gives grey or white. (4) Until the Purkinje phenomenon begins to be effective, colour equations, of whatever physical composition their terms may be, are independent of objective light intensity. See VISION.

Methods of colour mixture: (1) Lambert's method of mixture by the reflection of different colours upon a common surface (good). (2) Projection of two spectra, partially coincident; or bringing of parts of the same spectrum to coincidence (essential). (3) By means of rotating disks. Maxwell's method (essential, but requires care and knowledge). (4) By irradiation through the juxtaposition of very small coloured surfaces (used in oil-painting, tapestry, &c.). (5) By double refraction (good for demonstration). (6) By actual mixture of pigments.

Literature: HELMHOLTZ, Physiol. Optik (2nd ed.), 312; EBBINGHAUS, Psychologie, 209; KÜLPE, Outlines of Psychol., 115; SANFORD, Course in Exper. Psychol., expts. 148-50; AUBERT, Physiol. d. Netzhaut, 154; HERING, Ueber Newton's Gesetz d. Farbenmischung, in Lotos, vii. (1887). Cf. COLOUR TRIANGLE, and COLOUR MIXTURE (binocular). (E.B.T.)

Colour Mixture (binocular): Ger. binoculare Farbenmischung; Fr. mélange binoculaire des couleurs; Ital. mescolanza binoculare. Under certain favourable conditions the presentation of different colours to the two eyes results in a mixture of the colours. There are, however, many sources of error in the experiments, and (in all probability) great individual differences between observers. Cf. RETINAL RIVALRY.

Literature: HELMHOLTZ, Physiol. Optik (2nd ed.), 926; SANFORD, Course in Exper. Psychol., expt. 167. (E.B.T.)

Colour Sensation: Ger. Farbenempfindung; Fr. sensation de couleur; Ital. sensazione di colore. See Visual Sensation under VISION.

Colour Tone or Tint or Hue: Ger. Farbenton, Nuance; Fr. teinte, couleur, ton coloré; Ital. colore, tinta. The visual quality which is correlated on the physical side primarily with wave-length (but, in the case of the purples, only with a mixture of light of different wave-lengths), and which, when mixed with a brightness quality, constitutes the sensation of colour. See Visual Sensation under VISION. It has recently been proposed to reserve the term Tint for the lighter, and to use Shade for the darker degrees of saturation.

Since tone suggests a definite vibration-period, and is hence not particularly applicable to the various purples, some other word would be better; in English writings, Hue is commonly used. It would be well to distinguish between colour tone (using that for a homogeneous light) and hue or nuance (to mean a mixed light, e.g. the purples). (C.L.F.)

Literature: WUNDT, Physiol. Psychol. (4th ed.), i. 482; EBBINGHAUS, Psychologie, 186, 198 f.; KÜLPE, Outlines of Psychol., 112; FICK, in Hermann's Handb. d. Physiol., III. i. 183 (1879). (E.B.T.- C.L.F.)

Colour Triangle: Ger. Farbendreieck; Fr. triangle des couleurs; Ital. triangolo dei colori. A graphic representation of the laws of colour mixture, more exact and explicit than Newton's COLOUR CIRCLE (q.v.). Mayer (Göttinger Anzeiger, 1758) seems to have been the first to construct a colour triangle.

Literature: HELMHOLTZ, Physiol. Optik (2nd ed.), 326, 340; WUNDT, Physiol. Psychol. (4th ed.), i. 491; ROOD, Textbook of Colour, 221, 224 ff.; HERING, in Pflüger's Arch., x1vii. 417; FICK, in Hermann's Handb d. Physiol., III. i. 184 (1879); ZINDLER, in Zeitsch. f. Psychol., xx. 225. (E.B.T.)


Column [Lat. columna]: Ger. Säule, Strang. Fr. cordon, colonne; Ital. cordone, colonna. A group of nervous elements (particularly fibres or tracts) extending a longer or shorter distance in an axial direction within the central nervous system, and preserving a more or less constant relative position and structure. Particularly the longitudinal fibre groups within the spinal cord, which are visibly distinguishable in cross-section. Aside from the columns of the SPINAL CORD (q.v.) the columnae fornicis may be noted as anatomically discrete tracts from the fornix to the thalamus. (H.H.)

Combination (chemical): see CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS.

Combination (economic) [Lat. combinare, to join]: Ger. Vereinigung; Fr. coalition; Ital. coalizione, combinazione. Organized economic action for a common end, especially in the case of persons who might otherwise be rivals; the reverse of competition.

Early economic thought on this subject deals chiefly with labour combination. It is but recently that combinations of capital have assumed co-ordinate importance. Combinations, whether of labour or of capital, have two distinct objects: economy of production and monopoly of sale. Where they do not make it their object to include all competitors, the former is generally the motive, and the results are likely to be salutary. Where they insist on the inclusion of all competitors, the alleged economy or improvement in quality is likely to be a pretext, and the hope of securing a monopoly price for their products is almost certain to be a dominant motive. Under such conditions, most of the gain which is due to COMPETITION (q.v.) is abandoned, and a régime of high price, low efficiency, and conflict of class interests is likely to follow. If the management of the combination is intelligent enough, these evils will not ensue; but experiences proves that we cannot rely on the existence of such intelligence. (A.T.H.)

