York University
Faculty of Liberal and Professional Studies
School of Administrative Studies

Course Syllabus
M Louise Ripley, M.B.A., Ph.D.

AP/ADMS2200 3.0 E (Online) Fall 2014

Introductory Marketing Online

Winner of 2009 MERLOT Business Classics Award for online teaching materials  

Armstrong/Kotler Text
Updated 07/01/15
Ground Rules Communicating Grades Tests Warranty FAQ
This is the set of web pages I used for teaching Introductory Marketing
online before my retirement, July 1, 2015. You may be  using the materials with another professor.
Louise Ripley

We use a Moodle Discussion Group (not active until first day of classes)
To reach me, email me at lripley@yorku.ca, rather than through the Moodle Discussion Board or mail system
This syllabus is not official until the first day of class

Symbol for New News

Frequently Used Links
Dates/Descriptions for Tests, Assignments, Final Project, etc.
   for Fall 2014

Other Important Dates Fall 2014
Assignment based on Discussion Group Participation
Completing the Course
Discussion Group
(Where your marks come from)
Final Exam Substitute Group Project (The Marketing Plan)

Groups: Assigned after 'enrol without permission' deadline
Learning Units (Online Course Materials)
Moodle Log-on Page

My Marketing Lab (for individual study, free with purchase of textbook with MML, same price as without. Purchase: ISBN-13: 9780133581584)
Readings for Course

Starting the course 
Waving Hand Exercises Explained
Your Professor
PowerPoint Slide 1
Introducing the Course:
To view PowerPoint slides
introducing this course that
I would use if we were meeting
in person, click on the blue and orange box

Course/Professor Information

Calendar Description Covers the fundamentals of marketing theory, concepts and management as applied to marketing's strategic role in meeting customer needs, including product (goods and services), price, promotion, distribution, consumer, segmentation, positioning, ethics, research. Includes the creation of an actual marketing plan
Degree/Course Credit Exclusions: AK/ADMS 3200 3.0; AP/ADMS 3200 3.0

Prerequisites No courses required, but you must be prepared to participate in the Moodle Discussion Group and the Team project; you must activate and regularly access your Discussion Group platform and your yorku.ca email account (or a substitute).

Course Director Professor M Louise Ripley, MBA., PhD
Office: Atkinson College 268C
EMail: lripley@yorku.ca (no telephone)
Course Time and Location: Internet Course
Consultation Hours
: Discussion Group, email, in person at times to be arranged
Catalogue Numbers
Fall 2014 Section E: X45G01

Organization of the Course

Course Structure  This course is an Internet course, taught entirely online, with many students truly at a distance. We do not meet in person until the in-class test (which everyone takes in November), with arrangements for those who live more than three hours away (contact esohelp@yorku.ca to arrange this). This means that you cannot require physical attendance at group meetings for work on the project. The required teamwork is done electronically, to give you experience with how much of business is done today. The group project serves as a substitute for the Final Exam in December.

There are no "streamed lectures" or audio tapes for this course; you instead will work your way through Learning Units with Moodle for online discussion. These, along with the required textbook, and an online Course Kit form the basis of all work in the course. We do not use the Pearson Marketing Lab.

There are 12 Learning Units, including the term-long Marketing Plan (Final Exam Substitute Group Project). Plan to do a little more than one unit per week so you will finish by the time of the in-class test. If, like most of us, your life is busy and uncertain, plan to work at a pace that best suits you, keeping in mind deadlines and required participation in the Discussion Group, the Contributions Assignment, the Test, and required participation in your project e-group. Note that the Marketing Plan takes some time to research and assemble and should not be left until the last week. There are Waving Hand Exercises early in the course and you won't be assigned to a Final Exam Substitute Marketing Plan group until about week 3, after the "enrol without permission of the professor" date. In places where you are asked about your project product and you are not yet in a group, just use a product you know to answer these questions. You may want to look back on these as you get into serious work on your Plan.

The Course Kit The Course Kit for this course is entirely online, including this Course Syllabus and anything linked from it, and the Learning Units. The web pages are colour coded, each course with its own colour. In addition to the ground rules and information about communicating, grades, and tests, there is a page of frequently asked questions in courses, and a warranty page that tells you that after completing a course with me you have a life-long invitation to return, either to ask for help or to give it, or just to chat. At the top of this syllabus page are links to pages that tell you about my teaching, research, and service, some more about me personally, a page of important other links, and a general alphabetical index to my website. When you enrol, you are automatically added to the Moodle platform for this course and you should see your course when you type in http://moodle.yorku.ca. See the Students' Guide to Moodle. If you have registered late, it may take 24 hours or so for your Moodle connection to show up.

