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Publications and Professional Contributions

Articles and Book Chapters


“John Stuart Mill and Immanuel Kant on Nature: Idealism in Mill’s An Examination of Sir William Hamilton’s Philosophy.” The Mill Newsletter XIV, No. 2 (Summer 1979), 2-12.


“Broad Church Reactions to the Mansel Controversy.” Victorian Studies Association Newsletter No. 28 (Fall 1981), 9-22.


“Pope Huxley and the Church Agnostic: The Religion of Science.” Historical Papers (1983), 150-163.*


“Henry Longueville Mansel and the Origins of Agnosticism.” History of European Ideas 5, No. 1 (1984), 45-64.*


“Ideology, Evolution, and Late-Victorian Agnostic Popularizers,” in History, Humanity and Evolution: New Perspectives in the History of Evolutionary Naturalism. Edited by James R. Moore. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989, 285-309.


“’Robert Elsmere’ and the Agnostic Crises of Faith,” in Victorian Faith in Crisis: Essays on Continuity and Change in Nineteenth Century Religious Belief. Eds. Richard Helmstadter and Bernard Lightman. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press; London: Macmillan Press, 1990, 283-311.*


“The Gendered Nature of Victorian Science: Recent Works.” Victorian Studies Association Newsletter No. 48 (Fall 1991), 15-21.


“Science and the Postmodern Crisis.” The European Legacy 1, No. 5 (August 1996), 1764-1776.


“Astronomy for the People: R.A. Proctor and the Popularization of the Victorian Universe.” In Facets of Faith and Science, ed. Jitse van der Meer. Lanham, New York and London: The Pascal Centre for Advanced Studies in Faith and Science, Redeemer College, Ancaster, Ontario, and University Press of America, Inc., 1996, Volume 3, 31-45.*


“Constructing Victorian Heavens: Agnes Clerke and the ‘New Astronomy.’” In Natural Eloquence: Women Reinscribe Science, ed. Ann Shteir and Barbara Gates. Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1997, 61-75.*


“’Fighting Even With Death’: Balfour, Scientific Naturalism, and Thomas Henry Huxley’s Final Battle.” In T.H. Huxley’s Place in Science and Letters: Centenary Essays. Ed. Alan Barr. Athens and London: University of Georgia Press, 1997, 323-350.*


“’Voices of Nature’: Popularizers of Victorian Science.” In Victorian Science in Context. Ed. Bernard Lightman. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1997, 187-211.*


“The Story of Nature: Victorian Popularizers and Scientific Narrative.” Victorian Review 25, No. 2 (1999), 1-29.*


“Marketing Knowledge for the General Reader: Victorian Popularizers of Science.” Endeavour 24, No. 3 (2000), 100-106.*


“The Visual Theology of Victorian Popularizers of Science: From Reverent Eye to Chemical Retina.” Isis 91 (Dec. 2000), 651-680.*


“Victorian Sciences and Religions: Discordant Harmonies.” Science in Theistic Contexts: Cognitive Dimensions, Eds. John Hedley Brooke, Margaret J. Osler and Jitse van der Meer. Osiris 16 (2001), 343-366.*


“Huxley and Scientific Agnosticism: The Strange History of a Failed Rhetorical Strategy.” British Journal for the History of Science 35 (2002), 271-289.*


“’Knowledge’ Confronts ‘Nature’: Richard Proctor and Popular Science Periodicals.” Culture and Science in the Nineteenth-Century Media, eds. Louise Henson, Geoffrey Cantor, Gowan Dawson, Richard Noakes, Sally Shuttleworth and Jonathan R. Topham. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2004, 199-210.


“Scientists as Materialists in the Periodical Press: Tyndall’s Belfast Address.” Science Serialized: Representations of the Sciences in Nineteenth-Century Periodicals. Dibner Institute Studies in the History of Science and Technology. Eds. Geoffrey Cantor and Sally Shuttleworth. Cambridge, Massachusetts: M.I.T. Press, 2004, 199-237.