Combination (in psychology): Ger. Verbindung; Fr. combinaison; Ital. combinazione. A general term for the union of elements in consciousness.

Cf. FUSION, INTEGRATION, SYNTHESIS, COMPLICATION, COLLIGATION, all of which are particular cases of combination. This usage is sanctioned by priority (Rabier, 1888; Baldwin, 1891), and is preferable to Connection (suggested as a translation of Verbindung by the translator of Külpe's Outlines of Psychology, 1895, 189). It is in use in the phrases 'combining property,' 'combining function,' of consciousness, &c., where 'connection' would not be so appropriate. This usage is established also in 'combination,' 'combination tone,' &c. (J.M.B.- G.F.S.)

Combination (social). (1) Any uniting of individuals to effect a consciously apprehended purpose.

Combination implies forethought and deliberation, and is thereby distinguished from others of concerted action which are impulsive, as in a panic.

'All combination is compromise: it is the sacrifice of some portion of individual will for a common purpose' (J. S. Mill, Dissertations and Discussions, i. 191). It is too general and indefinite a term to have much technical value. The psychological factors involved are better covered by the term CO-OPERATION (q.v.).

Combination Tone: Ger. Combinationston; Fr. ton de combinaison; Ital. suono di combinazione. A tone (SUMMATION or DIFFERENCE TONE, q.v.) which arises when two tones are loudly sounded at the same time. It is clearest in the case of CONSONANCES (q.v.): cf. BEAT TONES.

Literature: HELMHOLTZ, Sensations of Tone, 152; STUMPF, Tonpsychologie, II. iii. 243, 450. (E.B.T.)

Comenius, Johann Amos. (1592-1671.) A noted German philologist, best known for his reforms in methods of teaching languages. His work Janua Linguarum reserata gave him a well-deserved fame as a pedagogical reformer. He was summoned to foreign countries to reform the methods of public instruction. He is regarded as the founder of pedagogical method.

Comic [Gr. kwmikoV, comic, from kwmoV, a festal procession or revel]: Ger. komisch; Fr. comique; Ital. comico. That portion of the laughable which has an AESTHETIC (q.v.) or semi-aesthetic character. This excludes delight in cruelty (Schadenfieude), although some species of the comic (e.g. satire, ridicule) are complicated with refined forms of that emotion.

Objectively, as a species of the aesthetic, it has usually a predominating element of incongruity or contrast, which is, however (as against the tragic), not serious or irreconcilable. Subjectively, there are usually elements of shock, of tension suddenly released, and of the emotional seizure of laughter. Aside from the metaphysics of the comic, there are, as in the case of beauty, two main problems: (1) an analysis of the character of the comic, which may be (a) of comic objects, situations, or actions, or (b) of the subjective state of feeling: (2) an explanation on psychological, physiological, or biological grounds of why we laugh at given objects. Typical analyses of the object are those of Aristotle, Richter, Schopenhauer, and von Hartmann, who find some form of error or incongruity. Subjective analyses by Plato and Hobbes emphasize the feeling of superiority or 'sudden glory,' which becomes the freedom or caprice of subjectivity with Schlegel, Schelling, and Hegel. The relation of the comic to the beautiful was elaborated by Weisse, Vischer, and Bohts. The successive stages of the comic process were analysed by Zeising as those of tension, discharge, and recovery of poise as we free ourselves. This analysis is utilized by many recent writers, but with less metaphysical and more psychological interpretations (Hartmann, Groos). Lipps treats the comic as a special case of association. Kant and Spencer have sought physiological explanations of laughter. Darwin investigated in detail its physiological expression. Hall and Allin 'are convinced that all current theories are utterly inadequate,' and seek especially for generic explanations.

The word ludicrous has been used fully as much as comic in English; but preference is given to the latter term here, both on account of its less special (intensive) connotation, and also because it is in use in all the other languages. (J.M.B.)

Literature: HARTMANN, Aesthetik (1886, gives history); KÖSTLIN, Aesthetik (1869); KRAEPELIN, in Philos. Stud., ii; LIPPS, in Philos. Monatsh., xxiv, xxv; also Komik und Humor (1898); MÜLLER, Das Wesen des Humors; MÉLINAUD, Rev. des deux Mondes, cxxvii; BAUMGART, Handb. d. Poetik (1887), 659 ff.; DEWEY, Psychol. Rev., i. 556 ff.; BERGSON, Le Rire (1900); HALL and ALLIN, in Amer. J. of Psychol., ix; Psychologies of BAIN, LADD, HÖFFDING, SULLY. (J.H.T.)

Comity (judicial) [Lat. comitas, friendliness]: Ger. Höflichkeit; Fr. droit de convenance; Ital. cortesia. The deference commonly paid by the courts of one jurisdiction to the laws or proceedings of another, in causes affecting rights claimed under such laws or proceedings. 'What is termed the comity of nations is the formal expression and ultimate result of that mutual respect accorded throughout the civilized world by the representatives of each sovereign power to those of every other, in considering the effects of their official acts. Its source is a sentiment of reciprocal regard, founded on identity of position and similarity of institutions' (Fisher v. Fielding, 67 Connecticut Reports, 108). (S.E.B.)

