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Care Work, Practices, and Delivery

The research produced by YU-CARE members and associates along the theme of care practices, care work, and care delivery are impactful at the individual, organizational, and societal levels. Research spans from topics including:

  • Care work policies & their impact;
  • Labour, gender, and precarity; and
  • Care delivery.

Please click the hyperlink (content italicized and underlined in red) at each citation to find each article or abstract.

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Citations of Articles

  1. Butler, J.I. & Fox, M.T. (2024). ‘Our Voices Aren't Being Heard’: A qualitative descriptive study of nurses' perceptions of interprofessional collaboration in care supporting older people's functioning during a hospital stay, Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences,
  2. Fox MT, Butler JI, Day AMB, Durocher E, Nowrouzi-Kia B, Sidani S, Maimets, I., Dahlke, S., & Yamada, S. (2024) Healthcare providers’ perceived acceptability of a warning signs intervention for rural hospital-to-home transitional care: A cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE 19(3): e0299289.
  3. Liane R Ginsburg, Adam Easterbrook, Ariane Massie, Whitney Berta, Malcolm Doupe, Matthias Hoben, Peter Norton, Colin Reid, Yuting Song, Adrian Wagg, Carole Estabrooks, Building a Program Theory of Implementation Using Process Evaluation of a Complex Quality Improvement Trial in Nursing Homes, The Gerontologist, Volume 64, Issue 2, February 2024, gnad064,
  4. GINSBURG L., Hoben, M., Berta, W., Doupe, M., Estabrooks, C. A., Norton, P. G., Reid, C., Geerts, A., & Wagg, A. (2024). Development and validation of the Overall Fidelity Enactment Scale for Complex Interventions (OFES-CI). BMJ quality & safety, bmjqs-2023-016001. 33(2):98-108.
  5. Fox, M.T. & Butler, J.I. (2023). Rural family caregivers’ preparedness for detecting and responding to the signs of worsening health conditions in patients at risk for hospital readmission: A qualitative descriptive study. BMJ Open; 13:e076149. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2023-076149.
  6. Khan D, Edgell H, Rotondi M, Tamim H*#. The association between shift work exposure and cognitive impairment among middle-aged and older adults: Results from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). PLoS One. 2023 Aug 23;18(8):e0289718. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0289718. PMID: 37610977; PMCID: PMC10446236.
  7. Khan D, Verschoor C, Edgell H, Rotondi M, Tamim H*#. The Association Between Shift Work Exposure and Frailty Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults: Results From the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging. J Occup Environ Med. 2023 May 1;65(5):355-361. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000002806. Epub 2023 Oct 3. PMID: 36898008. Paper was selected as one of the articles included in the CME exam for the May 2023 issue. Video summary | Media news
  8. Azizi, Alipour, P., Rotondi, M., & Ardern, C. I. (2021). Abstract P207: Association Between Rehabilitation and Functional Outcomes of Stroke Survivors: A Population- Based Study. Stroke (1970), 52(Suppl_1),AP207-. 1.p207.
  9. Ivy Lynn Bourgeault, Tamara Daly, Catherine Aubrecht, Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong, Susan Braedley, (Oct, 2021) Leadership for Quality in Long Term Care, Healthcare Management Forum.
  10. Fox, M.T., Sidani, S, Butler, J.I., Skinner, M.W., Macdonald, M., Durocher, E., Hunter, K.F., Wagg, A., Weeks, L.E. MacLeod, A. Dahlke, S. (2021). Optimizing hospital-to-home transitions for older persons in rural communities: A participatory, multimethod study protocol, Implementation Science Communications, 2, 81.
  11. Donna Baines and Tamara Daly, (2021) Borrowed Time and Solidarity: The Multi-Scalar Politics of Time and Gendered Care Work, Social Politics Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society, jxz017, (online 2019)
  12. Kalogirou, M. R., Dahlke, S., Davidson, S., Hunter, K. F., Swoboda, N., Fox, M., Baumbusch, J., Pollard, C., Saylers, V., Raymond, C. (2021). Working with older people: Beginning or end of a nurse’s career? International Journal of Older People Nursing.