“Interpreting Agnosticism as a Nonconformist Sect: T. H. Huxley’s 'New Reformation.'” Science and Dissent in England, 1688-1945. Ed. Paul Wood. Aldershot, Hampshire, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2004, 197-214.*


“Celestial Objects for Common Readers: Webb as a Populariser of Science.” The Stargazer of Hardwicke: The Life and Work of Thomas William Webb. Ed. Janet and Mark Robinson. Leominster, Herefordshire: Gracewing, 2006, 215-234. (This collection also includes: Jaspreet Gill and Bernard Lightman. "Bibliography of Webb's published works." 241-251.).


“Depicting Nature, Defining Roles: Visual Images and Female Popularizers of Victorian Science.” Figuring it Out: Science, Gender and Visual Culture. Ed. Ann Shteir and Bernard Lightman. Hanover, New Hampshire: Dartmouth College Press; Hanover and London: University Press of New England, 2006, 214-239.*


"Lecturing in the Spatial Economy of Science." Science in the Marketplace: Eds. Bernard Lightman and Aileen Fyfe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007, 97-132.*


“Beating Up on the New Atheists.” Religion in the News 10 (Summer/Fall 2007), 2-4, 19.


“’A Conspiracy of One’: Butler, Natural Theology, and Victorian Popularization.” Samuel Butler, Victorian Against the Grain: A Critical Overview. Ed. James Paradis. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007, 113-142.*


“Happy Birthday, Mr. Darwin.” In The Mark. First posted May 8, 2009.


“Christian Evolutionists in the United States, 1860-1900.” Journal of Cambridge Studies 4, No. 4 (December 2009), 14-22.


“Darwin and the Popularization of Evolution.” Notes and Records of the Royal Society 64, No. 1 (March 2010), 5-24.*


“Science and Culture.” The Cambridge Companion to Victorian Culture. Ed. Francis O’Gorman. Cambridge: Ca bridge University Press, 2010, 12-42.


“Devolution.” In The Mark. First posted Oct. 27, 2010.


“The Many Lives of Charles Darwin: Biographies and the Definitive Evolutionist.” Notes and Records of the Royal Society 64 (December 2010), 339-358.*


"Unbelief." Science and Religion around the World: Historical Perspectives. Ed. John Hedley Brooke and Ronald L. Numbers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 252-277.*


“The International Scientific Series and the Communication of Darwinism,” Journal of Cambridge Studies 5 (December 2010), 27-38. Also translated by Ke Zunke into Chinese and published in Science and Culture Review 8, No. 5 (Oct. 2011), 69-80.


With Professor KE Zunke. “Studying the Cultural History of Victorian Science,” Journal of Cambridge Studies 5 (December 2010), 39-47.


“Science and the Public.” Wrestling with Nature: From Omens to Science. Ed. Peter Harrison, Ronald Numbers, and Michael Shank. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011, 337-375.*


“Refashioning the Spaces of London Science: Elite Epistemes in the Nineteenth Century.” Geographies of Nineteenth-Century Science: Ed. David N. Livingstone and Charles W. J. Withers (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2011), 25-50.*


“The Microscopic World,” Forum on “Victorian Eco-Systems,” in the special theme issue on “Victorian Natural Environments,” edited by Dennis Denisoff, Victorian Review 36, No. 2 (Fall 2010), 46-49.


“Victorian Periodicals, Evolution, and Public Controversy,” Spontaneous Generations 5, No. 1 (2011), 5-11.