Commissure [Lat. commissura, a joint]: Ger. Commissur; Fr. commissure; Ital. commessura. A band of nerve-fibres connecting homologous centres of the central nervous system lying on opposite sides of the median plane. The tract commonly becomes compact and well differentiated at the median line (cf. DECUSSATION). Strictly speaking, all commissural fibres decussate, for the two ends connect elements not fully homologous. The term acquired its present use before the details of fibre terminations were known.

The commissures constitute important landmarks in neural anatomy. We may reduce them for the most part to isolated and greatly modified remnants of a double system connecting the dorsal and ventral segments of the nerve tube, and still seen in least modified form in the dorsal and ventral systems of the spinal cord. Cf. BRAIN, and SPINAL CORD. (H.H.)

Commodity [Fr. commodité, convenience; Med. Lat. commoditia, merchandise]: Ger. wirthschaftliches Gut; Fr. bien; Ital. mercanzia. (1) The singular of 'goods.' (2) Sometimes used in a broader sense to apply to things immaterial as well as material, to services as well as goods.

The singular substantive 'good' has in common life a very different meaning from the plural 'goods'; and the effort to use the singular 'good' in a special scientific sense is fraught with difficulty. Hence the employment of the term commodity.

As long as economists confined their use of the term wealth to material goods, the question whether a service was a commodity did not arise. But when the conception of wealth was extended to include services, the meaning of the term commodity was correspondingly widened; implicitly by some economists, explicitly by others (e.g. Marshall). It would be desirable to have some special term like 'benefit' to apply to goods and service both; and then subdivide benefits according as the labour of conferring and the pleasure of utilization are or are not coincident in time. In the former case production and consumption are simultaneous, and the benefit takes the form of a service. In the latter case there are material objects produced, and not at once consumed, and the benefit takes the form of a material commodity. In measuring wealth as a fund, we should consider only commodities. In measuring it as a flow, we should include both commodities and services. (A.T.H.)

Common (term, noun, &c.): Ger. gemein- (in compounds); Fr. commun; Ital. comune. A name which may be applied to any one of an indefinite number of objects in the same sense, on the ground of their possessing severally the same definite marks. (R.A.)

Common Law: Ger. gemeines Recht; Fr. droit commun, droit coutumier; Ital. diritto di consuetudine. (1) The unwritten law of England.

(2) The unwritten law of English-speaking peoples, founded on that of England as it existed when the respective settlements were made, out of which these peoples sprang.

(3) The rules of right and remedy enforced by the ordinary courts of justice among English-speaking peoples generally, as distinguished from those enforced by courts of equity or admiralty.

Except in Louisiana, the bulk of the law in every American state is its common law, or else a codified statement of what was its common law. The United States have no national common law, but their courts sitting in each state ordinarily are bound to apply the common law of the state to which the parties are subject. See Holmes, The Common Law (1881). (S.E.B.)

Common Sensation: Ger. Gemeinempfindung; Fr. sensation générale, sens du corps (Bertrand); Ital. sensazione (organica) generale. A name originally given to the whole undifferentiated mass of ORGANIC SENSATION (q.v.), as forming the sense basis of the common feeling of the bodily organism, the feeling of health, comfort, briskness, fatigue, &c. COENESTHESIS (q.v.) is a synonym. As the separate qualities of the organic sensations have become known, the term has been restricted to such senses as pressure and pain, whose sensations are 'common' to several sense organs, or to such still unanalysed sense complexes as 'tickling,' 'pins-and-needles,' 'stuffiness,' &c.

Literature: WEBER, in Wagner's Handwörterb. d. Physiol., III. ii. 495; KÜLPE, Outlines of Psychol., 146; BEAUNIS, Les sensations internes (1889); FUNKE, Hermann's Handb. d. Physiol., III. ii. 289; KROENER, Das körperliche Gefühl (1887); SIR W. HAMILTON, Lects. on Met., ii. 157, 492; BERTRAND, L'Aperception du corps humain (1879); COLSENET, La Vie inconsciente (1880); RIBOT, Les Maladies de la Personalité; SCHIFF, Dizion. ital. di scienze mediche, i. (1869); MORSELLI, Semej. malat. ment. (1898), i. (E.B.T.- L.M.- E.M.)

Common Sense: Ger. Gemeinsinn; Fr. sens commun; Ital. senso comune. (1) A term applied to opinions or facts which are the property of all men, as contrasted with the teachings of a conscious philosophy.

(2) A term of the Scottish School designating the intuitions which all men have in common. (R.H.S.)

(3) Used for the seat of the supposed 'common' or general sensation or perception in which various senses were thought to be united; koinh aisqhsiV of Aristotle, sensus communis. Cf. Eisler, Wörterb. d. philos. Begriffe, Gemeinsinn. (J.M.B.)

Communicatio idiomatum [Lat.]. A term in dogmatic theology meaning 'communication of attributes,' and technically referring to the communication of attributes by the divine to the human nature in Christ, or vice versa.