  13. Tamara Daly, Ivy Bourgeault and Katie Aubrect, Moving long-term care from a vicious to a virtuous cycle Policy Options, Institute for Research on Public Policy, May 24, 2021
  14. Nowrouzi-Kia, V., Fox, M.T., Sidani, S., Dahlke, S., & Tregunno. D. (2021). The comparison of role conflict among registered nurses and registered practical nurses working in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, May 27:8445621211014421. doi: 10.1177/08445621211014421. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34042538
  15. Tamara Daly, Jacqueline Choiniere,Hugh Armstrong, (2020) “Code Work: RAI-MDS, Measurement, Quality and Work Organization in Long-term Residential Care in Ontario” in Health Matters. eds. Eric Mykhlovskiy, Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong, and Jacqueline Choiniere. University of Toronto Press.
  16. Armstrong, P., Armstrong, H., MacDonald, M., & Doupe, M. (2020). Privatization of Long- Term Residential Care in Canada: The Case of Three Provinces. In The Privatization Care (1st Ed., Vol. 1, pp. 87-101). Routledge.
  17. Mitchell, G., Dupuis, S. L., Kontos, P., Jonas-Simpson, C., & Gray, J. (2020). Disrupting dehumanizing and intersecting patterns of modernity with a relational ethic of caring. International Practice Development Journal, 10(1), 1-15.
  18. Keefe, Janice, Mary Jean Hande, Katie Aubrecht, Tamara Daly, Denise Cloutier, Deanne Taylor, Matthias Hoben, Keli Stajduhar, Heather Cook, Ivy Bourgeault, Leah MacDonald, and Carole Estabrooks. (2020). “Team-Based Integrated Knowledge Translation For Enhancing Quality Of Life In Long Term Care Settings: A Multi-Method, Multi-Sectoral Research Design.” International Journal of Health Policy and Management. Vol 9, Issue 4, pp 138-142.
  19. Tamara Daly, Ivy Bourgeault and Katie Aubrect, Long-term care work is essential but essentially under-recognized, Policy Options, Institute for Research on Public Policy, May 14, 2020.
  20. Tamara Daly, (2019) Public Funds, Private Data: A Canadian Example, The Privatization of Care: The Case of Nursing Homes, Routledge Press.
  21. Wood, T., Daly, T., & Armstrong, P. (2019). Contracting Care: Evaluating the effects of the "Second Generation Health System Strategy" on the Contracting Environment for Community Organizations in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver
  22. Virdo, G., & Daly, T. (2019). How do supervisor support and social care matter in long-term care? Correlates of turnover contemplation among long-term care facility workers. International Journal of Care and Caring. [abstract]
  23. Pat Armstrong and Tamara Daly, (2018) “Complexities, Tensions, and Promising Practices: Work in Long-term Residential Care”, Care Work ed. by Doria Pilling and Karen Christensen, Ashgate Books, pp. 289-301.
  24. Tamara Daly, Chapter 5. The Quality Conundrum, (2018) Tensions In Long Term Care: Conversations Worth Having, CCPA.
  25. Lowndes, R., Daly, T., & Armstrong, P. (2018). “Leisurely Dining”: Exploring how work organization, informal care, and dining spaces shape residents’ experiences of eating in long-term residential care. Qualitative Health Research, 28(1), 126–144.
  26. Brassolotto, J., Daly, T., Armstrong, P., & Naidoo, V. (2017). Experiences of moral distress by privately hired companions in Ontario's long-term care facilities. Quality in ageing and older adults18(1), 58–68. [PDF]
  27. Ford-Jones, P., & Daly, T. (2017). Volunteers' experiences delivering a community-university chronic disease health awareness program for South Asian older adults. Journal of Community Health42(6), 1148-1155. [PDF]
  28. Meisner, B. A., & Binnington, L. E. (2017). I’m so glad you’re here: Positive aspects of informal caregiving. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 65(1), 25-26.
  29. Armstrong, H. & Daly, T. J. & Choiniere, J. A. (2016). Policies and Practices: The Case of RAI-MDS in Canadian Long-Term Care Homes. Journal of Canadian Studies/Revue d'études canadiennes50(2), 348-367. University of Toronto Press.