The course kit is designed to be used as an online facility. It is far too big to print out in its entirety.
hand waving to be called onWaving Hand Exercises
Posting to the Discussion Group
Please don't be afraid of the Waving Hand! Several people have told me it scares them, a guy in Germany wrote to say the dismembered hand spooked him, and a student told me he had dropped the course the year before because of the Waving Hand. It is simply a picture to mark that "here is a question about the material to answer on the Moodle Discussion Group". Doing this will help you learn the material. The hand represents someone waving a hand as in a classroom, saying, "I know! I know!". It doesn't mean anything else and it doesn't do anything else. Just read the question beside it, answer it, and post it to Moodle using the blue link in the box. Therre are roughly 15 Waving Hand Exercises in each of the Units. See the box below for specific instructions.

You are strongly advised to start posting your responses to the Waving Hand Exercises early, and to keep posting regularly and keep responding to the postings of other students. It is not possible to stress too strongly how important participation in the Discussion Group is for this course. This is where the majority of your learning will take place. There is no posting date due for the WHEs, and there is no deadline. You may post right up to the end of the course. You should try to finish them all to get the most learning out of the course. 

Students frequently ask, "How much should I write?" A good rule of thumb from academic articles written about online courses suggest a minimum of one short paragraph and a maximum of two. Avoid postings that are limited to "I agree" or "Great idea!". If you write to say you agree, then tell us why you agree and support your statement with concepts from the textbook, the website, readings you are doing for your final exam substitute project, or from your own work experience.

To Start Working with the Waving Hand Exercises:

Go to the first Learning Unit 1 (Introduction) and read it. When you come to the first Waving Hand Exercise it will be labelled, "Testing the System". 
After reading the Exercise and deciding on your answer, to post your answer to Moodle, click on the link to Moodle in the Exercise (each Exercise has this link) and log in. From your Moodle home page, click on the link to this course. If it is not showing up, and you have just registered, know that it takes 24 hours or so for you to be connected to Moodle. In Moodle, scroll down the page to find under "Topic 1", "Introduction". Click on this. In this place, click on either "Add a new discussion topic", giving it the name "Testing the System", or, if someone has posted something similar you should click on "reply" under their message and reply to it. This keeps the strings of postings in some order and will make it easier when you come to do your Assignment.

When you are finished, post your contribution. Note that you can either mark it to send right away, or not click that box and you will have up to half an hour to reword it or call it back. 
4 people arms joined A Note About Teamwork: Part of the curriculum of Business education is learning to work in teams; you cannot do the Final Exam Substitute Group Project alone. Take a look at it now and be sure that you are willing and able to commit to it the time and cooperation it requires. It is a term-long project. Don't leave it until the last week. In the week following the end of the "enrol without permission" period, you will be assigned to an e-group for the purpose of completing this project. As this is an Internet course, all group work is done by email or through the Discussion Board. You are not expected to meet in person and in fact, you cannot require attendance at a physical meeting of the group. After the Statement of Intent due date, however, you cannot move anyone. You must try to make the group work. If someone has contributed nothing, leave his/her name off the Statement of Intent and I will move them to a new group containing all those who appear to wish to start later. The course is planned for you to work somewhat on your own schedule, but you must keep up with group work and assignment due dates. Read more About Groups and Teamwork.  

Important Dates and Other Information
Important Dates Fall 2014  
Read here why I do not give permission to enrol after the "last date to enrol without permission of the professor" or in a class that is full
Academic Fees
   Information About Helping Finance Your University Education
   Dates for Withdrawal and Return of Fees

Course Readings and Materials (all included with purchase of textbook; online materials can be accessed without a password and you may come back to them after the course is finished)

Armstrong/Kotler Text 115  Required Textbook
Armstrong, Gary, Philip Kotler, Valerie Trifts, and Lily Anne Buchwitz. (2015) Marketing: An Introduction. Canadian 5th Edition. Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall, ISBN: 013185720-7. You can probably safely use the fourth edition, which is at the Bronfman Business Library, Schulich School of Business, on two hour reserve: PCOP.1744 BRONFMAN

Warning: Photocopying more than 10% of a textbook is illegal, and may involve penalties. Do not duplicate textbooks or obtain these photocopies. 

