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THE FAMILY:   “home sweet home”



 “The concept of socialization refers to the learning process whereby a human infant gradually acquires a cultural fluency, becoming both self-aware and skilled in the ways of the culture in which he or she is being reared” (Anderson 103). 


  Kinship  is the “structured system of relationships, in which individuals are bound to one another by complex and interlocking and ramifying ties” (Murdock 1949/1960: 1).   


Family is: a social group characterized by common residence, economic cooperation, and reproduction. It includes adults of both sexes, at least two of whom maintain a socially-approved sexual relationship, and one or more children, own or adopted, of the sexually cohabitating adults (Murdock 1949/1960: 1).


Freidrich Engels published The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State in 1884 (Engels 1972)

Engels organization of the family with the development of capitalism in a critical way. is perhaps the first social theorist to link the

Engels argued that the emergence of private property relations corresponded with the emergence of patriarchy in the form of male-dominated families.


Fox and Luxton propose a more inclusive definition of family as “relationships that mobilize resources especially for the sake of generational and daily reproduction – for social reproduction” (2001)        


what is a family?

  the concept of family enjoys multiple  

 government erroneously uses the term family if referring to household members, kinship alliances, economic ties, etc.   

 A contemporary definition as a group of individuals who identify their social alliances with one another as family relationships, whether by choice or cultural tradition.

Malinowski further argued that families must be universal because they fulfill basic human needs in three ways: 

1, by maintaining distinguishable boundaries between family members and outsiders;

2, by designating space where child-rearing tasks are performed; and

3, by providing love and affection to one another (Collier et al., 2001). 

Normative definitions of the family rooted in functions.


Child and family as a societal problem

 Should we consider children a matter of public interest (Cheal, 1991)?


Adolescence,  Family and Trouble

 Inadequate families fail to provide the attachments that could leverage children into socialized conventional lifestyles and away from adolescent deviant and criminal pursuits.  

Parental competency is cited as a strong preventative measure in relation to the propensity for adolescents to engage in delinquent activities.

In short, it appears that the powers that reside within family structures are MONUMENTALLY IMMENSE

Gendered risk aversive and risk taking conduct



 "Family violence" :  many different forms of abuse, mistreatment or neglect that adults or children may experience in their intimate, kinship or dependent relationships.

spousal abuse



Children have been maltreated and exploited throughout history.

As an economic asset they were counted and treated as such along with cows, chickens and horses.

Today child abuse is considered a worldwide social problem.


Prevalence in Canada

Child abuse is any form of physical, emotional and/or sexual mistreatment or lack of care that causes injury or emotional damage to a child or youth. The misuse of power and/or a breach of trust are part of all types of child abuse. The five primary forms of maltreatment are physical abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, emotional maltreatment and exposure to domestic violence.


Physical abuse  .

Sexual abuse and  .


Emotional abuse  

Economic or financial  

Spiritual abuse  




Consequences and Impact of  Family Violence  as “Rights” Violations

 Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Children   and Youth?


Resistance and         Resilience has been used to describe behaviour, intellect, emotional well-being, social functioning or all of the above (Houshyar, 2005).

Consequences for Abusers


Key Aspects  of Development in Infants

Potential Impact of Domestic Violence


Sexual Activity

Why Victims May Not Disclose

Signs of abuse

Preventing and Responding to Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Children and Youth: law and culture





    Justice For The Children As Expensive

 Child and Family Services Act

Remedies, Solutions And Prospects






Major Categories of Substantiated Child Maltreatment





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