Although early writers, like John Damascene, treat of this subject, it does not occupy a position of vital importance, because the doctrine of two natures in one person was assured by the creeds of the Church. Later, in scholastic times, the subject still continues of secondary interest, because the assumed fact of Christ's divinity obscured his humanity. The question became acute only after the Reformation, and then in the Lutheran Church. This in connection with the doctrine of Real Presence in the Eucharist. It is obvious that, unless the divine nature communicates its attribute of omnipresence to the human nature of Christ, the Real Prescence in the Eucharist is not possible. This 'ubiquity' controversy gave rise to much speculation on the subject; for, given two natures in one person, either (1) the attributes of one of the natures can be communicated to the whole person; or (2) personal functions may be carried out by one of the natures; or (3) the attributes of the divine nature may be communicated to the human nature; or (4) the attributes of the human nature may be communicated to the divine nature. The Lutheran interest centered mainly round (3). Similar speculations survive to-day in the KENOSIS (q.v.) controversy, and refer specially to (4).

Literature: see CHRISTOLOGY. SCHAFF, Creeds of Christendom, i. 285-94, 318-28; THOMASIUS, Christi Person u. Werk; DORNER, Hist. of the Doctrine of the Person of Christ (Eng. trans., particularly Div. 2, vol. ii); art. in Herzog's Real-Encyc., also art. Ubiquität in the same. (R.M.W.)

Communism [Lat. communis, common]: Ger. Kommunismus; Fr. communisme; Ital. comunismo. Extreme Socialism: specifically (1) the organization by village communities, which prevailed so extensively before the introduction of the system of private property, and of which many survivals are seen in Russia, India, &c. (2) The doctrines propounded, and policy advocated, in the 'Communistic Manifesto' of Marx and Engels.

This manifesto was composed in 1847, and had much to do with the Revolution of 1848. It spoke of the exploitation of the labourer, and of the measures necessary for his relief; among which it included abolition of landed property, and of inheritance; state credit to be given to people without capital; state ownership of means of transportation and production; compulsory obligation of all men to joint labour in industrial armies. The International (1864) was based on these same ideas, which however fell into great discredit in connection with the excesses of the Paris Communists in 1871; and the term has since been generally one of reproach. Cf. SOCIALISM. (A.T.H.)

Community (in philosophy) [Lat. communis, common]: Ger. Gemeinheit; Fr. communauté; Ital. comunità. Used loosely to describe conjoint action or co-operation, as in the phrase 'community of cause.' (J.M.B.)

Community (political): see STATE.

Community (social): Ger. (1) Gemeinde, (2) Gemeinschaft; Fr. communauté; Ital. (1) comune, comunità, (2) comunanza. (1) Used somewhat loosely for a particular human GROUP or SOCIETY (see those terms). (2) Used (also somewhat loosely) for any sort of relationship which is common to two or more individuals; as in the expressions 'community of interests,' 'hopes,' &c.

No technical use of this term is recommended.

Company [Lat. con- + panis, bread]: Ger. (1) Gemeinschaft, (2) Gesellschaft; Fr. (1) (2) compagnie; Ital. (1) convivenza, (2) compagnia. (1) A group of individuals without formal organization; a troop or band. See GROUP. (2) An association incorporated or chartered to do a particular kind of business, e.g. the East India Company.

(1) The history of definition (1) only is of much significance for scientific theory. Baldwin (Social and Eth. Interpret., Pt. VI. chap. xii. § 2, 320) has proposed to give a technical meaning to 'company' in this sense, to designate swarms, troops, and herds of animals, and groupings of human beings that are formed by sympathy, instinct, or impulse, rather than by thought, and thereby to distinguish all instinctive or emotional groupings of individuals from the SOCIETY (q.v.) properly so called. Tönnies makes a partially coincident distinction between Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft ('society'), basing it, however, on a distinction between racial will (Gattungswille or -wesen) and social will (socialer Wille). Cf. GENERAL WILL. Durkheim has developed a corresponding distinction between compagnie and société in the French. (F.H.G.)

The more exact criterion of the company belongs to social psychology, where the psychological determination of the acts of the members of a company places them under the headings respectively of instinctive and unreflective (or spontaneous).

Literature: DURKHEIM, La Division du Travail social; TÖNNIES, Gemeinschaft u. Gesell. (1887); WUNDT, Logik, ii. cap. iv. 4 a (esp. 599 f., note). (J.M.B.)

(2) Unincorporated associations of this kind were formerly common, but have become less so since the general extension of the priviledge of incorporation which has marked the 19th century.

Small associations for similar purposes are usually known as copartnerships, the common name containing one or more of the names of the individual copartners, e.g. Doe & Roe, John Doe & Co. 'Co.' as thus used may indicate one or more unnamed associates.

Company is the term oftenest used in England (but not in the United States) to describe a private business CORPORATION (q.v.). (S.E.B.)

Comparative Jurisprudence: Ger. vergleichende Rechtswissenschaft; Fr. jurisprudence comparée; Ital. diritto comparato. The study of jurisprudence by comparing that of different peoples. Also termed Comparative Law.

The ius gentium of the Romans may be said to have been the product of comparative jurisprudence (Just., Inst., I. ii. I).

Literature: no English author has achieved more in this department than SIR HENRY SUMNER MAINE, Ancient Law, Village Communities, Early History of Institutions, Popular Government. (S.E.B.)

Comparative Philology: see PHILOLOGY.