“The Creed of Science and Its Critics.” The Victorian World.  Ed. Martin Hewitt.  Routledge Worlds Series.  London and New York: Routledge, 2012, 449-465.*


“On Tyndall’s Belfast Address, 1874.” Branch: Britain, Representation, and Nineteenth Century History. [On-line peer-reviewed encyclopedia at] [14 pages typescript]


“Spectacle in Leicester Square: James Wyld’s Great Globe, 1851-1861.” Popular Exhibitions, Science and Showmanship, 1840-1910, Ed. Joe Kember, John Plunkett and Jill A. Sullivan. London: Pickering and Chatto, 2012, 19-39, 240-243.*


“Evolution for Young Victorian Readers.” Thematic Issue: Popularizing and Policing ‘Darwinism’ 1859-1900.  Guest Editor: John Lynch.  Science and Education 21, No. 7 (July 2012), 1015-1034.*


“Introduction: Science.” The Broadview Anthology of Victorian Prose 1832-1901, Ed. Mary Elizabeth Leighton and Lisa Surridge (Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2012), 413-420.


“Does the History of Science and Religion change depending on the Narrator? Some Atheist and Agnostic Perspectives.” Science and Christian Belief 24 (October 2012), 149-168.


 “Communicating Knowledge to New Audiences: Victorian Popularizers of Science.” Proceedings of the Nova Scotian Institute of Science 47, Part 1 (2012), 5-31.

46 “Mid-Victorian Science Museums and Exhibitions.” Endeavour 37, No. 2 (June 2013), 82-93.*
47 “Science at the Metaphysical Society: Defining Knowledge in the 1870.” The Age of Scientific Naturalism: Tyndall and His Contemporaries.  Ed. Bernard Lightman and Michael S. Reidy.  London: Pickering and Chatto, 2014, 187-206.*
48 “From Natural Theology to the New Atheism: Constructing the Link Between Modern Science and Unbelief.” Science and Religion: One Planet, Many Possibilities.  Ed. Lucas F. Johnston and Whitney A. Bauman.  New York and London: Routledge, 2014, 87-97.

“Huxley and the Devonshire Commission.”  Victorian Scientific Naturalism: Community, Identity, Continuity. Ed. Bernard Lightman and Gowan Dawson.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014, 101-130.*


“The Popularization of Evolution and Victorian Culture.” In Evolution and Victorian Culture.  Ed. Bernard Lightman and Bennett Zon.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014, 286-311.*

51  “Spencer’s British Disciples.” Herbert Spencer: Legacies. Ed. Mark Francis and Michael Taylor.  London and New York: Routledge, 2015, 222-243.

“Conan Doyle’s Ideal Reasoner: The Case of the Reluctant Scientific Naturalist.”  Journal of Literature and Science 7, No. 2 (2014), 19-36.*  (JLS is a digital, online journal:; Also published in modified form as “Conan Doyle and the Scientific Naturalists.” Toronto: Friends of the Arthur Conan Doyle Collection, 2014.

53 “John Tyndall: Correspondence, Biography and 21st-Century Archival Research.” ARC Magazine No. 304 (Dec. 2014), 18-19.
54 “Nineteenth Century Science and Western Materialisms.” Science and Narratives of Nature: East and West. Ed. Jobin M Kanjirakkat, Gordon McOuat and Sundar Sarukkai.  New Delhi, London, New York: Routledge, 2015, 174-194.*
55 "Science writers, female." The Encyclopedia of Victorian Literature. Felluga, Dino Franco, Pamela K. Gilbert and Linda K. Hughes (eds). Blackwell Publishing, 2015. Blackwell Reference Online.
56 “Spencer’s American Disciples: Fiske, Youmans, and the Appropriation of the System,” in Global Spencerism. Ed. Bernard Lightman.  Leiden: Brill, 2015, 123-148.
57 “Scientific Naturalists and Their Language Games.”  History of Science 53, No. 2 (2015), 395-416.*

“The ‘Conflict Thesis’ and Scientific Naturalism,” theme issue on “Science and Religion in the 19th—early 20th Century: Conflicts and Compromises,” State, Religion and Church in Russia and Worldwide, No. 4 (33) (2015), 11-35.* [in Russian]