TV screem wotj spider and web Professor's Web Page Internet Learning Units
There are no streamed lectures or audio tapes in this course; instead there are 12 web-based interactive Learning Units prepared by Professor M Louise Ripley. These are copyrighted.
Supplementary Reading Regular reading of a good daily newspaper and some of the popular business magazines

Learning Units (Read about Getting Started)
flashing sign saying open for business 1. Introduction  
Required Readings
Text Chapter 1
Unit 1 Web Page - Introduction
LOOK NOW at materials for your Final Exam Substitute Group Project:
Text Appendix 2
Unit 12 - The Marketing Plan, Final Exam Substitute

Be sure to read "How to Fail the Marketing Plan"
chess board 2. Strategy
Required Readings
bags of environmentally friendly products 3. Sustainable Marketing
Required Readings
Text Chapter 3
Unit 3 Web Page - Society
globe and maple leaf 4. Environments
Required Readings
cat looking at books 5. Research
Required Readings
Magritte picture of a man 6. Buyers
Required Readings
Text Chapter 6
Unit 6 Web Page - Buyers

Click here to view the course in Consumer Behaviour  
jigsaw puzzle pieces 7. Segmentation
Required Readings
P&G Brand 8. Product and Brand
Required Readings
Text Chapter 8
Text Chapter 9 (be sure to read the new section on logos)
Unit 8 Web Page - Product and Brand
spinning coin 9. Pricing
Required Readings
Text Chapter 10
Unit 9 Web Page - Price
Peterbilt truck 10. Channels
Required Readings
Text Chapter 11
Unit 10 Web Page - Channels
ad for salad dressing 11. Communication and Sales
Required Readings
Text Chapter 12
Text Chapter 13
(For those with interest, there is a further chapter, 14, on Direct and Online Marketing; it will not be on the test)
Unit 11 Web Page - Communication and Sales
This unit has a lot of full-colour ads; it may take a while to download with slower machines

Be sure to finish this unit and its Waving Hand Exercises before the test. The last two weeks of the course are reserved for work on your team project - The Marketing Plan

Getting Started and Completing This Course
What you need:
To be REGISTERED: I can only grade your work if you are enrolled in this section of this course.
Regular access to a COMPUTER Do not enrol in this course without regular computer access, either on your own or on a York computer.

Regular access to the Discussion Group. Use this for the discussion of the Waving Hand Exercises. Your group for the Final Exam Substitute project (a separate group) will be assigned its own private Discussion Topic when teams are formed, after the "enrol without permission" date has passed. You can use your own Discussion Topic as a forum for discussion and working on your project. You can use this facility to send documents to each other as attachments which is very useful when working on drafts of your group project, or use GoogleDocs as many students do. As the professor, I am a member of every group's Discussion Topic (so be careful what you say!) but no one in any other group can enter the discussion. If you have questions about any of the work for the course, there is a Discussion Topic provided for asking those questions and getting answers for everyone in the class. Use my private email only for clearly private questions, but use it rather than the Moodle mail which I don't get into as often as I do email.

Note that you must activate your Moodle account before you can be added to the list, and account creation may take up to 24 hours. Check out the Moodle Website.

An activated YorkU.ca student (or York employee) email ACCOUNT that you use regularly; there may be times that we need to reach you by email.

The WEB PAGE LEARNING UNITS prepared by the professor. You may access these at any time including after you have finished the course, as I use no passwords.

REQUIRED TEXTBOOK: Find this at the York University Bookstore and other places.

MICROSOFT POWERPOINT VIEWER (download from Internet)

Time to spend in E-CONTACT WITH GROUP MEMBERS for the Final Exam Substitute Project. This project is not complicated, and you should have some fun with it, but it does take some time, so start it early. You are expected to complete this electronically; you may not require in-person group meetings, since many students are truly at a distance. Plan to do the whole exercise together rather than just parcelling out pieces of it. You will learn the material more thoroughly this way.