Comparative Psychology: Ger. vergleichende Psychologie; Fr. psychologie comparée; Ital. psicologia comparata. The department of psychology which proceeds by the comparison of the minds of different animal forms.

It properly includes man as compared with the lower animals, although as commonly used it is synonymous with Animal Psychology. Its principal interest is in connection with genetic problems.

Literature: important recent books and essays are by DARWIN, ROMANES, LL. MORGAN, GROOS, WASMANN, BETHE, MILLS, THORNDIKE, as cited with others in the Psychological Index (1894 ff.), and in BIBLIOG. G, I, f. A bibliography of older works may be found in GROOS, Spiele der Thiere (original). (J.M.B.)

Comparative Religion: Ger. vergleichende Religionswissenschaft; Fr. science des religions comparées; Ital. scienza comparata delle religioni. The name of that branch of inquiry which investigates religious phenomena by use of the comparative and historical methods.

In science generally the comparative method consists essentially in comparing groups of phenomena (linguistic, anatomical, religious, &c.), which occur in different lands, or periods, or forms, for the purpose of discovering their mutual similarities and differences. The spirit in which it is applied is pre-eminently historical. At the present time, this study of religious phenomena implies so much more than application of the comparative method merely that it has come to be designated Science of Religions by many scholars. This investigation differs from philosophy principally in that it takes the religious consciousness for granted, and considers its manifestations.

Comparative religion had its beginnings in the science of comparative grammar, known as philology. It was thrown out by a great movement with which the names of Bopp, G. Hermann, Lachmann, A. Kuhn, Benfey, Roth, Böhtlingk, Weber, Lassen, Burnouf, and Max Müller must always be indissolubly linked. Historically, then, comparative religion originated in an attempt to show that the same relationships subsisted between the gods -- e.g. of India and Greece -- as between words -- e.g. Sanskrit and Greek verbs. Ahana (dawn) was Athene; Saranjus (the hurrying one) was prototype of the Erinyes; Sarama (the dog who tracks the red cows of the gods) was Hermes; and so on. Later it was discovered that some of these affiliations were brilliant guesswork, with little foundation in reality. This, coupled with the organization of ethnological and anthropological research, signalled the entry of new considerations into the field of comparative religion. The investigations of Tylor, Mannhardt, and A. Lang tended to prove that there was a universal primitive stage of civilization, marked by the presence of ubiquitous practices and ideas. This must needs be studied, not from the standpoint of philology, but from that of psychology, sociology, and so forth, in order that religious phenomena may be interpreted. The philologico-religious researches reveal at most a secondary, not a primitive stage; and new methods must be adopted. This line of investigation has been followed with great success of late years. Cf. ANIMISM.

Literature: the works of the writers mentioned above, and of RÉVILLE, TIELE, ROBERTSON SMITH, J. G. FRAZER, RATZEL, DE QUATREFAGES, WAITZ, GERLAND, PESCHEL, F. B. JEVONS. TIELE'S Gifford Lectures and F. B. JEVONS' Introduction to the History of Religion are recent authoritative works. MISS KINGSLEY'S West African Studies contains much important matter, tending to show that the animistic theory is not a complete explanation. See, too, Rev. de l'Hist. des Religions. (R.M.W.)

Comparison [Lat. comparare, to compare]: Ger. Vergleichung; Fr. comparaison; Ital. comparazione. Attention directed to the discernment of likeness and difference between two or more objects constitutes comparison. (G.F.S.- J.M.B.)

There may be apprehension of likeness and difference without comparison. Comparison is the process of searching for likeness in difference, or difference in likeness. In its fully developed form it seems to involve a transition of attention to and fro between the objects compared. It is an interesting question how far, and in what sense, both objects must be copresented in the act of comparing. In many cases it seems necessary to have both before consciousness, in the way of ideal representation by means of the memory-image of one of them. But this is by no means always so. Thus, in comparing two successive sounds, we can immediately judge the second to be the louder without retaining or reproducing a memory-image of the first. See Schumann in Zeitsch. f. Psychol., xvii. 113 f. It is doubtful, however, whether this is really an act of comparison, and not a direct consciousness of difference; the experiments on threshold of difference seem to involve such a direct consciousness rather than an act of judgment. (G.F.S.- J.M.B.)

Compassion: see PITY.

Compatible [Lat. con- + patior, to suffer]: Ger. zusammenbestehend; Fr. compatible; Ital. compatible. Notions are said to be compatible, when the marks constituting their content can be represented as combined in, or as jointly possessed by, an individual subject. The spheres of such notions must at least intersect. (R.A.)

Compensation [Lat. compensatio]: Ger. Gegenforderung, Kompensation; Fr. compensation; Ital. compenso. In the civil law and in Scotch law: payment by a set-off. It is the exercise of the right of a defendant in an action, to whom the plaintiff is indebted, to offer to set his demand off against the plaintiff's demand, submitting to judgment only for the difference, if any, in favour of the plaintiff.

'Compensatio necessaria est, quia interest nostra potius non solvere quam solutum repetere' (Dig., xvi. 2, De Compensationibus, 3). (S.E.B.)

Competition: see RIVALRY, and the following topics.

Competition (in biology): see EXISTENCE (struggle for).

