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Criminological Perspectives

Arrigo - Call to Action
Cesare Beccaria | On Crimes and Punishments (1764)
Chapter two Theories of Deviance and Crime
Criminology Bibliography
Crime and the Law Archive of Historical Criminological Texts -- Bibliography of Theoretical Criminology Explore Criminology! Gallery of Criminologists Researching! -- for Theoretical Criminology
Crim Theory Links (good) - Critical Criminology Homepage
Critical Criminologist Newsletter
The Critical Criminology Scholarship
Critical Criminology - Other Resources
Critical Criminology - Selected Papers
Dragan Milovanovic, PostModern Law and Disorder Encyclopedia of Criminology
Feminist Law and Jurisprudence
FSU School of Criminology Criminal Justice Links
Further Readings
Henry and Milovanovic"s <i>Constitutive Criminology at Work</i>
Limits to Pain by Nils Christie
Milovanovic - Postmodern
Peacemaking & Crime
Mentor - Humanist Teaching
Post-Modern Criminology Commentary
The Role of Public Prosecutions in the Justice System
SOSIG: Sociology of Law and Crime
Social Response Theories
The Critical Criminology Scholarship



1. Demonological Perspectives

--- Demonic Perspectives (Cecil Greek)

--- Salem Witchcraft Trials 1692

--- The Salem Witchcraft Papers

--- lecture on social disorder and imbalance

---Medieval Sourcebook: Witchcraft Documents [15th Century]

-- Zebulon Reed Brockway ,  Superintendent of the Detroit House of Correction "The Ideal of a  True Prison System for a State" 1877

--- Allen Blake  The Theological Theory of Crime - a theology of crime from the writings of the Apostle Paul


2. Classical and Neo-Classical Schools

i) The contributions of Cesare Beccaria  (1738-1794) On Crimes and Punishments   


Actual text On Crimes and Punishments: 1764 

---Beccaria, Cesare. On Crimes and Punishments   (courtesy of

© January 23, 2002)


--- Of Crimes and Punishments Cesare Bonesana, Marchese Beccaria, 1738-1794

---Summaries of the text:

Cecil Greek re Cesare Beccaria  historical background  and theory

--- Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794)  Internet Encyclopedia of philosophy

--- Cesare Beccaria: Essay on Crimes and Punishments Internet Modern History Sourcebook. (short)

--- Bruce Hoffman  Outline: Beccaria's Argument in On Crimes and Punishments


Classical and Neo-Classical Schools (cont’d)

--- Jeremy Bentham  by Kim Swanson

---Benthamism  2009 by Kevin Knight  (short)

--- 2009 Jeremy Bentham by  William Sweet  Internet Encyclopedia of philosophy


--- the full text: Jeremy Bentham  1748-1832;  The Rationale of Punishment

--- Bentham, Jeremy The Panopticon Writings. Ed. Miran Bozovic (London: Verso, 1995). p. 29-95

--- Panopticism: Foucault, Michel Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison pp. 195-228

---  Discipline & Punish (1975),  Torture. 1. The Body of the Condemned

--- Michel Foucault by Scott McGaha

3. The Positive Schools of Early Criminology

Ferri, Enrico. Criminal Sociology.

--- Rafter  on Cesare Lombroso and the origins of criminology

--- Lombroso (brief entries)

--- Phrenology (brief entries)

The History of Phrenology

--- George Combe (1788-1858)

--- Phrenology in the 20th century

--- The Future of Phrenology

--- The Loose Foundations of Criticism against Phrenology

--- Renato M.E. Sabbatini,Phrenology: the History of Brain Localization

--- Modern Phrenology

--- Matthew  Vukin  Phrenology in America

---brief pages on Dr. Franz Gall (1758-1828)

---1949: William Sheldon: Objective Method


Biological Theories of Crime


--- Contemporary Biological and Integrated Perspectives by Diana Fishbein

--- Biological perspectives in criminology by Diana Fishbein

--- Nicole Hahn Rafter, Biological Theories of Crime: A Historical Overview

--- brief overview Dr. Robert E. Ford Biological and Psychological Theories of Crime

--- brief overview Genetic Theories


Psychological Theories of Crime

--- Dr. Raymond H. Hamden, Psychology of Terrorists: 4 types

--- Majid Yar.   Neither Scylla nor Charybdis: Transcending the Criminological Dualism Between Rationality and the Emotions  Internet Journal of Criminology

--- Thomas Richardson, Conceptual and Methodological Challenges in Examining the Relationship Between Mental Illness and Violent Behaviour and Crime

--- W De Haan  2002  On the emotions of crime, punishment and social control

Psychiatric/ Psychoanalytic/  Psychodynamic Theories

--- Harold J. Bursztajn, Albert E. Scherr and Archie Brodsky The Rebirth of Forensic Psychiatry in Light of Recent Historical Trends in Criminal Responsibility

--- Personality Theories: a resource page of contributors

--- Psychological Jurisprudence and Radical Social Change Dennis R. Fox

1993 American Psychologist, 48, 234-241

--- A Brief Outline of Psychoanalytic Theory

--- Freud and PsychoanalysisDr. C. George Boeree

--- Freudian approaches

--- Freud resources and brief overview

Economic Theories of Crime

--- Ralph C. Allen “Socioeconomic conditions and property crime: a comprehensive review and test of the professional literature” American Journal of Economics and Sociology, , July, 1996;col1

--- Aric Hall   socio-economic theories of crime

--- The Economics of Crime and the Criminal Justice System Steven D. Levitt

--- Stuart Clubb Do economic theories of crime explain the causes of criminality in the United

Kingdom in the present day?