  30. Brassolotto, J., & Daly, T. (2016). Scarcity discourses and their impacts on renal care policy, practices, and everyday experiences in rural British Columbia. Social Science & Medicine152, 138-146.
  31. Daly, T., Struthers, J., Müller, B., Taylor, D., Goldmann, M., Doupe, M., & Jacobsen, F. F. (2016). Prescriptive or Interpretive Regulation at the Frontlines of Care Work in the "Three Worlds" of Canada, Germany and Norway. Labour (Committee on Canadian Labour History)77, 37–71.
  32. Syed, I., Daly, T., Armstrong, P., Lowndes, R. Chadoin, M., Naidoo, V. (2016). How do work hierarchies and strict divisions of labour impact care workers’ experiences of health and safety? Case studies of long term care in Toronto. The Journal of Nursing Home Research Sciences. Volume 2, p. 1-9.
  33. Baines, D., & Daly, T. (2015). Resisting regulatory rigidities: Lessons from front-line care work. Studies in Political Economy95(1), 137-160.
  34. Daly, T. (2015). Dancing the two-step in Ontario’s long-term care sector: Deterrence regulation = consolidation. Studies in Political Economy95:1, 29-58.
  35. Sidani, S. & Fox, M. (2014). Patient-Centered Care: Clarification of its Specific Elements. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 28(2), 134-141.
  36. Mitchell, G. J. (2013). Implications of Holding Ideas of Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing. Nursing Science Quarterly, 26(2), 143–151.
  37. Mitchell, G. J., Cross, N., Wilson, M., Biernacki, S., Wong, W., Adib, B., & Rush, D. (2013). Complexity and health coaching: Synergies in nursing. Nursing Research and Practice2013.
  38. Daly, T., & Szebehely, M. (2012). Unheard voices, unmapped terrain: care work in long-term residential care for older people in Canada and Sweden. International journal of social welfare21(2), 139–148. [PDF]
  39. Meisner, B. A. (2012). Physicians’ attitudes toward aging, the aged, and the provision of geriatric care: A systematic narrative review. Critical Public Health, 22(1), 61-72.
  40. Banerjee, A., Daly, T., Armstrong, P., Szebehely, M., Armstrong, H., & Lafrance, S. (2012). Structural violence in long-term, residential care for older people: comparing Canada and Scandinavia. Social science & medicine (1982)74(3), 390–398.
  41. Daly, T., Banerjee, A., Armstrong, P., Armstrong, H., & Szebehely, M. (2011). Lifting the ‘Violence Veil’: Examining Working Conditions in Long-term Care Facilities Using Iterative Mixed Methods. Canadian Journal on Aging / La Revue Canadienne Du Vieillissement, 30(2), 271-284.
  42. Kontos, P. C., Miller, K., Mitchell, G. J., & Cott, C. A. (2010). Dementia care at the intersection of regulation and reflexivity: A critical realist perspective. Journal of Gerontology66B(1), 119-128.
  43. Kontos, P. C., Miller, K., & Mitchell, G. J. (2009). Neglecting the importance of the decision making and care regimes of personal support workers: A critique of standardization of care planning through the RAI/MDS. The Gerontologist50(3), 352-362.
  44. Armstrong, P., & Armstrong, H. (2005). Public and Private: Implications for Care Work. The Sociological Review53(2_suppl), 167–187.
  45. Bourgeault, I. L., Armstrong, P. , Armstrong, H. , Choiniere, J. , Lexchin, J. , Mykhalovskiy, E. , Peters, S. and White, J. (2001), Everyday experiences of implicit rationing: comparing the voices of nurses in California and British Columbia. Sociology of Health & Illness, 23: 633-653.
  46. White, J. P., Armstrong, H. , Armstrong, P. , Bourgeault, I. , Choiniere, J. and Mykhalovskiy, . E. (2000), The impact of managed care on nurses’ workplace learning and teaching. Nursing Inquiry, 7: 74-80.

Labour, Gender, and Precarity

  1. Baines, D., & Daly, T. (2019). Borrowed time and solidarity: The multi-scalar politics of time and gendered care work, social politics. International Studies in Gender, State & Society. 1-20.