One Saturday or Sunday afternoon to come to the Keele Street campus to take the one in-class TEST. For those at true distance (more than 3 hours), contact the Office of Distance Education about an invigilator in your area. If your religion prohibits your working on the test date, or if you are registered with Special Needs, contact me EARLY IN THE COURSE and at least a month before the test, at lripley@yorku.ca.

Time to read carefully the Policy Page on Communication, including the section on Netiquette which outlines some of the rules of behaviour in Internet courses

Information about Distance Education from the Office of Computing Technology and e-Learning Services

Contact addresses for possible help:

bullet Academic Integrity:  http://www.yorku.ca/academicintegrity/students/index.htm
bullet Accommodation for Students needing it:

Awards:  http://sfs.yorku.ca/aid/index.htm
bullet Computer Help: esohelp@yorku.ca
bullet Computer PC Help: http://www.helpwithpcs.com/ or http://www.pcguide.com/
bullet Computers better than you own: York
computer labs
bullet Computers, Getting connected: Communications Policy Page
Distance Education
Grade Reappraisal :  http://www.yorku.ca/laps/students/reappraisal.html
bullet Internet Basics: http://www.learnthenet.com/english/index.html
Moodle Student's Guide to Moodle.
Petitions :  http://www.yorku.ca/laps/council/students/petitions.html
bullet Professor, reaching me: lripley@yorku.ca (tell me your name and course number) 
bullet Uploading Assignments at eServices Office:  http://www.yorku.ca/laps/disted/coversheetweb.htm
   or disted@yorku.ca or 416-736-5831 for trouble uploading
bullet Web page use on Louise's site:
Idiot's Guide to This Web Site
Writing:  http://www.yorku.ca/laps/writ/writing_centre.html
thumb A general rule of thumb for preparing for University level courses is 2 hours of outside preparation for every hour in class to achieve an average mark. Add to this for your Internet course the three hours you would normally spend in the classroom to get a rough idea of how much time you should spend on this course to achieve an average (C) mark.

Course Purpose Marketing is obviously important for a Marketing major or Minor, and that may be why you're here - because the course is required for a degree. Perhaps less obviously, Marketing is important for someone majoring in Finance or Human Resources or English or Ancient Etruscan Art. Whether you are applying for a job with a consumer goods firm or in business-to-business marketing or in a museum, whether you are seeking a better way to market your company's product or government funding for an expedition to Italy to unearth ancient urns or a publisher for your newest novel or a way to reach people to convince them to give up dangerous habits like smoking or offensive traditions like child labour, you probably will be more successful if you understand what Marketing is, how it works, and the effect it has on people and society. 

Learning Objectives In addition to the basic Learning Objectives that are common to all courses I teach, by the end of this course you should

1) understand and be able to use Marketing terminology and theory, as shown by your performance on tests and assignments

2) have a basic knowledge of how to market yourself, your skills, and your ideas, as well as more traditional products such as toothpaste or soap as shown in your creation of a Marketing Plan

3) understand why thinking like a marketer and with a social conscience is crucial to the survival of any organization today, as shown in your contributions to the Discussion Group, your performance on tests and assignments, and your rating as a team member

Recognize that Introductory Marketing has a huge amount of information, as does any introductory course. You will need to absorb as much as you can by diligently reading the text and the web pages and writing in the Discussion Group. Material memorized for a test does not stay in our heads long. The test is part multiple choice and part short answer (percentages vary), taken from both the textbook and the web pages. No one is expected to know 100% of all the material. Start now, long before the test, to THINK LIKE A MARKETER. If I ask you what makes a quality photocopier, know that it is "one that meets the needs of the customer". You don't want to answer something like, "prints well, ink is easily replaced" because I'm not teaching a course in photocopier technology. Think like a marketer.

Hopper cafe; two shoppers
Expanded Course Description In this university-level course we study both theory and practice through such things as textbook readings, course materials, websites, case studies, exercises, video clips, and the construction of a Marketing Plan. Theory helps us understand the field by reading what others have learned and examining models they have constructed to help explain how things work. The Introductory Unit introduces you to some models and definitions of Marketing developed by such Marketing scholars as Arndt, Bagozzi, Borden, Hunt, and Kotler. Learn these; I ask about them on the test. You'll be going to a coffee shop to try out Peter Drucker's theory of what is most important for a marketer to know. There are dozens of real-life Marketing stories in your textbook, a number of them with accompanying videos on the publisher's website. These help explain the principles and techniques and terminology of Marketing with examples from real-life Canadian companies and situations. Your assignments and test are based on work with these learning opportunities. And finally, we'll combine the study of the theory and practice of Marketing in the construction of a Marketing Plan, done as an electronic team project, as so much of business is done today. 