59 “Fashioning the Victorian Man of Science: Tyndall’s Shifting Strategies,” Journal of Dialectics of Nature (Ziran Bianzhengfa Tongxun), 38, No. 1 (January 2016), 66-79.  [Journal of Dialectics of Nature is the oldest Chinese journal in history, philosophy and sociology of science.]
60 “The Royal Panopticon: Victorian Museums and the Popularization of Science,” Historia Scientiarum: International Journal of the History of Science Society of Japan 25, No. 3 (2016), 164-189.*
61 “The History of Victorian Scientific Naturalism: Huxley, Spencer, and the ‘End’ of Natural History,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 58 (2016), 17-23.*
62 “Afterword,” Staging Science: Scientific Performances on Street, Stage, and Screen, Ed. Martin Willis. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, 125-132.
63 “Popularizers, Participation and the Transformations of Nineteenth Century Publishing: From the 1860s to the 1880s.” Notes and Records 70 (December 2016), 343-359.*

* Refereed


Victorian Science and Religion: A Bibliography with Emphasis on Evolution, Belief and Unbelief, Comprised of Works Published from c. 1900-1975. Co-authored with Sydney Eisen. Hamden, Conn.: Shoe String Press, Inc./Archon Books, 1984. 696 pp.


General Co-Editor with James Elwick, Michael Reidy, and Roland Jackson, The Correspondence of John Tyndall.  University of Pittsburgh Press.  The first two of eighteen projected volumes have been published.

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

“Agnosticism.” In Victorian Britain: An Encyclopedia. Edited by Sally Mitchell. New York: Garland Publishing, 1988, 8-9.

“Clerke, Agnes Mary,” and “Clerke, Ellen Mary.” In The Biographical Dictionary of Women in Science. Eds. Marilyn Ogilvie and Joy Harvey. New York: Routledge, 2000, I, pp. 269-271 and 271-272.

“Bithell, Richard (1821-1902),” “Laing, Samuel (1812-97),” and “Ross, William Stewart (1844-1906),” The Dictionary of Nineteenth-Century British Philosophers, 2 vols., General Editors W. J. Mander and Alan P.
F. Sell. Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 2002, Vol. 1: 100-101, Vol. 2: 649-650, 967-8

Supervising Editor, The Dictionary of Nineteenth-Century British Philosophers, 2 vols., General Editors W. J. Mander and Alan P. F. Sell.  Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 2002.  (supervised 26 entries on atheism and agnosticism).

"Brewer, Ebenezer Cobham," "Buckland, Francis Trevelyan," "Clodd, Edward," "Giberne, Agnes," "Hutchinson, Henry Neville," "Johns, Charles Alexander," "Laing, Samuel," Dictionary of Nineteenth-Century British Scientists, 4vols, General Editor Bernard Lightman. Bristol: Thoemmes Continuum, 2004, Vol. I, 266-7, 324-5, 450-2, Vol. II, 777-8, 1040-1, 1082-3, Vol. III, 1168-9.

General Editor.  Dictionary of Nineteenth-Century British Scientists.  4 vols.  Bristol: Thoemmes Continuum, 2004.  [American edition co-published by Thoemmes Continuum and University of Chicago Press, 2005] 2,400 pp.

“Agnosticism.” The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy, Eds A. C. Grayling, Andrew Pyle and Naomi Goulder. London and New York: Thoemmes Continuum International Publishing Group, 2006, Vol. I, 48-50.

“Huxley, Thomas Henry.” The Cambridge Dictionary of Christianity, Ed. Daniel Patte. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, September, 2010, p. 578.

Edited Reprint Series

General Editor, Science for Children. Ed. Aileen Fyfe. First Set of Popular Science in the Nineteenth Century. Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 2003, 7 volumes. [includes my series preface]

General Editor, Science Writing by Women, Ed. Bernard Lightman. Second Set of Popular Science in the Nineteenth Century. Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 2004, 7 volumes. [includes my introductions to the set and to the Kirby and Giberne volumes]

General Co-Editor with Gowan Dawson. Victorian Science and Literature. 8 vols. London: Pickering and Chatto, 2011-12. An eight volume collection of primary sources.

