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Louise Ripley

Social Marketing
Social Marketing Environments
Chapters 4-6 Kotler&Roberto Social Marketing
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Mapping the Social Marketing Environment
In the part of the Social Marketing Plan that deals with the scan of the environment, "the key demographic, economic, physical, technological, political/legal, and socio-cultural environmental forces that affect the social product are assessed. The scan's function is strategic selectivity, rather than comprehensiveness; that is, the identification of one or two critical environmental forces that affect the social product's marketing." (Kotler and Roberto p. 277) 


6 External Forces That Cause It   Why We Need To Know About It   What We Need To Know About it   Issues in Mapping
  To predict it
To adapt to it
  Sources of it
Underlying Causes of it
  Extent of Controllability
Probability of Occurrence
Locus, Magnitude & 
   Intensity of Impact

6 External Forces That Cause It (example from a city drug rehabilitation programme)

Demographics  How old is the average addict?
Economic What city budget is currently allocated?
Physical How do high stress and pollution contribute to drug use?
Technological What addiction therapies exist? 
Political/Legal What laws are currently in place?
Socio-Cultural What values and attitudes do citizens of the city hold about drugs? 


Alternative Planning Approaches

Probability of Future Occurrence

Extent of Controllability                    Certain                              Uncertain


Commitment Planning

Contingency Planning


Contingency Planning

Responsive Planning


Four Classes of Change Type and 
Planning Horizon
Examples at
Examples for your Social Product
Turbulent fast & vast 
1-2 year horizon
Unstable fast but small
2-3 year horizon
Transitional slow but vast
3-5 year horizon
Stable stable
5-20 year horizon


Magnitude of Change

Speed of Change                 Large                         Small


Transitional Change

Stable Change


Turbulent Change

Unstable Change


Classes of Change
What changes do you expect will affect York as an educational institution, in each of these categories? 
What changes do you expect will happen that will affect your social product? How will you address them? 


How To Map Change   How to Analyze Change
Opinion Leader Surveys
Media Content Analysis
Public Opinion Surveys
Analysis of Legislative Trends
  Scenarios Construction
SWOT Analysis
Issue Identification and Analysis

Scenarios Construction
            What may happen in the future and what is the likelihood of it’s happening?
SWOT Analysis – traditional business method
Issue Identification and Analysis Method

An issue is an “unsettled matter which is ready for decision,” a “debatable point affecting a social marketing programme that has identifiable influence groups for and against it”

For each environment, identify significant trends, major issues, and who is for or against:
Demographic, Economic, Physical, Technological, Political/Legal, Socio/Cultural

Analyzing the Behaviour of Target Adopters

From Your Text
Belief  "I believe smoking is hazardous to my health." 
Attitude "I believe smoking is hazardous to my health and I would like to quit smoking."
Value "I believe smoking is hazardous to everyone's health and all smokers ought to quit smoking."

The role of the social marketer is to move the target adopter from holding no belief about the issue to holding a belief, then to having an attitude toward it, and finally to internalizing it as a value. 

Adoption Processes
(you may recognize the hierarchies from Introductory Marketing, and if you've taken it, Consumer Behaviour) 

Hierarchy Conditions Example Recommended Action
Learn-Feel-Do  High involvement
Clear differences between alternatives
Living a more productive lifestyle
Encourage Word-of-Mouth communication
Do-Feel-Learn High involvement
Few differences between alternatives

Cognitive Dissonance
Attribution Theory

Using condom  Find out what gets to people most and use that in your communications
Learn-Do-Feel Low involvement
Few differences between alternatives
Malnutrition  Repeat the message to get people to try it

Four Adoption Processes

Perceived Differences Among Alternatives

Involvement          Low                                  High


1. Do-Feel-Learn

2. Learn-Feel-Do


3. Learn-Do-Feel

(Not logically possible)

4. Multi-Path Adoption – following more than one of these three


Learning Hierarchy
Which learning hierarchy do you expect your target adopters to follow? Why? 


Sources of Learning
The adoption experience itself
Timing of Learning
Time different information flows at different stages depending on learning process target adopters follow
How Target Adopter Evaluates Learning
What is the potential set of attributes?
Which subset of those attributes will your target adopter consider?
What is the adopter's subjective judgment regarding those attributes?
What different weights will the target adopter place on the attributes?
How will the adopter process evaluation criteria? 
Motivating Adopters to Learn
Use vivid examples and make it come close to home
Consider type and amount of information provided; differentiate social product just like a traditional one
Target Adopter's Belief About Outcomes
Know what feelings and beliefs exist and target communications accordingly
The Influence of Trial Adoption
Belk's five situational characteristics
Physical surroundings
Social surroundings
Time of day, season, & time since last behaviour
How adopter perceives the task
Antecedent states

Motivational Forces That Shape Feelings

Need for excitement and novelty
Need to be accepted and loved
Need for catharsis & acting out
Need to imitate and match


Determinants of Trial Adoption
The Need to Manage a Risk or Low Involvement
Perceived Risks of Adoption
Social Risk - Is this socially acceptable to people whose opinions I care about?
Psychological Risk - Will this yield its promised result?
Physical Risk - Does this have any side effects? Can it be harmful to me? 
Functional Risk - Will it actually do what it says it will do? Will it work? 
Financial Risk - Will it be worth the money I spend?
Determinants of Committed Adoption
Adopters believe in and like the product after a positive experience in the trial adoption where they found performance equal to their expectations, and preferably better

Analyzing the Diffusion of Social Products

Predicting and Explaining Social Diffusion and Change

Spread of Adoption Expectation Cause
Rapid Penetration Penetration of small portion of target population Diffusion is fast if target adopters are highly predisposed and social product has simplicity, communicability, relative advantage, compatibility, and divisibility 
Gradual Penetration Will reach from early adopters to laggards There are different target adopter segments
Contagion Will reach the whole population  


Social Change Theory
Influences on Selective Acceptance
Adopter's attitudes and values 
Compatibility with culture
Change agent or campaign itself

Managing Social Diffusion

Achieving Rapid Takeoff
Focus on market segments  predisposed to product
Focus on innovators and early adopters
Aim for simplicity, communicability, relative advantage, compatibility, divisibility
Make the product accessible through aggressive outlets

Achieving Rapid Acceleration

Greater social interaction
Greater exposure
Manageability of technical difficulties & costs
Frequency of promotion by public figures

Achieving Rapid Penetration

Price or cost
Multiple uses or consistent users


Charts and Tables
We will work in class in groups on these issues for your social marketing projects 

Page (Kotler/Roberto)

Class of Change You Expect 84-85
Analysis of Environmental Data 88-90
Issue Identification and Analysis 89 (Table 4-5)
Decision on Learning Quadrant 95 (Figure 5-3)
Analysis of Learning, Feeling, Doing  99-107
List of Risks 107
Expected Spread of Adoption  120-123
Diffusion of Innovation 126 (Table 6-1)
Influences on Selective Acceptance 129-130

Other Units

Introduction Effecting Change Social Marketing Plan Environment Product
Place Costs Promotion Action/Service Influence Groups

Return to Course Syllabus

AP/ADMS 4280 3.0 Social Marketing
York University, Toronto
© M Louise Ripley, M.B.A., Ph.D.