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Recap – Assessing Environmental Integration in Kenya's Antimicrobial Resistance Tactics

Recap – Assessing Environmental Integration in Kenya's Antimicrobial Resistance Tactics


Published on July 10, 2024

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Dahdaleh visiting fellow Dr. Srinivasa Reddy Srigiri presented an extensive overview of the global challenges posed by antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to public health and economies in a thought-provoking seminar on May 22, 2024. Using Kenya as a case study, he sought to highlight the insufficient integration of the environmental dimensions in existing mitigation strategies, along with the existing governance hurdles that the country is facing.

To begin, Dr. Srigiri provided a background on the causes and consequences of AMR in a global context. He discussed how antimicrobial substances entering the environment can contribute to AMR, citing alarming statistics of associated and attributed deaths and projected losses by 2050. Unfortunately, global efforts to combat AMR, such as the World Health Organization's Global Action Plan and national strategies have limited integration of environmental concerns in earlier plans, although gradual inclusion through initiatives like the Inter-Agency Coordinating Group of the United Nations (UN) has begun.

Transitioning to the Kenyan context, Dr. Srigiri discussed the country's AMR governance architecture and identified gaps in environmental integration. Despite the formulation of a National Action Plan, the limited surveillance efforts and regulatory frameworks overlook environmental dimensions. Institutional shortcomings, such as the absence of water resources authority in key committees, have been known to hinder effective coordination for mitigating AMR emergence and spread in water resources. Dr. Srigiri then focused on Kenya's evolving approach in the second phase of the National Action Plan which showed improved emphasis on environmental aspects. Yet, governance remained fragmented across ministries leading to ineffectiveness of existing coordination mechanisms. Dr. Srigiri stressed the need for strengthening capacities of key actors in environmental and water governance towards integrating regulation of antimicrobials and AMR pathogens into environmental governance as well as mainstreaming environmental aspects in AMR mitigation strategies.

Looking ahead, Dr. Srigiri shared ongoing research efforts, continuation of data analysis on the Kenyan case and conducting a similar case study in Cambodia, aimed at identifying barriers and enablers for effective governance. He advocated the importance of characterizing key actors and understanding informal rules shaping decision-making processes. Dr. Srigiri's presentation expressed the need for a more nuanced analysis for understanding conditions that enable and enhance coordination and integration, at various levels (global to sub-national), to address the multifaceted challenge of AMR effectively.

Watch the seminar presentation below:

Connect with  Dr. Srinivasa Srigiri


Planetary Health



Related Work





Srinivasa Reddy Srigiri, Visiting Scholar, German Institute of Development and Sustainability Alum

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