Competition (in economics) [Lat. competitio]: Ger. Konkurrenz; Fr. concurrence; Ital. concorrenza. The effort of different individuals engaged in the same line of activity each to benefit himself, generally at the other's expense, by rendering increased service to outside parties.

Important as the term competition is, there have been few attempts to define it. It is not taken up in Mathus' Definitions. Mill lays down important propositions about its action, but seems to assume the fundamental meaning of the term as self-evident. Walker defines it by antithesis, as opposed to combination, custom, and sentiment. Marshall says: 'The strict meaning of competition seems to be the racing of one person against another with special reference to the bidding for the sale or purchase of anything.' Beauregard, in the Nouveau Dictionnaire, takes substantially the same ground. Neumann, in Schönberg's Handbuch, comes a little nearer the definition in this article. Wagner has gone into more detail than any other standard authority in defining the conditions which affect success in competitive enterprise; while Effertz has done more to analyse the nature of the competitive process itself. According to Effertz, struggles for EXISTENCE (q.v.) are of two kinds: struggles for domination, and struggles for annihilation. The struggle between buyer and seller in a bargain is of the former sort; each tries to make the other serve him as fully as possible, but does not desire his abolition. The struggle between different buyers, or between different sellers, is of the latter class; each is desiring to get rid of the others so far as he can. Competition, then, is the legalized form of the struggle for annihilation in modern life. What Effertz fails to note is the reason why it is legalized, as indicated in the last clause of our definition: because of its tendency to benefit an indefinite number of third parties, and thus become a means of collective economy of force and of general benefit to society. We cannot speak of the competition of two contestants in a fight; we cannot even, under a proper use of terms, speak of the competition of different nations of Europe in increasing their standing armies: but we speak of their competition in furnishing their goods to outside nations, and thus trying to drive one another out of neutral markets, to the advantage of the neutral quite as much as to that of the successful competitor.

The benefits of competition are of three kinds: (1) As a regulator of prices. This is the one on which greatest stress has been laid in the past; but the great increase of fixed capital in the present day renders this effect, in the case of industrial competition, slow and uncertain. (2) As a stimulus to productive efficiency, and especially to the introduction of new methods. (3) As a means of educating the community in rational egoism; teaching its members that they must seek their industrial success, not in giving as little as possible to those with whom they deal, but as much as possible. The evil effects of competition are to be sought in the prominence which it gives to purely commercial powers of service to the public, at the expense, it may be, of other powers which are more necessary but less marketable. (A.T.H.)

To these advantages may be added (4) that competition acts, in many cases, as a stimulus to demand, and is thus both a determining and a producing factor in economic value and well-being. From the psychological point of view competition leads to the devising of new ways of inciting desire and of commending products not otherwise or not so greatly in demand; and the increased demand in this or that direction -- not compensated for by the withdrawal of demand in other directions -- creates and establishes increased economic well-being and economic value. This, in turn, benefits many or possibly all of the producing competitors, notably in cases of the consumption of luxuries. Cf. RIVALRY, especially for remarks upon the use of the notion of struggle for EXISTENCE (q.v.) in connection with economic competition. (J.M.B.- H.S.)

Literature: A. WAGNER, Polit. Oekonomie, i; EFFERTZ, Arbeit u. Boden. (A.T.H.)

Competition (mental): see INHIBITION (mental).

Complementary Colour [Ger. Complementärfarbe; Fr. couleur complémentaire; Ital. colore complementare. Any two colours whose mixture (physical mixture, of light waves) results in the destruction of colour tone, and the production of white or grey, in sensation, are termed complementaries; so green and purple, orange and green-blue, blue and yellow.

But according to Hering green and red are complementary. On his theory of vision, complementariness is a case of ANTAGONISTIC COLOUR (q.v.). See COLOUR MIXTURE, and Visual Sensation under VISION.

Literature: HELMHOLTZ, Physiol. Optik (2nd ed.), 316, 375; FICK, Hermann's Handb. d. Physiol., III. i. 188 (1879). (E.B.T.)

Complex [Lat. con- + plicare, to fold]: Ger. complicirt, Zusammen (Herbart); Fr. complexe; Ital. complesso. Not SIMPLE (q.v.). More positively, as a substantive, a whole constituted of relatively distinguishable but still organically united parts or elements. Opposed to AGGREGATE (q.v.) in this latter respect. Sometimes used as a translation of Herbart's Zusammen (Herbart, Metaphysik). (J.M.B.)

Complex (in logic): Ger. zusammengesetzt; Fr. complexe, composé; Ital. complesso, composto. A whole is complex when the relation of its parts is such as to involve super- and sub-ordination, or interdependence of the parts. In this respect it is distinguished either from what is simple or from what is composite (compound). The word is used generally, however, with little attention to the distinction between complex and compound. Complex propositions are those in which subject or predicate, or both, involve a number of simple terms, and which cannot be resolved into a corresponding number of independent assertions. (R.A.)

Complication: Ger. Complication; Fr. complication (suggested); Ital. complicazione. The combination of partial presentations in a single simultaneous whole, whether perception or idea.

