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Brief Family Distress Scale

The original Brief Family Distress Scale (BFDS; Weiss & Lunsky, 2011) was developed as a measure of crisis experienced by caregivers of autistic individuals. Crisis is measured by a single-item, in which caregivers are asked to select one of ten statements reflecting varying degrees of crisis experienced at present by themselves and their families. The BFDS serves as a quick tool for indicating where families are in terms of distress and crisis. Translated versions of the BFDS can be downloaded below.

English1 Download Jonathan A. Weiss
Department of Psychology, York University
Yona Lunsky
Dual Diagnosis Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
Arabic2 Download Aiche Sabah
Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, Hassiba Benbouali University of Chlef
Senouci Boumediene
Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, Alger 2 University
Djellouli Zineb
Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University Oran 2
Indonesian3 Download Amalia Rahmandani, Yohanis Franz La Kahija, Hastaning Sakti, Lusi Nur Ardhiani
Faculty of Psychology, Diponegoro University
Macedonian4 Download Blake D. Hansen, Emma Lucy Orton, Chase Adams, Laura Knecht, Sophie Rindlisbaker
Department of Counseling Psychology and Special Education, Brigham Young University
Filip Jurtoski, Vladimir Trajkovski
Faculty of Philosophy, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University
Turkish5Download Bekir Faith Meral
Beach Center on Disability, University of Kansas


1Weiss, J. A., & Lunsky, Y. (2011). The brief family distress scale: A measure of crisis in caregivers of individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 521–528.

2Sabah, A., Boumediene, S., & Zineb, D. (2021). Adverse life events and family distress during the coronavirus pandemic: A field study in Algeria. Arab Journal of Psychiatry32(1), 35-42.

3Rahmandani, A., La Kahija, Y. F., Sakti, H., & Ardhiani, L. N. (2020). Exploring perceived family distress and negative emotional states among Indonesian adolescents. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation24(1), 1407-1419.

4Hansen, B. D., Orton, E. L., Adams, C., Knecht, L., Rindlisbaker, S., Jurtoski, F., & Trajkovski, V. (2017). A pilot study of a behavioral parent training in the Republic of Macedonia. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders47(6), 1878-1889.

5Meral, B. F. (2022). Parental views of families of children with autism spectrum disorder and developmental disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 52(4), 1712-1724.