The 27 faculties of Franz Joseph Gall

Gall suggested that the brain was divided into 27 separate "organs". Each organ suppposedly corresponded to a discrete human faculty, though Gall identified 19 of these faculties as being shared with other animal species. The first nineteen in the list below are organs allegedly common to men and animals; the final eight are specific to humans.

1.    The instinct of reproduction (impulse to propogation)

2.    The love of one's offspring (parental love)

3.    Affection; friendship (fidelity)

4.    The instinct of self-defence; courage; the tendency to get into fights.

5.    The carnivorous instinct; the tendency to murder

6.    Guile; acuteness; cleverness (sense of cunning)

7.    The feeling of property; the instinct of stocking up on food (in animals); covetousness; the tendency to steal (larceny)

8.    Pride; arrogance; haughtiness; love of authority; loftiness

9.    Vanity; ambition; love of glory

10.Circumspection; forethought

11.The memory of things; the memory of facts; aptness to receive an education; perfectibility

12.The sense of places (locality); of space proportions

13.The memory of people; the sense of people

14.The memory of words

15.The sense of language; of speech

16.The sense of colours (delighting in colours)

17.The sense of sounds; the gift of music

18.The sense of connectness between numbers (arithmetic, time)

19.The sense of mechanics, of construction; the talent for architecture.

20.Comparative perspicuity, sagacity

21.The sense of metaphysics

22.The sense of satire; the sense of witticism, sense of inference

23.The poetical talent

24.Kindness; benevolence; gentleness; compassion; sensitivity; moral sense

25.The faculty to imitate; the mimic

26.The organ of religion (sense of God)

27.  The firmness of purpose; constancy; perseverance; obstinacy.

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York's Professor Christopher Green is shown in the photo below with a psychograph, an instrument designed to produce phrenology measurements. The photo was taken at the Archives of the History of American Psychology at the University of Akron, Akron, Ohio