This definition is very similar to that of Ward (Encyc. Brit., 9th ed., 57), who attributes the same meaning to Herbart (but without reference). Ward differs from Külpe (Outlines of Psychol., Eng. trans., 278, 317), who (also without reference) claims the authority of Herbart as well, in that Ward makes Complication a matter of perceptual SYNTHESIS (q.v.) generally, in which our definition follows him, while Külpe seems to limit it to the union of lower and more simple elements. Wundt, on the contrary, defines complication as a form of simultaneous association (Outlines of Psychol., Eng. trans., 234; also Physiol. Psychol., 4th ed., ii. 448) between elements of unlike compounds in contrast with 'assimilations,' which are 'simultaneous associations between elements of like compounds.' Wundt's usage thus implicates his own special terminology. If the word be used at all, and cover a distinction not already marked by other terms, it would seem to be best to adopt Ward's usage, which marks the distinction between complication (a fusion or synthesis of the elements of a single presentation) and association (the union of relatively independent presentations). See FUSION, SYNTHESIS, INTEGRATION, and COLLIGATION. The differentia in these several definitions are those of (1) lower and higher (genetic), and (2) of closeness of union (functional), rather than of qualitative character (as Herbart's and Lipps' procedure). As a matter of fact, however, complication, as we define it, is probably coterminous with the other. Yet we suggest 'disparate complication' for Lipps' (and Wundt's) Verbindung disparater Vorstellungsinhalte on the level of presentation. Stout (Analytic Psychol., ii. 27) adopts this usage, except that he would subsume complication under association with the special qualification made in the phrase 'impressional association.' See his later treatment (Manual of Psychol., 91 ff.), in which he contrasts complication with 'free reproduction.' (J.M.B., G.F.S.)

Complication Experiments. The name given to experiments upon the temporal displacement (by direction of attention) of simultaneous disparate stimuli.

Literature: WUNDT, Physiol. Psychol. (4th ed.), ii. 393; v. TSCHISCH, Philos. Stud., ii. 603; JAMES, Princ. of Psychol., i. 414; PIERCE and ANGELL, Amer. J. of Psychol., iv. 529; JASTROW, Amer. J. of Psychol., v. 239; PFLAUM, Philos. Stud., xv. 139. (E.B.T.)

Component Society: see SOCIOLOGY.

Compos mentis and Non compos mentis [Lat., also compos sui]: Ger. dispositionsfähig; Fr. (Lat. form); Ital. (Lat. form), integrità, infermità di mente. The former is a legal term for the possession of sound faculties of mind, sufficient to conduct one's affairs; and the latter denotes a condition of mental deficiency, as in idiocy, or of disorders, as in insanity, which would incapacitate an individual from so acting. See also SANITY, and INSANITY. (J.J.)

Composite (Idea, &c.): Ger. zusammengesetzte (Idee); Fr. (idée) composée; Ital. (idea) composta. Any idea, &c., resulting from the union of elements in consciousness; the result of COMBINATION (q.v.). A composite idea is a mental COMPOUND (q.v.) of the intellectual order. So of composite feelings and conations, in their respective orders. (J.M.B.)

Composition (linguistic). The uniting of two or more sentence elements into a syntactical complex representing a single idea, and in which, through modification of use or meaning in the whole or the parts, the components become more or less isolated from their value in the simplex; the result is called a compound.

The partial or entire surrender of individuality on the part of the component becomes therefore the test of a compound. It represents a psychological, and not merely a formal or grammatical, phenomenon. Note the difference between nobleman and noble man, blackberry and black berry, goldfish and gold fish. Isolation through modification of meaning or use in the compound is illustrated, e.g., by greatheart, redbreast, &c. The form of writing or printing is no test of a real compound. The following are, for instance, compounds: high priest, black art, old bachelor, Red Sea, through and through, far and wide, great and small, all at once, none the less.

Literature: H. PAUL, Principien d. Sprachgesch. (3rd ed., 1898), §§ 228 ff.; H. SWEET, New English Grammar, §§ 1545 ff. (B.I.W.)

Composition and Division (fallacies of): Ger. Verbindung und Einteilung; Fr. composition et division; Ital. composizione e divisione. The FALLACIES (q.v.) of composition and division (sensus compositus), for it is impossible to sever the treatment of them, depend upon the illegitimate identification in meaning of the relations in which whole and parts may stand, e.g. that of an aggregate to its units, of a universal to its particulars, of an organic whole to its members. They illustrate CONFUSION (q.v.) of thought.

In Aristotle's mode of treating Composition and Division, they are fallacies dependent upon grammatical structure, and are rightly described by him as in the language (cf. Poste's ed. of the Soph. Elen., 106-7). In the more extended sense given to the fallacies by modern writers (Whately, Logic, Bk. III. § 11; Mill, Logik, Bk. V. chap. vii), they are extra dictionem, and altogether distinct from the verbal confusions signalized by Aristotle, which are all instances of AMPHIBOLOGY (q.v.). (R.A.)

Composition of Forces: Ger. Vereiningung der Kräfte; Fr. composition des forces; Ital. composizione elle forze. The composition of forces, all acting on or passing through a point, is the operation of determining a single force, called the resultant, which shall produce the same mechanical effect as do the several forces. The resolution of a force is the determination of three forces, acting in given directions, which shall be the equivalent of the given force. Since a point can only move in one direction, all the forces that can act upon it may be compounded into a single one. But in the case of a solid body, when the lines in which the forces act do not pass through any one point, all possible forces may be compounded into two resultants, one of translation, impelling the body in a certain direction, the other of rotation, a COUPLE (q.v.), tending to make it rotate round an axis having this same direction. The combination of the two motions is that of a screw, which rotates and moves forward at the same time.