Volume 1: Eds. Piers J. Hale and Jonathan Smith, Negotiating Boundaries.
[Includes co-editors’ “General Introduction,” vii-xix.]
Volume 2: Eds. Suzy Anger and James Paradis, Victorian Science as Cultural Authority.
Volume 3: Eds. Richard England and Jude V. Nixon, Science, Religion and Natural Theology
Volume 4: Eds. David Amigoni and James Elwick, The Evolutionary Epic.
Volume 5: Ed. Claire Brock, New Audiences for Science: Women, Children, Labourers.
Volume 6: Eds. Marwa Elshakry and Sujit Sivasundarum, Science, Race, and Imperialism.
Volume 7: Ed. Ralph O’Connor, Science as Romance.
Volume 8: Eds. Roger Luckhurst and Justine Sausman, Marginal And Occult Sciences.

The Papers of the Metaphysical Society 1869-1880: A Critical Edition.  3 volumes.  Co-edited with Richard England and Catherine Marshall. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. 1,288 pp.


Monograph Series

Series Editor, Science and Culture in the Nineteenth-Century.  University of Pittsburgh Press.  Twenty-eight have been published in the series so far.  Three have won awards: The 2010 Marc-Auguste Pictet Prize awarded by the Société de Physique et d’Histoire Naturelle de Genève (Simon); the 2011 Frank Watson Prize in Scottish History (Finnegan); and the British Society for Literature and Science book prize for 2011 (Willis).

Books and Edited Collections

The Origins of Agnosticism: Victorian Unbelief and the Limits of Knowledge. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987. 249 pp.

Victorian Faith in Crisis: Essays on Continuity and Change in Nineteenth Century Religious Belief.  Eds. Richard Helmstadter and Bernard Lightman.  Stanford, California: Stanford University Press; London: Macmillan Press, 1990.  391 pp.

“Science and Religion in Modern Western Thought.”  Eds. Bernard Zelechow and Bernard Lightman.  Special theme issue of The European Legacy 1, No. 5 (August 1996), 1671-1776.

Victorian Science in Context. Ed. Bernard Lightman. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1997. 489 pp.

Creating the Jewish Future.  Eds.  Michael Brown and Bernard Lightman.  Walnut Creek, California: Alta Mira Press, 1998.  272 pp.  Published in Russian, 2001.

Figuring it Out: Science, Gender and Visual Culture. Eds. Ann Shteir and Bernard Lightman. Hanover, New Hampshire: Dartmouth College Press; Hanover and London: University Press of New England, 2006.386 pp.

Science in the Marketplace: Nineteenth-Century Sites and Experiences. Eds. Aileen Fyfe and Bernard Lightman.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.  432 pp.

Victorian Popularizers of Science: Designing Nature for New Audiences.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.  545 pp. [Paper edition May 2010.]

Evolutionary Naturalism in Victorian Britain: The ‘Darwinians’ and Their Critics. Variorum Collected Studies Series. Burlington, Vermont, USA; Farnham, Surrey, England: Ashgate, 2009. 313 pp.

Guest Editor.  “Victorian Science and Popular Visual Culture.”  Special Issue of Early Popular Visual Culture 10, No. 1 (February 2012).  91 pp.

The Circulation of Knowledge Between Britain, India and China: The Early-Modern World to the Twentieth Century.  Eds. Bernard Lightman, Gordon McOuat, and Larry Stewart.  Leiden: Brill, 2013.  339 pp.

The Age of Scientific Naturalism: Tyndall and His Contemporaries.  Eds. Michael S. Reidy and Bernard Lightman.  London: Pickering and Chatto, 2014. 256 pp.