Please note that there will be no shared exams of this class with other sections of this course. That is, the exams for this class will be unique in their questions and held separately from the exams of other sections of this course.

Evaluation Summary and Description of Assignments

Effective writing is one of the most important skills you can acquire in a university course, and one that you will use in your education, your career and your life; so too is the skill of following instructions. All assignments in all courses I teach require you to write well and to submit work properly. Read carefully the full instructions on this web site on Writing Well for a Better Grade, on References (although you do not need formal references in this course), and on Format For Submitting Work Properly, and check out the Writing Department. Do not assume that because you have written papers before you have mastered the art; writing is something we continually work on to improve; I am still studying and practicing good writing. For the Marketing Plan, read the section on Writing in Point Form. Note that you may be asked to make reference in tests to any assignments and final projects.

The Office of Distance Education e-Services returns assignments and tests to students via their student York U e-mail addresses as PDF file attachments.

Click here to be taken to the list of assignments, tests, due dates, etc. for the
Fall 2014 Course
Armstrong Kotler Textbook

NOTE: A student's final course grade is not necessarily confined to a compilation of marks earned on individual course components. Final course grades may be adjusted to conform to Programme or Faculty grades distribution profiles. The average mark in this course is usually C+.

Grading, Assignment Submission, Lateness Penalties, and Missed Tests

Grading The grading scheme for the course conforms to the 9-point grading system used in undergraduate programmes at York. For a full description of York grading system see the York University Undergraduate Calendar. Students may take a limited number of courses for degree credit on an ungraded (pass/fail) basis. For full information on this option see Alternative Grading Option and scroll down to "Grading."

Assignment Submission Click on Upload to eServices Website to submit assignments listed to be uploaded; send those to be sent to my email to lripley@yorku.ca

Lateness Penalty/Missed Tests: Proper academic performance depends on students doing their work not only well, but on time. Accordingly assignments for this course must be received on the due date specified for the assignment. With the exception of the Final Exam Substitute, you may submit any assignment up to one week late for a grade of not more than the lowest mark earned by anyone who handed it in on time. For the Final Exam Substitute, you may hand it in up to one DAY late with the same arrangement. In either case, you do not have to request the extension, just send the late paper to my personal email: lripley@yorku.ca. Due to large class sizes, I can no longer make informal arrangements for exceptions to the lateness penalty or for missing a test. If you must defer work or miss a test for any reason, and wish to obtain full credit for it, you must do it by petitioning for a Deferred Standing Agreement. Check for this term's Deferred Dates. The one exception to this is if you are registered with the Office for Persons with Disabilities, Special Needs, or a York Counseling Centre, in which case, contact me directly as early in the course as possible, and at least a month before the test or due date, either in person or by email at lripley@yorku.ca.

About Your Professor

Louise Ripley

My Major Teaching Philosophy: Ultimately it's all connected, everything to everything else, and one of the joys of education and scholarship is discovering those links

I'm your professor, Louise Ripley. My office is 268C Atkinson. I am in the office at various times so my office hours will be by appointment  (lripley@yorku.ca).  Call me "Louise" or address me as "Dr. Ripley". The name Ripley belonged to my labour-union-organizer father and I carry it proudly. You can read more about me on my Personal Page.  

I am a (tenured Full) Professor of Marketing and of Women's Studies. For many years I also supervised students in the Masters in Environmental Studies programme at York but am now restricting my cross-appointment to only two schools. I earned a PhD in Management Studies (major in Marketing) from University of Toronto, an MBA in Finance from Loyola University of Chicago, and a Bachelor's degree from Shimer, one of the world's finest (and smallest) liberal arts undergraduate schools.  I worked in Finance and Marketing Research in Chicago and have taught at York for more than thirty years. After all these years, Introductory Marketing is still one of my favourite courses to teach, and I have discovered, after originally saying I'd never do it, that I love teaching on the Internet. A while ago I published a paper on Internet Teaching which, although written for fellow professors, may give you insight into my teaching philosophy in this medium.