  2. Pritlove, C., Safai, P., Angus, J. E., Armstrong, P., Jones, J. M., & Parsons, J. (2019). "It's hard work": A feminist political economy approach to reconceptualizing "work" in the cancer context. Qualitative Health Research29(5), 758-773 [PDF].
  3. Baines, D., Charlesworth, S., & Daly, T. (2016). Underpaid, unpaid, unseen, unheard and unhappy? Care work in the context of constraint. Journal of Industrial Relations, 58(4), 449–454.
  4. Barken, R., Daly, T. J., & Armstrong, P. (2016). Family matters: The work and skills of family/friend carers in long-term residential care. Journal of Canadian Studies50(2), 321-347.
  5. Brassolotto, J., & Daly, T. (2016). Domesticating dialysis: A feminist political economy analysis of informal renal care in rural British Columbia. The Canadian Geographer / Le Géographie Canadien.
  6. Chadoin, M., Messing, K., Daly, T., & Armstrong, P. (2016). ≪ Si ce n’est pas documenté, ça n’a pas été fait ≫: quand les indicateurs de gestion escamotent le travail invisible des femmes [≪ If it's not documented, it's not done ≫: Management indicators of workload can leave women's work invisible]. PISTES18(2), 4830 [PDF].
  7. Daly, T. & Armstrong, P. (2016) “Liminal and invisible long-term care: precarity in the face of austerity” Journal of Industrial Relations, special issue on Care Work.
  8. Banerjee, A. B., Armstrong, P., Daly, T., Armstrong, H., & Braedley, S. (2015). “Careworkers don't have a voice:” Epistemological violence in residential care for older people. Journal of Aging Studies33, 28-36.
  9. Daly, T., Armstrong, P., & Lowndes, R. (2015). Liminality in Ontario’s long-term care facilities: Private companions’ care work in the space ‘betwixt and between.’ Competition & Change, 19(3), 246–263.
  10. Armstrong, P. (2013). Puzzling skills: Feminist political economy approaches. Canadian Sociological Association50(3), 256-283 [PDF].
  11. Armstrong, P. (2013). Time, race, gender, and care: Communicative and strategic action in ancillary care commentary on Carol Levine's “caring for money”. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics6(2), 118-121. [abstract [PDF]]
  12. Armstrong, P., Armstrong, H. (2008). Bringing it home: Women's health work. Women's Health and Urban Life7(2), 6-15 [PDF].
  13. Armstrong, P. (2007). Back to basics: Seeking pay equity for women in Canada. Labour & Industry, 18(2), 11-32.
  14. Armstrong, P., & Armstrong, H. (2002). Thinking it through: Women, work and caring in the new millennium. Canadian Woman Studies, 21:1, 44-50.
  1. Hoben, M., Dymchuk, E., Corbett, K., Devkota, R., Shrestha, S., Lam, J., Banerjee, S., Chamberlain, S. A., Cummings, G. G., Doupe, M. B., Duan, Y., Keefe, J., O'Rourke, H. M., Saeidzadeh, S., Song, Y., Estabrooks, C. A. (2023). Factors associated with the quality of life of nursing home residents during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A cross-sectional study. J Am Med Dir Assoc, 24(6), 876–84.
  2. Hoben M, Hogan DB, Poss JW, et al. Comparing quality of care outcomes between assisted living and nursing homes before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2023; 71(11): 3467-3479. doi:10.1111/jgs.18499
  3. Jonas-Simpson, Mitchell, G., Dupuis, S., Donovan, L., & Kontos, P. (2022). Free to be: Experiences of arts-based relational caring in a community living and thriving with dementia. Dementia (London, England)21(1), 61–76.
  4. Barken, R., Armstrong, P. (2020). Shifting Responsibilities for Care: The Experiences of Staff and Families in Long-Term Care (1st ed., Vol. 1, pp. 209-224). Routledge.
  5. Armstrong, P. (2020). An Introduction to the Team and to Teamwork. In The Privatization of Care (1st ed., Vol. 1, pp. 1-16). Routledge.
  6. Armstrong, P., & Armstrong, H. (2020). Privatizing Care: Setting the Stage. In The Privatization of Care (1st ed., Vol. 1, pp.17-37). Routledge.