Victorian Scientific Naturalism: Community, Identity, Continuity. Eds. Gowan Dawson and Bernard Lightman.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014. 345 pp.

Evolution and Victorian Culture.  Eds. Bennett Zon and Bernard Lightman.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.  320 pp.

Global Spencerism: The Communication and Appropriation of a British Evolutionist.  Ed. Bernard Lightman.  Leiden: Brill, 2015.  309 pp.

A Companion to the History of Science.  Ed. Bernard Lightman.  The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, U.K.: Wiley Blackwell, 2016.  601 pp + xv.

Book Reviews

Leslie Stephen: The Godless Victorian, by Noel Annan.” Victorian Studies 32 (Spring, 1989), 442-4.

“Robert J. Richards.  Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Theories of Mind and Behavior.”  American Historical Review  94 (Oct. 1989), 1060-1061.

“David Berman.  A History of Atheism in Britain. and Gordon Stein.  A Second Anthology of Atheism and Rationalism.”  Albion 22 (Spring 1990), 136-139.

“Pietro Corsi.  Science and Religion: Baden Powell and the Anglican Debate.”  American Historical Review  96 (October 1991), 1199-1200.

“Thomas Henry Huxley.  Evolution and Ethics: T. H. Huxley’s Evolution and Ethics with New Essays on Its Victorian and Sociobiological Context.  By James Paradis and George C. Williams.”  Isis 82 (1991), 154-155.

“J. Vernon Jensen.  Thomas Henry Huxley: Communicating for Science.”  Isis 83 (1992), 677-678.

Truth and Interpretation: An Essay in Thinking, Brayton Polka.”  History of European Ideas 17 (1993), 101-104.

“Adrian Desmond, Huxley: The Devil’s Disciple.”  Metascience N.S. 7 (1995), 27-30.

“Sandra Den Otter, British Idealism and Social Explanation.”  Histoire Sociale: Social History XXX, No. 60 (1997), 468-470.

Huxley: From Devil’s Disciple to Evolution’s High Priest, by Adrian Desmond.” Canadian Journal of History XXXIII (April 1998), 149-151.

Mesmerized: Powers of Mind in Victorian Britain, by Alison Winter.”  The Washington Times (Jan. 24, 1999), B7-8.

Frankenstein’s Children, by Iwan Rhys Morus.”  American Historical Review (December 1999), 1755-1756.

“Roy M. MacLeod.  The ‘Creed of Science’ in Victorian England.” Isis 92 (September 2001), 613-4.

“S. M. Walters and E. A. Stow. Darwin’s Mentor: John Stevens Henslow.” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 39 (4) (Fall 2003), 390-2.

“Christopher Herbert.  Victorian Relativity: Radical Thought and Scientific Discovery.”  Victorian Studies 45 (Spring 2003), 493-499.

"Richard Yeo.  Science in the Public Sphere."  Annals of Science  61 (2004), 512-3.

"Anne-Julia Zwierlein (ed.).  Unmapped Countries: Biological Visions in Nineteenth-Century Literature and Culture."  Victorian Studies  48 (2006), 358-360.

Thomas Hardy’s Novel Universe: Astronomy, Cosmology, and Gender in the Post-Darwinian World, by Pamela Gossin.” Victorian Studies 50 (2008), 326-7.

Science and Scientism in Nineteenth-Century Europe, by Richard G. Olson.” Clio 38, No. 1 (Fall 2008),  101-105.

The Earth on Show: Fossils and the Poetics of Popular Science, 1802-1856, by Ralph O’Connor.”  Journal of Modern History  81, No. 3 (September 2009), 668-669.

Space and the ‘March of Mind’: Literature and the Physical Sciences in Britain, 1815-1850, by Alice Jenkins.” Reviews section of the British Society for Literature and Science website (  Posted on January 4, 2011

Visions of Science: Books and Readers at the Dawn of the Victorian Age, by James Secord.” Science 343 (March 28, 2014), 1433-1434.

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