Philosophical Explanations

--- Philosophical Issues and Criminological Theory   (Cecil E. Greek)

--- Hil, Richard, "Facing Change: New Directions for Critical Criminology in the Early New Millennium?" Western Criminology Review 3 (2).

---Crime in the Mind of Dostoyevsky  Elif Aslan Bulut

--- list of existential –phenomenological thinkers




1. Normative Approaches:  “The Constructed Social Reality of Crime”

---The Division of Labor in Society (1893) [R. A. Jones. Emile Durkheim 28pp

---In His Own Words: 11pp

--- Émile Durkheim and the birth of sociology   3pp

---Functionalist Explanations 8pp

---The Anomie Tradition Explaining Rates of Deviant Behavior ©J. D. Orcutt, 2002   5pp

2. Interpretive/ Performative Approaches: “Constructing Crime”

---Max Weber (c. 1897) Definition of Sociology  23pp

---From K Wolff  The Sociology of GeorgSimmel. Free Press, 1950, 5pp

---Howard Becker 5pp


Notes on H. Becker  (1963) Outsiders, New York: Free Press 3pp

3. Power, Class and Inequality: “Constructors of Crime”

--- The Sociology of Georg Simmel  (K. H. Wolff).  Free Press, 1950, pp. 13-17. 4pp

---Thorstein Veblen Theory of the Leisure Class:  Conspicuous   Consumption  15pp

---Conflict Tradition Neo-Marxist and Interest Group Theory J. D. Orcutt, 2002    8pp

---Critical Criminology 6pp

4. Contributions of Marx and Engels

---The German Ideology by Marx and Engels Marx on Crime Chpt 3: Saint Max 17pp

---Apologist Conception of the Productivity of All Professions]  Section 11 Only   2pp

---Jonathon M. Hyde Theory in Criminology and Criminal justice: 7pp



Critical Enquiries and Contemporary Cultural Critiques: Beyond the text

A. Feminist Theories

---Feminist Criminology  3pp

---Feminism and Critical Criminology: Toward a Feminist Praxis M. Chesney-Lind  5pp

---Crime and Gender3pp

---A Feminist Perspective on Women and Crime 6pp

---From Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge,Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment.  13pp

--- Joanne Ardovini-Brooker,  Feminist Epistemology 12pp


B. Critical Race Theory

---Lewis R. Gordon A Short History of the ‘Critical’ in Critical Race Theory 9pp

---W.E.B. DuBois's "The Comet" and contributions to critical race theory 26pp

--- Isaksen Judy L From critical race theory to composition studies 13pp

--- John Shuford "Four Du Boisian Contributions to Critical Race Theory" 30pp

--- Angela Onwuachi-Willig Celebrating Critical Race Theory at 20   6pp

--- C.I. Harris Critical Race Theory and Legal Doctrine 23pp

C.  Critical Cultural Theories

---Keith Hayward Cultural Criminology  2pp

---Jeff Ferrell Cultural criminology

---Jeff Ferrell Culture,Crime, and Cultural Criminology 13pp

---Jeff Ferrell Boredom, Crime, and Criminology13pp

--- Mike Presdee From carnival to the carnival of crime 13pp

D. Critical (legal) Hermeneutics

---R. E. Palmer  The Relevance of Gadamer's Philosophical Hermeneutics to Thirty-Six Topics or Fields of Human Activity 23pp

---D. Lupton & J.Tulloch Theorizing fear of crime: beyond the rational/irrational opposition 17pp

---J.M. Balkin The proliferation of legal truth 12pp

---J. E. Bickenbach  The 'Artificial Reason' of the Law 10pp

---J. Graaff  In search of the generative question: a hermeneutic approach to pedagogy 12pp


E. Peacekeeping Criminology

---H. PepinskyEmpathy works, obedience doesn't  11pp

---DiCristina, B  Anarchy Against the Discipline.5pp

---D. R. Fox A Critical-Psychology Approach to Law’s Legitimacy 17pp

---D. R. Fox Psychological Jurisprudence and Radical Social Change 12pp


F. Integration

---H. Richard, "Facing Change: New Directions for Critical Criminology in the Early New Millennium?" 26pp

---Gregg Barak Integrative theories, integrating criminologies  9pp




Crime and History

Criminal justice history resources
Early Modern Crime, law and order: a bibliography
Early modern law, crime and disorder links
European Centre for the Study of Policing
History of Policing, Legal Institutions, Criminology and Crime
History of Police and Policing in the United Kingdom
History of Rape Bibliography
Making sense of 18th-century English law enforcement
Outlaws and Highwaymen
Pirate Image Archive
Police resources
Real Torture
The history of crime and punishment in Britain 1790-1870
The murder of Dr Parkman
Theory and practice of justice
Torture in early modern Spain and Latin America
Tyburn Tree
Women, sexuality and murder in 19th-century America
Witchcraft in Salem