  7. Pat Armstrong, and Marcy Cohen. "What Federal Leadership on Longterm Care Standards Should Look Like." Hill Times1782 (2020):14-.Print.
  8. Armstrong, P., & Armstrong, H. (2019). The privatization of care: the case of nursing homes. Routledge.
  9. Fox, M. T., Sidani, S., Butler, J. I., & Tregunno, D. (2017). Nurses’ Perspectives on the Geriatric Nursing Practice Environment and the Quality of Older People’s Care in Ontario Acute Care Hospitals. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 49(2), 94–100.
  10. Gagliese, L., Rodin, R., Chan, V., Stevens, B. and Zimmermann, C. (2016) ‘How do healthcare workers judge pain in older palliative care patients with delirium near the end of life?’, Palliative and Supportive Care, 14(2), 151–158. 
  11. Fox, M. T., Butler, J. I., Persaud, M. , Tregunno, D. , Sidani, S. and McCague, H. (2016), A Multi‐Method Study of the Geriatric Learning Needs of Acute Care Hospital Nurses in Ontario, Canada. Research Nursing & Health, 39: 66-76.
  12. Lowndes, R., Armstrong, P., & Daly, T. (2015). The meaning of 'dining': The social organization of food in long-term care. Food studies4(1).
  13. Hum, S., Cohen, C., Persaud, M., Lee, J., Drummond, N., Dalziel, W., & Pimlott, N. (2014). Role expectations in dementia care among family physicians and specialists. Canadian Geriatrics Journal17(3), 95-102.
  14. Fox, M.T. (2013). The Acute Care for Elders (ACE) model: Nursing interventions for optimal outcomes. Perspectives, Journal of the Canadian Gerontological Nursing Association, 36(2), 16-17.
  15. Fox, M., Persaud, M., Maimets, I., Brooks, D., O’Brien, K., & Tregunno, D. (2013).    Effectiveness of early discharge planning for older adults acutely admitted to hospital: A systematic review. BMC Geriatrics, 13:70. [PDF]
  16. Fox, M.T., Sidani, S., Persaud, M., Maimets, I., Tregunno, D., & Brooks, D., O’Brien, K. (2013). Acute Care for Elders (ACE) Components of Acute Geriatric Unit Care: Systematic Descriptive Review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 61(6), 939 - 946. [PDF]
  17. Wagner, L.M., Vaughan Dickson, V., Shuluk, J., Richards, J., Fox, M., & Capezuti, E. (2013). Nurses’ Knowledge of Geriatric Nursing Care in Canadian NICHE Hospitals. Perspectives, Journal of the Canadian Gerontological Nursing Association, 36(3), 6-14. [PDF]
  18. Fox, M. T., Persaud, M., Maimets, I., O'Brien, K., Brooks, D., Tregunno, D., & Schraa, E. (2012). Effectiveness of acute geriatric unit care using acute care for elders components: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of American Geriatrics Society60, 2237-2245. [PDF]
  19. Jonas-Simpson, C., Mitchell, G. J., Carson, J., Whyte, C., Dupuis, S., & Gillies, J. (2012). Phenomenological shifts for healthcare professionals after experiencing a research‐based drama on living with dementia. Journal of Advanced Nursing68(9), 1944-1955.
  20. Janes, N., Fox, M., Lowe, M., McGilton, K., & Schindell-Martin, L. (2009). Facilitating best practice in aged care: Exploring influential factors through critical incident techniqueInternational Journal of Older People Nursing, 4(3), 166-176.
  21. Pimlott, N.J.G., Persaud, M., Drummond, N., Cohen, C.A., Silvius, J.L., Seigel, K., Hollingworth, G.R., Dalziel, W.B. (2009). Family physicians and dementia care in Canada. Canadian Family PhysicianMay 2009, 55 (5) 508-509.e7 [PDF]
  22. Pimlott, N.J.G., Siegel, K., Persaud, M., Slaughter, S., Cohen, C., Hollingworth, G., Cummings, S., Drummond, N., Dalziel, W., Sylvius, J., Pringle, D., Eliasziw, T. (2006). Management of dementia by family physicians in academic settings. Canadian Family Physician Sep 2006, 52 (9) 1108-1109. [PDF]