Such a pair of forces may again be resolved into six, three or translation in the direction of three given axes of co-ordinates, and three of rotation around these same axes. (S.N.)

Composition Theory: Ger. Compositionstheorie; Fr. théorie de la composition de l'esprit; Ital. teoria della composizione (mentale). The hypothesis that our mental states are the resultant of the varied combinations of certain primitive elements. In its extreme form it assumes that the ultimate units of composition are all of one kind. Cf. ATOMISM (in psychology).

Literature: for exposition of the most noted form of the theory see SPENCER, Princ. of Psychol., i. Pt. II. chaps. i, ii, and for criticism JAMES, Princ. of Psychol., i. chap. vi. Also RABIER, Psychologie, Pt. XI; BALDWIN, Handb. of Psychol., Senses and Intellect (1898); FOUILLÉE, Psychol. des Idées-forces, 21 ff. (G.F.S.)

Compound (in logic): see COMPLEX (in logic).

Compound (mental) [Lat. con- + ponere, to place]: Ger. (psychisches) Gebilde (Wundt); Fr. composé (mental); Ital. composto (mentale). A relatively independent composite mental content.

The term is suggested by Judd, the translator of Wundt, whom we follow in the main features of the definition (Wundt, Grundriss d. Psychol., 3. Aufl., 107). (J.M.B.)

Compound Tone: Ger. Klang; Fr. son; Ital. suono (composto). (1) A musical note, the complex of fundamental tone and overtones; contrasted with simple tone. (E.B.T.)

Compound tone is preferred to clang as translation of the German Klang, with this meaning. Cf. the remarks under CLANG. (J.M.B.)

(2) A concord or discord. See CHORD.

The problem which the compound tone sets to psychology has been formulated in the question: Is the tone simple or complex, as apprehended in direct perception? Various answers have been given, and various explanations offered. The arguments in favour of its being simple are: (1) Verdict of the unmusical. The perception of complexity is due to practice. (2) 'Multiplicity' is predicable only of temporal and spatial complexes.

In favour of its complexity: (1) Verdict of musicians. Simplicity is an illusion due to lack of practice. (2) Analysis is possible with unknown instruments. (3) Overtones are always pure in tempered-scale compound tones. Cf. FUSION.

Literature: STUMPF, Tonpsychologie, ii. 17-22; KÜLPE, Outlines of Psychol., 289; SANFORD, Course in Exper. Psychol., expts. 85, 86, 92; TAINE, L'Intelligence, i. 175; MÜLLER, Zur Theorie d. sinnlichen Aufmerksamkeit (1873); LOTZE, Med. Psychol., 267; HELMHOLTZ, Sensations of Tone, 63. (E.B.T.)

Comprehension [Lat. comprehendere, to grasp]: Ger. Begreifen; Fr. compréhension, savoir; Ital. comprensione. Knowledge of the relational or apperceptive type -- 'knowledge about' -- as contrasted with that of the immediate or intuitive type -- 'acquaintance with.' Cf. KNOWLEDGE. (J.M.B., G.F.S.)

Comprehension (in logic): Ger. Inhalt; Fr. compréhension; Ital. comprensione. The mark or marks represented as common to a plurality of objects or cases; what is taken as constituting the general characteristics of a class.

The comprehension or content of a notion is therefore always relative to the EXTENSION (q.v.), or representation of a plurality of instances in which these common features are realized. The relation springs from the ultimate nature of thinking, as a process at once abstractive and at the same time having constant reference to reality.

The distinction is to be found in substance in Aristotle. It received a prominence in logic which it hardly merits in the Port Royal Logic, and has since become the cardinal doctrine in the strictly formal logic of Kant and Hamilton.

Literature: for historical notices, see BAYNES, in his translation of the Port Royal Logic, and in his New Analytic of Logical Forms (1850); HAMILTON, Lects. on Logic; MILL, Exam. of Hamilton, chap. xvii. (R.A.)

Compromise [Lat. compromissum]: Ger. Compromiss; Fr. compromis; Ital. compromesso. In civil law, an agreement to refer a controversy to arbitration at common law; a voluntary settlement of a controversy by accepting something less or other than the original demand.

'Compromissum ad similitudinem iudiciorum redigitur et ad finiendas lites pertinet' (Dig., iv. 8, De Receptis qui Arbitrium receperunt, 1). (S.E.B.)

Comte, Isidore Auguste Marie-François Xavier. (1798-1857.) An eminent French philosopher and mathematician, who founded the school of positive philosophy. In 1814 he entered the Polytechnic School in Paris, and about 1820 became a disciple of St. Simon. The latter relation continued six years, and then terminated in mutual loss of esteem. He was tutor in mathematics and examiner of candidates at the Polytechnic School (1832-52). His best known work is Cours de Philosophie Positive. See POSITIVISM.

Comtism [from Auguste Comte]: see POSITIVISM.