Important York Policies (the small print)

Academic Honesty and Integrity York students are required to maintain high standards of academic integrity and are subject to the Senate Policy on Academic Honesty. By staying in this course, you agree to abide by these rules. Students should also review materials on the Academic Integrity Website.

I expect that all work submitted by individuals or groups is the work of only that individual or group, for only this course, not having been done for any other course in any way, by the current members or any one else. You are welcome to talk with anyone you like while preparing for any part of this course, but what you put together and hand in must be your own work and original to this course. Violation of these premises is grounds for prosecution under the rules of the Faculty and the University. 

Read here York's new booklet, "Beware! Says Who? Avoiding Plagiarism"

Accommodation Procedures:

Deferred Standing: I do not give permission to defer work. If you feel you must defer work, you must petition. See School Policy on Deferred Exams.
Students with Special Needs
York University is committed to making reasonable accommodations and adaptations in order to make equitable the educational experience of students with special needs and to promote their full integration into the campus community. If you require special accommodations, alert the Course Director as soon as possible. Failure to notify the course director of your needs in a timely manner may jeopardize the opportunity to arrange for academic accommodation. Visit the Counselling Centre and Disability Services for more information.

Ethics Review Process York students are subject to the York University Policy for the Ethics Review Process for Research Involving Human Participants. In particular, students proposing to undertake research which involves human subjects such as interviewing the director of a company or government agency or having people complete a questionnaire, are required to submit an Application for Ethical Approval of Research Involving Human Participants at least one month before you plan to begin the research. If you are in doubt as to whether this requirement applies to you, contact your Course Director immediately.

Grade Component Deadline
The course assignment structure and grading scheme (i.e. kinds and weights of assignments, essays, exams, etc.) must be announced and be available in writing to students within the first two weeks of classes. Please see Evaluation Summary

Graded Feedback Rule
Under normal circumstances, students should receive some graded feedback worth at least 15% per cent of the final grade for Fall, Winter or Summer term, and 30% for full-year courses in the Fall/Winter term prior to the final date for withdrawal from a course without receiving a grade, with the following exceptions:

  • graduate or upper level undergraduate courses where course work typically, or at the instructor's discretion, consists of a single piece of work and/or is based predominantly or solely on student presentations;
  • practicum courses;
  • ungraded courses;
  • courses in Faculties where the drop date occurs within the first three weeks of classes;
  • courses which run on a compressed schedule, e.g.: a course which accomplishes its academic credits of work at a rate of one credit hour per two calendar weeks or faster.

Note: Under unusual and/or unforeseeable circumstances which disrupt the academic norm, instructors are expected to provide grading schemes and academic feedback in the spirit of these regulations as soon as possible. For more information, see the Graded Feedback Rule.

For reappraisal procedures and information, see
Reappraisal Policies

Religious Observance Days York University is committed to respecting the religious beliefs and practices of all members of the community and making accommodations for observances of special significance to adherents. Should any of the dates specified in this syllabus for in-class test or examination, or for any scheduled lab, practicum, workshop or other assignment pose a conflict for you, contact the Course Director within the first three weeks of class and obviously before the date that is a problem; you cannot do this after-the-fact. To arrange an alternative date or time for an examination scheduled in the formal examination periods (December and April/May), students must complete an Online Examination Accommodation Form or pick one up from the Student Client Services in the Student Services Centre.

Student Conduct Students and instructors are expected to maintain a professional relationship characterized by courtesy and mutual respect and to refrain from actions disruptive to such a relationship. It is the responsibility of the instructor to maintain an appropriate academic atmosphere in the classroom, and the responsibility of the student to cooperate in that endeavour. The instructor is the best person to decide, in the first instance, whether such an atmosphere is present in the class. Read the full Policy on Disruptive and/or Harassing Behaviour.

Twenty Percent (20%) Rule No examination or test worth more than 20% of the final grade will be given during the last two weeks of classes in a term, with the exception of classes which regularly meet Friday evenings or any time on Saturday or Sunday.


Questions? Try:
Comprehensive Index to the website
Teaching Policies links
Links to Other Information at the Top of this Page
email me: lripley@yorku.ca 

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AK/ADMS2200 3.0 Introductory Marketing
York University, Toronto
M Louise Ripley, M.B.A., Ph.D.